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(From  an  Illuminated  MS.  in  the  Hispanic 

Society  of  America) 



Professor  of  the  History  of  Art,  Bryn  Mawr 

College;  Member  the  Hispanic  Society 

of  America 

In  Three  Volumes 

Volume  III 







MAY  25,  1927 

Copyright.  1920,  by 

Zbc  fmfcfeerbocfter  press,  Hew  gporfe 


■  •  • 





I.  ANO  SANTO       . 



i                34 




•     139 

The  Church  of  a  Dream 


As  Pilgrims  Pass    . 

•     173 

Castle  and  Church 

.     181 

Los  Muertos  Mandan 




VI.   THE   PARADISE   OF   SOULS     . 


The  Long  Way 

•     245 

The  Singing  Souls  . 

•     253 

The  Bridge  of  Dread 

•     259 


.     278 

The  Constant  Worship 

.     285 

The  Star-led  Wizards 

•     3M 








The  Mortal  Twin    . 


The  High  God 


Along  the  Eastern  Road  . 





The  Chantier 


Excursus  on  Some  Twelfth  Cen- 

tury Sculpture 


Workmen  of  S.  James 


Sorting  ..... 




PAGNE           .                        .       .     . 




Roncevaux     .... 


Envoy   ..... 


NOTES         ..... 


APPENDIX              .... 


Notes  on  S.  James  Major,  S. 

Mary  Virgin,  and  the  Pillar 

at  Saragossa 


Miracles  of  S.  James  (AA.  SS.) . 







Miracles  of  Our  Lady  of  Villa- 

Sirga  .... 


The  Great  Hymn  of  S.  James 

•        530 

The  Little  Hymn  of  S.  James 


La  Grande  Chanson  des  PHerin, 


de  S.  Jacques 


Thurkul's  Vision     . 


Apocalypse  of  S.  Paul 


Frau  Holde    . 


A  Lyke-Wake  Dirge 


El  Alma  en  Pena 


Gallegan  Romance . 


Purchas  his  Pilgrim 














WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 






SA  NTIA  GO  MA  TA  MOROS                Frontispiece 



SANTIAGO  CATHEDRAL                                           1 3 


Photogravure  facing  page  ...       54 

BLUB  HYDRANGEAS                               •            •         77 

A  BEGGAR  BY  THE  PUERTA  SANTA              IO9 

PUERTA  DE  LAS  PLATERIAS     .                  I45 

THE  GREAT  STAIR  AT  LE  PUY                             205 


Photogravure  facing  page  .                        262 

CHRIST  AS  PILGRIM — FROM   SILOS                    305 




WAY    OP    S.    JAMES 




pilgrims'  cross  at  mellId 


-     399 



S   ; 











Et  sustulit  me  in  spiritu  in  montem 
magnum  et  altutn,  et  ostendit  mihi 
civitatem  sanctum  Jerusalem  descen- 
dentem  de  coelo  a  Deo,  kabentem 
claritatem  Dei:  et  lumen  ejus  simile, 
lapidi  pretioso  tanquam  lapidi  jas~ 
ptdis  sicut  crystallum.  Et ambulabunt 
gentes  in  lumine  ejus:  et  reges  terrae 
afferent  gloriam  suam  et  honorem  in 
illam.  Et  portae  ejus  non  claudentur 
Per  diam,  nox  enim  non  erit  illic.  Et 
afferent  gloriam  et  honorem  gentium 
in  illam. 






Droit  a  S.  Jaqucs,  le  hair- 
on  Galisois. — Anseis  of 

One  night,  I  remember,  as  I  travelled,  the 
C amino  de  Santiago  hung  straight  across  the 
sky,  frothy  white  as  the  surf  on  a  night  in 
August,  and  I  knew  that  under  it  lay  the 
grand  church.  The  star-dust  spun  in  puffs 
and  whorls:  Sagittarius  drove  full  into  it: 
Aquila  hung  poised  on  the  green  splendour 
of  Alt  air:  Vega  waited,  calm  and  blue,  for 
the  long-attended  coming  of  Bootes:  stars 
that  I  did  not  know  were  there,  stars  that  I 
had  never  seen,  swarming  like  bees,  various 
not  in  three  or  seven  or  ten  but  in  fifty 
magnitudes,  every  one  differing  from 
another  in  glory.    A  shooting-star  struck 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 


down  for  token  that  another  soul  was  re- 
leased upon  its  far  journey.  The  star- 
swarms  reeled  and  danced,  like  fire-flies 
tangled  in  silver  braid :  I  sped  the  wandering 
soul  with  the  ancient  blessing:  "Dios-te 
guia  y  la  Magdalena."  .  .  . 

"  Are  all  these  people  going  to  S.  James?" 

At  the  junction  the  men  had  got  down 
to  walk  upon  the  platform,  smoking  cigar- 
ettes and  chatting  under  the  white  arc- 
lights,  and  as  the  long  train  began  to  get 
up  speed  the  end  carriage  door  was 
snatched  open  and  a  man  belated,  leaped 
tin.  There  in  the  third-class  carriage,  dim, 
close,  dingy,  full  of  sleeping  children 
stretched  out  on  the  seats,  and  tired  men 
who  stood  in  the  aisle  to  let  them  sleep, 
dropped  down  a  member  of  the  Spanish 
nobility  and  looked  as  surprised  as  I .  Reck- 
oning that  in  half  an  hour  we  should  reach 
Palencia  and  he  would  go  back  to  his  first- 
class  seat,  I  opened  conversation  in  French : 

"Are  all  these  people  going  to  Compos- 
tella,  to  the  Apostle?  " 

"I  dare  say,"  he  answered,  "I  am.  I 
always  go." 




So  we  talked,  mighty  civilly,  till  the 
glare  of  the  station  broke  in  at  the  windows 
and  the  shuffle  of  feet  and  hum  of  voices  on 
the  platform  recommenced.  At  last  I  said: 
"Aren't  you  going  to  your  own  carriage?,, 
and  he, — "Aren't  you?" 

"This  is  mine.  I  am  making  the  pil- 
grimage." It  was  evidently  unintelligible. 
Then  the  member  of  the  Spanish  nobility 
took  off  his  hat  and  went  to  his  own  place. 
A  child  lay  opposite  asleep:  under  the 
mounting  fatigue  ot  the  long  hours,  his  face 
turned  to  the  colour  of  old  ivory,  and  all 
the  form  of  the  little  skull  showed  up.  The 
dawn  waked  him,  and  he  shrank  into  the 
corner  by  the  window,  looking  out  silent, 
rather  apprehensive. 

That  little  thing,  five  years  old,  had  all 
the  responsibility  of  a  large  and  growing 
family.  His  mother  would  never  have  any. 
Hers  was  the  maternal  function  and  no 
more:  she  was  nursing  a  bouncing  girl  with 
four  teeth  and  gold  earrings.  But  he  took 
life  as  it  came,  gravely;  when  commanded 
to  accept  a  piece  of  chocolate,  pocketed  it 
without  blinking,  and  later  handed  it  to  a 


stmej  antes 

in  the 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

little  sister,  intermediate,  who  woke  up 
crying.  She  sucked  it  disgustingly,  and  he 
looked  out  the  window:  presently  announc- 
ing, without  preparation:  "Here  comes  a 
train  going  back  to  Madrid."  Mark  how 
the  reasoning  faculty  operates  at  live  years 
old.  Nobody  talked  to  him,  he  looked  after 
the  others.    That  was  all. 

At  the  first  tunnel  he  jumped  and  shrank, 
looked  across  the  car  to  make  sure  it  was 
on  that  side  also,  decided  to  treat  it  as  a 
joke,  and  laughed  bravely.  At  the  second 
and  third  he  was  ready  to  laugh:  then  as 
the  train  dashed  out  of  the  dark  into  a 
mountain  dell,  he  found  means  to  raise  a 
sudden  small  shout,  to  the  echoing  rocks. 
It  was  Wordsworthian,  the  human  child's 
response  to  a  sublime  material  pleasure. 

All  the  care  of  the  world  was  inarticulate 
in  him;  but  he  had  a  quaint  goblin  mirth. 
Attuned  to  emotion,  he  showed  himself  of 
the  very  same  clay  as  the  Virgen  de  las 
Angus tias,  with  her  tin  swords  and  glass 
tears.  The  youngest  baby  was  cross-eyed. 
The  succession  showed  a  steady  decline 
into  animalism.     The  children  were  all 



long-headed;  while  the  drovers  who  sat 
about  me,  and  might  have  come  out  of  the 
prints  of  Randolph  Caldecott,  in  spite  of  a 
great  length  of  skull  fore  and  aft,  had  a  low 
cephalic  index.  The  lad  alongside,  asleep 
all  night,  was  like  a  beautiful  woman,  but 
during  the  day  his  chin  sprouted. 

It  is  well  to  travel  with  plain  human 
nature,  dependent  on  natural  kindness. 
You  feel  how  little  you  have  yourself,  and 
how  many  are  the  virtues  of  those  about: 
patience,  long-suffering,  good  cheer  in  dis- 
comfort. Men  stood  all  night  long,  in  the 
car,  to  let  the  children  sleep  at  full  length. 
A  great  deal  of  this  is  indifference,  of  course, 
but  indifference  of  the  right  stoical  sort, 
not  through  preoccupation  with  something 
bigger,  but  through  proud  disdain  and 
personal  dignity.  What  may  lie  back  of 
this,  one  is  always  wondering. 

In  view  of  the  multitude  on  the  train 
travelling  and  at  every  station,  all  bent 
toward  the  Apostle,  it  seemed  wise  to 
stay  by  the  train  until  Corunna.  There, 
I  bespoke  a  seat  twenty-four  hours  ahead, 
not  by  any  of  the  regular  lines  which  were 






La  bander  a 
peregrin  a 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

booked  up  solid  three  days  in  advance, 
but  by  a  sort  of  freelance  enterprise,  which 
was  also  rounding  up  all  the  Boy  Scouts 
in  Galicia  for  a  review  and  the  blessing  of  a 
banner;  and  then  found  comfortable  quar- 
ters and  did  a  vast  deal  of  business,  there  in 
the  capital  of  the  Province  which  was  also 
a  seaport  town:  and  made  pleasant  and 
profitable  acquaintance  which  will  last  my 
life  out:  and  made  an  excursion  by  rail  to 
visit  a  church,  in  returning  from  which  I 
forgot  the  dates  on  which  the  rdpido  runs 
and  there  being  no  train  on  Thursdays, 
had  to  walk  five  miles  to  get  a  country  cart 
to  drive  into  town:  and  after  all  this  sub- 
mitted perforce  to  let  an  old  woman  carry 
my  luggage  to  the  starting  place  and  sat 
down  upon  it  while  the  crowd  sorted  itself. 
To  me  then  came  a  gentleman  and  said: 

"Madam,  I  see  that  you  have  a  ticket 
for  the  top:  now  I  have  a  seat  inside,  and  I 
shall  be  very  glad  to  exchange  if  you  care 

This  was  exceeding  kindness,  for  his 
place  cost  much  more,  and  with  real  grati- 
tude I  explained  that  I  preferred  the  outside 



place  for  air  and  view  and  he  withdrew  a 
little  mortified.  He  was  quite  right  in  his 
thought  that  up  there  was  no  place  for  a 
lady,  and  that  I  should  hate  it  before  we 
were  five  miles  out.    I  did. 

A  load  of  Boy  Scouts  kept  just  ahead: 
a  company  of  Guardia  Civil  trotting  the 
same  way  separated  along  the  roadsides 
and  closed  up  again,  and  private  motors, 
one  uniform  pale  grey  with  plastered  dust, 
were  all  converging  from  bye-roads  and 
speeding  toward  one  goal.  The  road  was 
perfect,  rising  and  falling  just  enough  for 
pleasure,  winding  just  enough  for  changing 
winds  and  shifting  lights.  Between  green- 
ish lands,  now  moor  with  outcropping  gran- 
ite, now  pasture  with  hedgerow  leafage,  we 
topped  a  slope,  and  saw  a  dust  cloud  ahead, 
and  overtook  it  on  a  down  grade,  and 
turned  to  another  rise  crowned  by  a  trotting 
figure  against  the  grey-blue  sky.  The  scent 
of  rosemary  and  lavender  that  perfume  the 
memory  of  Castile,  is  not  present  in  this 
thick  Atlantic  air,  but  instead,  whiffs  from 
wet  brook-sides  struck  across  the  brown- 
ish-tasting dust.     In  the  milky  blue  sailed 


on  the 


An  old- 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

heaps  of  white  clouds,  that  veiled  the  sun- 
light for  a  moment  and  were  left  behind. 
The  machine  rattled  out  its  own  click  and 
clatter,  the  rhythm  of  machinery,  but  the 
sleek  horses  which  we  passed  singly  or  in 
pairs  or  troops,  played  a  pretty  tune  on 
the  well-metalled  causeway. 

At  the  hangar  in  Compostella  hotel  men 
were  in  waiting  chiefly  to  warn  off  travel- 
lers, but  I  had  telegraphed  a  week  ahead 
and  my  friend  of  long  standing,  the  head 
waiter  of  the  Hotel  Suizo,  admitted  when  I 
decended,  sole  out  of  the  hotel  omnibus, 
that  I  could  not  be  left  in  the  street. 
"Every  room  has  been  bespoke  for  more 
than  a  month,  but  because  we  know  you," 
quoth  he,  "and  because  you  come  every 
year,  we  shall  have  to  find  you  something." 

I  confess  I  like  going  every  year  to  the 
Hotel  Suizo:  a  good,  old-fashioned  inn 
where  the  front  door  is  encumbered  with 
orderlies,  and  the  stair-landing  blocked 
with  valets  brushing  their  masters'  clothes 
and  cleaning  their  boots;  where  the  maids 
cannot  answer  the  bell  for  gossiping  with 
the  men,  and  the  house  keeps  a  stock  of 



cots  to  set  up  in  your  room  for  your  servant. 
Among  the  ladies'  maids  they  found  me  a 
room  in  the  roof,  where  a  glazed  trap-door 
was  the  window,  but  I  could  stand  on  the 
table  to  lean  out  and  watch  the  white 
Camino  francos  running  in,  swiftly  the 
last  stage  of  it,  where  I  had  often  come 
before.  One  night  it  rained  and  I  lay  warm 
and  close,  and  listened  to  the  splash  and 
drip,  the  pattering  on  the  slates  and  drop- 
ping on  the  floor,  and  forgot  in  snug  content 
the  peasants  who  had  walked  twenty  miles 
or  forty,  chiefly  for  the  fireworks,  and  would 
be  sleeping,  such  of  them  as  did  sleep,  in 
doorways  and  church  porches,  only  to  be 
disappointed  of  the  fireworks  after  all.  It 
was  July  weather,  full  of  thunder-storms, 
and  the  great  set-piece  which  should  have 
kindled  all  the  face  of  Santiago  with  living 
fire  and  uplifted  a  multitude  of  mounting 
stars  and  falling  sparks,  never  came  off  at 
all.  The  review  of  the  Boy  Scouts,  too, 
was  deferred  sine  die,  and  their  Mass  and 
banner  blessing  hurried  over  between 
showers,  too  early  for  half  of  them  to  get 
there.    As,  however,  the  little  church  of  S. 



Rain  in  the 


Crowds  in 
the  town 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Susanna,  for  which  this  function  was  ap- 
pointed, would  not  have  held  a  quarter  of 
them,  that  mattered  the  less.  Their  broad 
hats  and  ponchos,  their  well-set-up  figures, 
like  young  men  done  in  little,  gave  a  brown- 
ish tinge  to  streets  and  squares,  blending 
well  with  the  rusty  jackets  and  white 
stockings  of  country-men,  the  priests'  sleek 
soutanes,  and  the  vast  black  apron  and 
coloured  shawl  and  handkerchief  of  the 
solid,  uncomely  women. 

Misled  by  a  popular  rumour  that  the 
King  himself  was  expected,  I  waited  long 
one  night  to  see  him  befor*  the  Episcopal 
Palace.  A  young  guardsman  on  duty 
there,  more  for  show  than  service,  corrected 
me  scrupulously  when  I  spoke  briefly  of 
the  master  of  that  house,  and  explained 
with  boyish  care  that  he  was  the  Cardinal 
Archbishop  of  Santiago.  He  is  a  terribly 
tiny  old  man  whose  ring  I  kissed  once  long 
ago,  when  he  was  doing  me  a  kindness: 
and  as  we  waited,  carriages  came,  with 
livery,  and  flowing  manes  and  tails,  with 
cockades  and  varnish  adorning  the  equip- 
age  and,    inside,  Bishops  and  Cardinals 





and  Monsignores  and  their  secretaries  and 
valets,  with  purple  and  scarlet  stockings 
and  green  pipings  and  tassels  and  more 
costume  in  their  quiet  dignity  than  I  could 
fathom,  beside  the  intense,  black  respecta- 
bility of  valet  and  secretary.  Near  me 
stood  a  sweet-faced  country-man  who  had 
walked  in,  twenty  miles,  and  would  not  go 
to  bed,  I  suspected,  till  he  walked  home 
again:  he  had  served  in  the  Cuban  War  and 
bore  no  grudge  to  my  country.  We  talked 
about  all  sorts  of  things:  I  remember,  he 
told  me  he  had  never  seen  a  bull-fight.  He 
was  not  rare  in  that,  many  men  have  said 
the  same  to  me,  or  else:  "  I  saw  one  once 
but,"  in  extenuation,  "I  was  very  young," 
in  short,  I  knew  no  better  then.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  is  notorious  that  English  and 
Americans  in  the  consular  service,  in  com- 
merce, even  in  diplomacy,  may  never  miss 
a  fight  during  the  season.  It  is  said,  popu- 
larly, that  the  King  dislikes  going,  and  he 
and  the  Queen  evade  all  that  they  can:  that 
the  Queen  Mother  appreciates  the  sport 
and  as  for  the  Infanta,  the  King's  aunt,  the 
one  who  is  so  pious,  she  is  quite  mad  about 



Anent the 


The  grace 
of  quietude 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

it.  A  very  beautiful  Provencal  lady,  going 
home  on  a  visit,  with  whom  I  travelled  for 
some  hours  on  the  way  between  Paris  and 
Nlmes,  told  me  how  she  loved  it,  but  it  was 
not  right,  all  the  same.  She  said,  "  Ca  fait 
de  la  ftevre." 

In  this  crowd,  waiting  for  belated  royalty 
at  the  end  of  a  long  day,  what  one  felt  most, 
as  in  the  train,  were  the  virtues  of  patience 
and  submission.  Nobody  fretted,  nobody 
joked,  or  fidgeted:  we  talked,  and  waited, 
or  we  waited  in  silence.  There  were  few 
women,  but  I  had  no  reason  to  regret  that 
I  was  there,  as  I  had  on  the  omnibus  with 
persons  more  well-to-do.  We  stood,  not 
pushing  or  crowding,  in  simple  humanity, 
like  herded  ponies,  or  docile  goats.  If  no 
one  was  rude,  neither  was  anyone  curious; 
neither  helpful,  nor  unkind;  the  not  un- 
friendly indifference  made  an  ambience 
temperate  and  pleasurable. 

For  the  big  pilgrimages  I  was  too  late. 
Those  come  earlier,  when  work  can  be  left, 
between  haying  and  harvest,  or  between 
the  labours  of  the  spring  months,  with 
plough  and  pruning-knife,  and  the  sharp- 




ening  of  scythe  and  sickle.  The  pilgrims 
come  iiiy  a  few  hundred  strong,  by  parishes, 
and  wander  about  the  town  for  a  few  hours : 
for  them  the  western  doors  are  opened  and 
the  complicated  staircase  is  thick  with 
figures  ascending  and  descending  without 
molestation,  as  in  Jacob's  Dream.  Some 
have  come  on  foot,  but  most  by  train,  for 
the  railway  is  a  matter  of  course  in  Spain 
and  serves  even  for  the  periodic  movement 
of  vast  flocks  of  sheep  from  one  region  to 
another  as  conditions  of  pasturage  demand. 
I  have  often  passed  long  trains  of  double- 
decked  cars,  moving  slowly,  warm-smelling 
with  the  soft  huddled  creatures. 

Though  it  is  the  bourne,  the  end  of 
heart's  desire,  there  is  nothing  strange  in 
Compostella.  The  pilgrims  can  find  there 
little  round-arched  churches  like  their  own 
at  home  among  the  mountains  of  Leon,  or 
plateresque  and  baroque,  more  grandiose, 
but  not  unlike  such  others  as  they  have 
seen  in  cities  of  men.  It  is  the  gift  of  San- 
tiago to  seem,  for  each  man,  the  place 
where  he  would  be.  The  low  streets,  ar- 
caded,  with  low-browed  houses  and  a  low 



and  mestas 

The  end  of 




The  place 
of  a  dream 


hanging  sky,  are  like  places  to  which  you 
come  in  a  dream  and  remember  that  you 
have  known  them  long  ago. 

It  is  grey,  being  built  of  granite,  as  melan- 
choly as  the  rock-moulded  hills  that  draw 
close  about  it,  and  as  natural.  The  single 
commercial  street,  filled  with  the  rustle  of 
feet  after  dark,  and  with  the  double  file  of 
coming  and  going  figures,  is  warm  and  famil- 
iar; homely,  the  shop  that  hardly  flares  and 
the  shop  that  barely  glimmers.  Out  from  it 
lead  dark  archways,  and  darker  descending 
streets:  in  it,  the  sparse  little  crowd  sees 
itself,  coming  and  going,  up  the  street  and 
down  again:  girls,  old  women,  soldiers, 
priests,  country-men,  women  in  black  veils, 
women  in  straw  hats. 

Santiago  is  triste,  mortally.  It  is  grey  of 
granite:  greenish,  tawny,  blackened  or 
lichened;  but  sombre  and  austere  even  in 
its  heaviest  pomp.  The  Puerto  de  las 
Platerias  is  gilded  by  weathering,  but  that 
opposite  is  stained  with  sea  fog  and  greyed 
with  mountain  mist. 

Santiago  is  a  dead  city.  The  town  is  full 
of  the  crying  of  bells,  for  bells  are  voices  of 





the  dead,  warning,  impelling,  urging,  arrest- 
ing; calling  to  recollection,  signalling  to 
prayer,  sounding  for  the  passage  of  time, 
marking  the  years  of  one  dead,  clamouring 
at  sunrise  like  sea-birds,  clanging  in  the 
green  clear  twilight  of  early  moonset, 
making  the  devotion  appointed.  La  Ora- 
cidn,  they  call  the  Angelus  in  Spain,  and 
riding  toward  a  mountain  city  in  the  still 
pale  light  after  the  sun  has  dropped,  you 
may  hear  them  break  out  into  a  loud  crying 
of  their  own:  one  after  another  takes  it  up, 
and  rocking  in  their  open  arcades,  echoing 
in  the  windless  air,  ringing  against  the  red 
wall  of  the  city  and  the  blue  wall  of  the 
mountain,  they  call  and  they  compel. 

The  dead  that  once  lived  are  gone,  and 
their  place  knows  them  no  more,  and  the 
memory  of  them  is  a  little  pain,  or  a  vague 
wraith,  or  a  name  and  no  more,  or,  at  the 
last,  nothingness,  but  the  bells  live  yet, 
and  cry  and  call.  They  call  out  of  the  past, 
they  call  to  the  times  to  come,  and  most  of 
all  they  call  out  of  the  void  to  the  heart  of 
man  to  pause  for  a  breath  and  brood  upon 
the  abyss. 



The  crying 
of  bells 

Son  tantos 
los  muertos 


In  the 
hollow  hill 

WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

Three  places  there  be,  sweet  with  the 
music  of  bells:  Siena,  and  Oxford,  and 
Compost  ella;  Siena  ringed  with  rose-red 
walls,  Oxford  with  her  dreaming  spires, 
Compostella  in  the  hollow  hill.  As  of  Ox- 
ford, so  of  Compostella,  it  is  hard  to  think 
of  a  life  rooted  there,  of  the  saecular  honour 
of  old  families,  of  a  town  habit  of  its  own, 
apart  from  those  who  come  and  go,  or  those 
who  come  and  stay.  Whether  English  Don 
or  Spanish  Canon,  when  such  have  once 
come,  they  stay.  But  there  are,  back  of  this 
and  beyond,  ancient  and  noble  families 
established  there:  and  a  stirring  history  of 
the  townsmen's  struggle  for  their  liberties. 
The  representative  of  one  of  these  families 
who  was  long  Mayor  of  the  city,  has  a  mar- 
vellous place  at  Puente  de  Ulla  where,  as 
in  a  memory  of  the  Italian  lakes,  tall  cy- 
press, and  leafy  pergola  and  the  noble 
stone-pine,  relieve  the  eternal  sequence  of 
chestnut  and  eucalyptus;  and  rose  and 
jasmine,  sweet  as  flowers  of  home,  supplant 
the  blue  hydrangea,  luxuriant  and  scentless. 

In  Compostella,  as  in  other  Gallegan 
towns,  sons  are  married  and  grandchildren 





are  reared:  Sefior  Murguia  has  a  vast  store 
of  the  folk  tales  and  customs  amid  which  he 
grew  up  there.  "  In  the  very  city  in  which 
we  write,"  he  says,  "in  the  very  house  in 
which  we  were  reared,  on  Christmas  Night 
our  father  bade  lay  two  places  more  at  the 
table  as  though  these  empty  chairs  should 
be  filled,  invisibly,  by  those  who  gave  him 
life."  Curiously,  it  is  only  the  ancestors  to 
whom  the  rite  is  due,  he  adds;  for  when  a 
brother  died,  they  laid  no  third  cover. 

That  testifies  to  a  life  deep-rooted;  not 
to  be  overrun  by  the  passing  of  pilgrims,  or 
crowded  and  disarranged  by  the  students 
of  the  university.  The  townsfolk  have 
their  share  in  the  Afio  Santo,  not  wholly  a 
commercial  share,  and  the  Municipality 
made  that  year  just  such  provision  as  in  an 
American  town,  for  competitions  and  prizes, 
band-concerts  and  fireworks,  races  and  re- 
views :  for  exhibitions  of  cows  and  cabbages; 
for  the  promotion  of  orderly  amusements 
and  the  suppression  of  the  professional 
criminal.  Two  things  were  remarkable: 
the  entire  sobriety  from  the  first  day 
to  the  last  of  inhabitants  and  visitors:  and 





maker and 
Son  of 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

the  literary  nature  of  some  of  the  competi- 
tions. There  was  a  prize  poem  and  a  public 
award,  a  good  deal  of  Gallegan  verse  and 
oratory,  and  along  with  the  giants  and 
their  pipe  and  tabor,  there  was  before  all, 
the  Gallegan  bagpipe.  The  half -forgotten 
Scotch  ancestry  woke  and  stirred  in  my 
veins,  and  with  the  children  I  followed  the 

After  the  July  thunder-storms  were  past, 
we  settled  down  to  grey  Atlantic  weather, 
that  ranged  from  a  fine  drizzle  to  a  fine 
downpour;  the  clouds  dragging  on  the  hills, 
or  sitting,  half-way  down,  in  a  curtain  of 
heavy  fog.  The  stones  are  patched  and 
stained  with  lichen,  like  scabs  and  scars; 
unvenerable  and  rather  leprous.  But 
townsfolk  took  it  with  a  practised  patience. 
In  the  inevitable  competition  between 
Municipality  and  Chapter,  the  latter  enjoys 
an  unfair  advantage  in  controlling  the  skyey 
influence,  the  power  that  makes  la  pluie  et 
le  bon  temps.  On  Saturday  when  the  Boy 
Scouts  arranged  for  a  Mass  and  review  in 
the  Park,  it  poured,  and  everyone  who 
could,  took  refuge  in  the  cathedral  and 



swelled  the  congregation  for  the  great  Mass 
of  the  Vigil.  The  downpour  sounded  in 
pauses  of  the  organ:  they  stood  close,  cheek 
by  jowl:  motor-folk  and  labourers,  mendi- 
cants and  parsons  on  a  holiday,  professional 
pilgrims  and  substantial  farmers.  The 
beggars,  tricked  out  in  calico  capes  sewn 
over  with  scallop  shells,  and  staffs  on  which 
the  gourd  is  reduced  to  a  symbolic  knob, 
or  in  coats  like  Joseph's  for  patches,  are  as 
consciously  unreal  as  the  Roman  soldiers 
in  a  play,  embarrassed  at  showing  their 
knees.  Like  the  beadles  in  brocade  gown 
and  horsehair  wig,  they  are  dressed  up  for 
the  occasion,  and  much  less  at  home  in 
their  finery. 

One  pilgrim  I  found,  with  an  ecstatic 
face,  who  looked  a  little  like  S.  Francis. 
His  head  was  the  same  shape,  and  his 
brown  frock  helped  the  illusion.  For  a 
long  time  I  watched  him  praying,  and  when 
he  got  up  and  went  out  I  ran  after  and 
asked  leave  to  photograph,  readily  yielded: 
then  he  asked  an  alms.  Why  not?  Give 
and  take  is  fair. 

Through  all  these  days  I  saw  gravity, 



See  Vol.  II. 
page  483 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

but  on  the  whole  little  devotion,  except 
sometimes  in  the  case  of  women:  young 
women,  who  are  afraid  of  life  and  take  pre- 
cautions: or  elder  ones  who  have  suffered 
in  life,  and  look  for  anodyne.  At  the  shrine 
you  see  men  kneeling  a  little  awe-struck, 
at  the  gold,  or  at  the  age?  You  find  a  group 
of  women  saying  litanies.  But  S.  James 
means  nothing  to  them,  he  is  only  the 
means  of  making  magic.  You  say  a  rosary 
or  a  litany  because,  presumably,  Something 
wants  it;  or  you  get  indulgences  or  you  help 
some  souls  in  purgatory,  for  there  is  some- 
thing you  want.  Give  and  take  is  fair. 
These  are  the  appointed  means,  quite  ir- 
relevant in  nature,  to  some  desired  end. 
Not  all  who  come  are  either  peasant  or 
tourist,  not  all  who  live  there  are  mild- 
faced,  ox-eyed  Gallegans.  In  the  street  a 
woman  passed  of  Aubrey  Beardsley's,  in 
black  jacket  and  lace  veil:  the  same  curled 
lips  and  narrowed  eyes  and  insolent  bust, 
the  same  heavily  waved  hair  in  flat  masses 
and  crockets,  and  out  of  her  dark  eyes, 
between  her  level  dark  lashes,  she  looked 
cantharides.    Others  I  have  known,  gentle 




creatures,  with  the  bearing  of  the  saints, 
into  whose  hand  you  could  put  yours  to  go 
to  the  end  of  the  world,  in  whom  submission 
seems  not  a  necessity  but  an  instinct,  a 
renouncement,  an  action  of  the  will  to 

Only  from  Friday  until  Tuesday  or  Wed- 
nesday, was  the  town  much  altered:  then 
squares  were  crowded  with  moving,  staring 
folk,  friends  were  meeting  and  exchanging 
the  news  of  a  year.  You  would  see  a  priest 
who  talked  business  of  some  sort  half  an 
hour  with  a  country-man,  and  settled  it, 
and  took  up  something  else  with  a  woman 
that  sought  him  out,  all  in  the  middle  of 
the  square. 

Masses  were  rich  with  sweet-stringed 
music  and  breathing  horns,  with  glowing 
vestments,  with  processions  of  relics,  with 
the  solemn  radiance  of  innumerable  tapers. 
At  Mass  on  the  Apostle's  day,  pontifical 
and  regal,  and  again  at  Vespers  on  Tues- 
day, Botafumeiro,  the  five-foot  silver 
censer,  came  out  in  a  little  cart  of  his  own, 
and  was  wheeled  through  the  cloven  crowd, 
attached  by  ropes  to  the  machinery  under 









WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

the  central  dome  and  then  at  the  moment 
of  incense  was  hoisted  a  few  feet,  and  swung 
by  four  strong  men.  The  mechanism, 
somewhat  like  that  which  swings  bells, 
gave  not  a  creak:  slowly  the  great,  smoking 
creature  began  to  move,  rising  higher  at 
every  return,  cutting  a  wake  through  the 
transept  crowd,  mounting  as  a  swing 
mounts  by  the  life  that  grows  in  it,  till  vast, 
fragrant,  dimly  shining,  it  sped,  it  hung,  it 
flew,  it  lay  close  under  the  vault  at  the 
north,  at  the  south;  and  then  the  swinging 
slowly  dwindled  and  died.  There  was  a 
kind  of  exultation  in  the  mass  and  power 
of  it,  as  there  is  in  great  bells  when  they 
are  rung,  which  redeemed  the  vulgarity 
and  the  riclame  of  the  sacristan  showing  it 
every  day.  By  the  way,  the  renowned 
silver  censer  was  melted  down  by  the 
French  a  hundred  years  ago,  and  this  one 
is  only  Britannia-metal.  Botafumeiro,  it 
must  be  admitted,  divides  the  interest  with 
S.  James  in  the  public  programme  and  the 
visiting  crowd:  indeed,  in  the  competition, 
Botafumeiro  usually  led. 
Already  at  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning 



the  church  smelt  warm  and  human  in  the 
dark  aisles,  which  is  rare,  for  on  these  grey 
stones  the  incense  does  not  cling,  and  in 
these  granite  piers  the  fleas  find  cold  har- 
bourage. If  you  remember  the  reek  of  a. 
great  day  at  S.  Gervais  or  S.  Etienne  du 
Mont,  you  need  not  fear  it  here,  for  Span- 
iards are  much  in  the  open  air :  the  peasants 
are  never  unpleasant  at  your  elbow,  even 
the  bourgeois  are  never  quite  unventilated. 
By  the  commencement  of  the  choir  office, 
we  were  standing  each  immovable  on  his 
own  scrap  of  pavement,  and  kneeling  in  our 
tracks.  Piety  was  a  matter  quite  private 
and  personal.  Nobody  venerated  the  relics 
as  they  passed  in  procession,  but  stared 
instead;  nobody  knelt  for  them;  and  for  the 
Archbishop,  who  made,  indeed,  slight  ges- 
tures of  benediction  with  his  scarlet  glove 
and  diamond  cluster,  nobody  bent.  I  have 
seen  in  France  the  whole  church  swayed  as 
by  a  great  wind  when  the  Bishop  passed, 
swayed  by  the  passing  of  the  Spirit.  This 
blessing  was  like  water  at  the  aspersion: 
none  of  it  could  hit  anybody. 
They  manage  crowds  strangely,  in  Spain, 



The  Office 

The  wind 
bloweth.  . 



que  es  el 
del  roquete 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

though  successfully.  When  the  choir  office 
began,  the  north  transept,  like  all  the  rest  of 
the  church,  was  entirely  filled  with  people. 
A  few  sacristans  gently  swept  a  clean  path 
from  the  door  to  the  crossing,  not  shoving 
or  scolding,  but  preparing  a  way  and 
making  a  path  straight,  as  Scripture  or- 
dains.    Two  stayed  there.     The  square 

outside  the  door  was  also  full,  I  doubt  not. 
But  at  the  appointed  moment,  vested, 
mitred,  jewelled,  from  the  Archbishops 
palace  came  out  into  the  air  and  sun  and 
multitude,  a  group  of  the  cathedral  clergy, 
the  Cardinal  Archbishop  himself,  five  other 
Cardinals,  of  whom  three  were  Archbishops, 
eleven  Bishops,  the  Italian  Nuncio,  dark 
and  alien  in  that  blaze,  moving  like  a  figure 
in  a  Chronicle-play,  and  others  of  the  Chap- 
ter with  silver  wands  and  brocaded  copes. 
The  music  went  on,  and  the  office;  their 
wake  stayed  there,  slowly  shrinking,  till,  in 
came  a  dozen  or  twenty  uniforms,  infor- 
mally as  the  sacristans,  swept  a  neat  path 
again,  without  so  much  as  a  silken  cord, 
and  stood,  attentively,  where  they  hap- 
pened to  be  when  Royalty  passed.    Just  a 




few  uniforms  more  were  discoverable,  and 
thin  Spanish  faces,  accompanied  by  the  civil 
power,  white-gloved  and  white-breasted  in 
the  civic  full  dress  which  long  since  ceased 
to  strike  me  strangely,  which  so  sets  off 
an  order  or  a  fine  head.  Escorting  these, 
plump  young  comely  canons  in  white  man- 
tles with  a  red  cross,  the  Order  of  Santi- 
ago: if  they  had  been  sleek  horses  or  silky 
hounds,  they  might  have  been  nobler. 
This  is  the  end  of  /Santiago  y  cierra  Espanal 
There  we^e  seats  for  all  of  these,  hung 
with  venerable  and  glorious  brocades,  in 
the  Choir,  and  I  think,  the  Royal  Box, 
gilded  and  glazed  and  hung  like  an  opera 
box  in  the  triforium,  was  occupied  by 
ladies,  and  there  was  a  ceremonial  presen- 
tation on  the  part  of  the  Chapter  of  nose- 
gays of  flowers,  and  a  ceremonial  offering 
in  a  silver-gilt  basin,  of  gold  on  the  part  of 
Royalty.  My  neighbours  on  one  side  were 
ladies  in  the  long  black  veil  gathered  tight 
at  throat  and  waist  and  about  the  skirt, 
which  is  Spanish  mourning  and  which 
becomes  beauty  as  nothing  else,  meseems, 
could  so  adorn:  in  the  long  intervals  we 




Knights  of 
S.  James 





WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

held  much  discourse,  and  here  at  the  Offer- 
ing I  asked  whether,  if  it  were  the  King 
himself  instead  of  his  cousin,  he  would 
come  through  the  crowd  so  confidently,  so 
democratically.  The  answer  was  immedi- 
ate: that  there  would  be  no  difference.  It 
is  commonly  said  the  King  believes  en- 
tirely that  some  day  bomb  or  pistol  or  knife 
will  make  an  end  of  him,  and  since  pre- 
cautions are  vain,  they  are  unworthy.  It 
is  ki  the  ancient  Spanish  tradition,  not  the 
Hapsburg  or  the  Bourbon,  tp  live  thus, 
caballero  with  cabaUeros.  An  engineer  of 
my  acquaintance  who  was  living  in  Anda- 
lusia describes  watching  the  King,  expected 
to  lunch  at  the  Manager's  house,  as  he 
drove  his  own  motor  up  the  steep  street 
with  one  dirty  boy  standing  on  the  running 
board,  and  two  more  hanging  on  behind. 
A  noble  man  among  noblemen:  that  made 
once  the  court  of  Spain,  in  the  days  of 
Alfonso  II  el  Batallador  and  Fernando  III 
el  Santo. 

As  the  Mass  wore  on,  good  old  ladies 
settled  down  on  their  knees  to  say  prayers, 
and  I  saw  three  well-dressed  girls  kneeling 




for  the  Office,  but  the  crowd  came  and  went, 
laughed  and  talked,  and  fanned.  In  the 
transept,  whence  the  altar  is  hidden,  you 
could  not  keep  track  of  the  Mass,  by  the 
familiar  music,  because  it  was  so  elaborate, 
with  long  interpolations,  of  which  the  royal 
offering  was  only  one:  and  feet  and  voices 
drowned  Antin  and  Or  emus  and  In  saecula 
saeculorutn.  There  was  half  an  hour  be- 
tween the  Epistle  and  the  Gospel.  The 
crowd  which  had  come  for  Botafumiero 
and  was  fairly  stable  till  after  this  perfor- 
mance, then  broke  up  and  walked  and 
rustled.  At  the  sound  of  the  bell  outside 
which  announced  the  Consecration,  there 
was  silence  but  not  a  hush;  the  crowd  knelt 
the  least  possible  time. 

Regaining  my  footing  I  watched  the  faces 
again.  What  Spaniards  have  and  Ameri- 
cans lack  is  beauty  of  the  bony  structure: 
the  more  that  shows,  the  finer  they  are. 
The  men  look  finer  than  the  women,  and 
gentler.  The  handsome,  elderly,  middle- 
class  sefioras  would  judge  and  execute  their 
neighbours  with  a  rare  grace.  The  men 
of  their  class,  indeed,  also  are  more  brutal. 





To  un- 
it  were  a 


A  class  below,  the  difference  shows  up.  At 
the  departure,  the  women  (not  ladies) 
rushed  the  steps  up  to  the  square,  shoving 
and  trampling  like  school-boys.  Certainly 
something  should  be  done  about  women: 
they  are  not  tame  housed  creatures  now: 
and  the  only  hope  seems  to  give  them  a 
few  civic  virtues.  Here,  in  peasant  and 
bourgeois  alike  I  suspect  the  woman  rules. 
Their  husbands  trail  after,  humorous  and 
silent,  and  in  the  lower  class  their  faces 
have  the  beauty  of  self-control  and  longa- 

The  expedition  of  el  Apostol,  for  these, 
shares  a  little  the  nature  of  the  old-fash- 
ioned American  camp-meeting.  They  are 
here  partly  for  pleasure,  but  partly  on  busi- 
ness, to  lay  in  some  indulgences,  to  do  some 
good  to  las  dnimas,  as  well  as  to  lay  in 
thread  and  find  out  the  price  of  wool.  Give 
and  take  is  fair:  all  things  are  arranged 
according  to  reason;  you  acquire  merit  by 
ordained  observances  and  then  you  have  it, 
ready,  against  need. 

Later  in  the  summer,  when  everything 
was  over,  I  used  to  kneel  in  the  quiet  church 




before  the  great  brass  reja,  blinking  at  the 
Apostle,  and  making  it  all  out.  S.  James 
in  his  dim  shrine,  above  the  high  altar, 
wears  an  enormous  silver-gilt  halo  like  a 
hatbrim,  and  a  gigantic  collar  of  the  same 
that  stretches  nearly  to  his  waist.  His  face 
of  painted  enamel  over  marble,  is  tawny 
and  bearded  and  a  little  foolish :  behind  him 
hangs  a  rich  darkness;  before  him,  count- 
less constellated  tapers;  and  the  reflections 
about  the  silver  shrine  glimmer  like  the 
sunstreaks  on  water.  With  the  multitudin- 
ous Salomonic  columns,  the  heavy  fruit 
garlands  of  the  pilasters  in  between,  the 
massy  cornices,  the  piers  and  architraves, 
all  of  gold  embrowned,  the  effect  of  the 
entire  sanctuary  is  as  of  one  of  the  lac- 
quered shrines  for  Buddha,  and  the  imper- 
turbable, within,  abiding  there. 



A  shrine 
and  a 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 



And  I  John  saw  the  holy 
city,  new  Jerusalem,  com- 
ing down  from  God  out  of 
heaven ,  prepared  as  a  bride 
adorned  for  her  husband, 
and  I  heard  a  great  voice 
out  of  the  heaven,  saying: 
Behold,  the  tabernacle  of 
God  is  with  men  and  he 
will  dwell  with  them. 

The  Reverend  F.  Fita  says  explicitly, 
and  he  here  presents  the  best  tradition  of 
Spanish  ecclesiastical  scholarship,  that  the 
disciples  of  S.  James  landed  with  his  pre- 
cious body  at  Iria  (which  is  Padron)  and 
started  off,  and  some  four  leagues  north- 
ward on  the  Roman  road  that  ran  from  Iria 
to  Betanzos  they  came  to  a  place  called 
Liberodunum, x  which  means,  "The  Way- 




side  Tower."  It  is  significant  to  find  the 
Way  figuring,  thus,  before  sepulchre  there 

The  place  was  to  be  known,  later,  as 
Compostella:  there  they  found,  perhaps, 
a  Roman  tomb,  and  there  they  laid  the 
Apostle.  The  MS.  called  Tumbo  A,  writ- 
ten in  1 129  and  belonging  therefore  to  the 
Santiago  that  we  know,  shows  Theodo- 
mir  discovering  the  three  sepulchres  in  a 
barrel-vaulted  crypt,  in  a  church  in  the 
midst  of  a  city:  that  church  has  towers  at 
the  west  end,  and  eastward  of  the  transepts, 
I  should  say.  The  MS.  possibly  preserves 
for  us  the  disposition  of  the  sacred  crypt. 
A  similar  painting  of  the  thirteenth  century 
in  the  Historic  Composteilana  is  no  less 
explicit:  the  crypt  consists  of  two  aisles 
with  a  lamp  swinging  from  the  central 
capital  on  which  descend  cusped  and 
pointed  arches.  Outside,  the  building  is 
battlemented,  the  west  front  gabled,  a 
transept  steep-roofed,  a  circular  staircase 
tower  built  at  the  west.  Now,  it  is  one 
of  the  peculiarities  of  the  little  crypt  of 
Santiago    Abajo,    S.    James    Undercroft, 





S.  James 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

constructed  under  Master  Matthew's  por- 
tico, and  the  great  staircase  which  leads 
to  it,  that  this  has  two  aisles  and  a  central 
row  of  shafts  to  carry  the  superincumbent 
weight.  The  crypt  of  the  sepulchre  lay 
eastward  of  this. 

In  1 139  the  crypt  was  already  a  legend: 
the  Gallegan  translation  of  the  Codex  writes 
"In  this  very  church  lies  buried  under  the 
high  altar  the  body  of  the  very  honoured 
and  blessed  apostle  S.  James,  and  as  men 
say,  he  lies  laid  in  an  ark  of  marble  in  a 
very  fair  sepulchre. "  2  So  also  it  is  written 
in  the  Libro  de  los  Caballeros  Cambeadorest 
the  Gentlemen  Moneychangers,  in  the 
fourteenth  century,  "  O  corpo  de  Santiago 
estava  escondido  una  cova  labrada  con 
deus  arcos  de  pedra  debaixo  da  terra,  num 
moymento  de  marmor."3  Morales  in  his 
journey  of  1572  could  not  descend  into  the 
crypt  because  all  access  had  been  cut  off 
since  unremembered  time,  but  he  knows 
that  the  body  lay  in  a  cavern  or  vault  under 
the  high  altar. 

Alfonso  the  Chaste  is  credited  with 
building  a  church  immediately  upon  the 




discovery  of  the  relics  by  the  hermit 
Pelayo,  with  the  idea  of  recommending 
himself  and  Spain  to  the  guardianship  of 
the  Son  of  Thunder:  this  was  some  sort  of 
a  sanctuary  or  chapel  over  the  sepulchre, 
dedicated  to  S.  James.4  The  claim  was 
made  not  a  century  later,  that  in  or  over 
against  this  he  installed  twelve  Benedictine 
monks  and  their  Abbot  Ildefredo,  and  in 
829  the  land  for  three  miles  round  about  was 
annexed,  for  the  cult  of  the  Blessed  James 
and  the  maintenance  of  the  monks. 5  The 
date  of  Ramiro's  Voto  which  tells  how 
S.  James  appeared  and  Clavijo  was  won 
to  the  cry  of  Adjuva  nos  Deus  is  844,  and 
thereafter  Calahorra  was  taken. 6  In  853 
Ordoflo  I  doubled  the  radius. 7 

Alfonso  III  further  dowered  the  church 
in  899,  removed  the  rude  stone  and  brick 
work  of  his  grandfather  and  gave  to  it 
precious  marbles,  frieze  and  columns, 
fetched  by  captive  Moors  from  the  shores 
of  Douro  and  Tamega,  to  raise  a  superb 
temple.  He  intended  as  he  told  S.  James, 8 
Aulam  tui  tumuli  instaurare  et  ampliare 
.  .  Aedificare  et  domum  restaurare  tem- 








from  Ro- 
man ruins 



plum  ad  tumulum  sepulchri  Apostoli 
quod  antiquitus  construxerat  divae  me- 
moriae Dominus  Adefonsus  Magnus  ex 
petra  et  Domini  luto  opere  parvo."  This 
appears  to  mean  that  he  built  a  fine«new 
church  where  his  grandfather's  had  stood: 
he  built  a  House  of  God  and  raised  a  temple 
on  the  Apostle's  grave-mound.  Apart 
from  the  shrine,  there  was  already  a  crypt — 
as  will  appear :  if  any  one  wants  to  make  this 
a  Mithraeum,  nothing  is  wanting  but  an 
inscription  by  way  of  evidence.  Only 
grave-stones  have  been  found  so  far,  dedi- 
cations to  the  Gods  of  the  Dead.  The  King 
goes  on  to  say  that  he  fetched  marbles  from 
Aquae  Flaviae  where  his  ancestors  the 
Visigothic  kings  had  brought  them  from 
oversea  and  built  palaces,  that  the  Moors 
destroyed.  This  looks  like  an  account  of 
Roman  remains,  and  if  he  was  any  judge, 
they  were  of  oriental  workmanship.  Other 
marbles  came  by  sea  from  Oporto.  I  do 
not  take  it  that  the  carved  lintel  which  he 
peculiarly  prized,  came  from  the  little  old 
church;  rather  from  the  ruins  of  Civitas 



Prom  this  we  may  discover  that  the 
ninth  century  church  was  basilican  or 
cruciform,  like  the  little  churches  of  the 
Asturias  whence  the  Bishop  Sisnandus  had 
come,  with  a  nave  of  six  bays,  probably 
timber-roofed,  that  it  had  apparently  a 
raised  vaulted  sanctuary  and  apse,  like 
S.  Maria  de  Naranco  and  S.  Cristina  de 
Lena,  and  an  open  portico,  corresponding 
in  form,  at  the  western  end,  through  which 
to  enter,  with  some  sort  of  tribune  above. 
His  carven  columns  have  disappeared 
and  left  no  trace, l  °  for  the  exquisite  marble 
shafts,  wrought  like  wands  of  ivory,  which 
grace  the  south  portal  and  the  central-west- 
ern, are  contemporary  and  continuous 
with  the  fabric  in  which  they  are  embedded, 
and  the  carvings  in  S.  James  Undercroft 
seem  to  be  by  the  same  hand  as  the  great 
hall  in  the  archbishop's  palace,  and  cer- 
tainly of  the  same  date,  the  end  of  the 
twelfth  century. 

It  was  dedicated  in  869,  in  the  presence 
of  seventeen  bishops:  the  relics  were  de- 
posited in  the  altars  and  sealed  up,  enclosed 
in  caskets  of  imperishable  wood  —  that 




of  the 


raeum  ? 


would  mean  cypress.  There  is  no  indica- 
tion whence  the  relics  came,  or  if  any  indeed 
were  new.  Something  is  said  about  golden 
reliquaries,  rather  vaguely,  and  there  is  a 
great  deal  of  balm  and  incense,  breathing 
fragrance  about  the  sepulchres.  The  cen- 
tral altar  was  dedicated  to  S.  James  and 
S.  Saviour  like  the  church:  there  is  some 
evidence  that  the  first  dedication  was  to 
S.  Saviour  alone  and,  in  a  hymn  from  the 
Book  of  S.  James,  the  First  Person  of  the 
Trinity  is  addressed  as  "Sother,  theos 
athanatos. " x  x  This  contained  thrice  seven 
relics  of  the  Lord,  of  S.  James,  of  the  far- 
travelling  Apostles,  and  of  certain  Spanish 
saints,  including  Vincent  of  Saragossa, 
Eulalia  of  Merida,  Marina,  Julian  and 
Basilisa.  The  right  hand  altar  was  dedi- 
cated to  S.  Peter,  the  left  to  S.  John  Evan- 
gelist, the  other  son  of  Zebidee.  Besides 
this  there  was  another  altar  at  the  north 
side,  apparently  in  a  crypt;  "In  tumulo 
Altaris  S.  Joannis  quod  est  sub  tectu  et 
constructu  "...  there  is  a  flaw  in  the 
manuscript,  but  the  relics  are  enumerated. 
The  altar  above  S.  James's  body  was  not 



touched:  as  their  fathers  had  made  it,  so 
they  left  it,  "nor  none  of  us  would  be  so 
hardy  as  to  lift  the  stone."  So  the  King 
ends  with  a  prayer:  "Poste  Dominum  te 
Patrone  oro  cum  conjuge  vel  prole,  ut 
digneris  me  habere  famulum,  et  cum  agnis 
vellere  induar,  nee  .  .  .  c  .  .  .  sancte  sub- 
tractus  cum  edis  nocens  inveniar."  It 
ends  like  the  memory  of  a  hymn. 

The  foundations  of  the  iconastasis  and 
the  steps  were  discovered  in  1878. x  2  Under 
the  tr ascot 0  in  1895  a  meter  and  a  half 
below  the  present  pavement,  was  found  the 
floor  of  the  porch.  It  was  only  five  meters 
wide,  and  from  it  two  steps  went  up  into 
the  church.  A  plan  of  this  church  is  pub- 
lished by  L6pez  Ferreiro13  but  he  does  not 
give,  his  source.  It  is  not  plausible.  The 
late  good  canon  of  Santiago  was  sounder 
in  theology  than  in  judgement,  and  what  he 
prints  cannot  be  accepted  until  verified. 
A  good  rule  warns  never  to  trust  the  word 
of  a  pious  man  or  the  bed  of  a  pious  woman. 

The  dedication  took  place  under  Bishop 
Sisnandus,  first  of  the  name.14  The  name  of 
his  predecessor  Ataulf  is  involved  in  strange 





Piety  vs. 



The  Wolfs 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

matters,  an  accusation  of  sodomy  and  the 
killing  of  a  bull.  He  retired  to  die  in  Asturi- 
as,  and  Sisnandus  ruled  for  a  while  as  Pres- 
byter. His  case  has  some  points  of  likeness 
with  that  of  the  predecessor  of  another 
king's  favourite  and  great  builder,  the 
Metropolitan  Gelmirez.  He  was  eloquent 
and  wise;  Alfonso  III,  who  was  born  and 
grew  up  in  Santiago,  loved  him  as  a  father; 
he  built  a  palace,  founded  a  new  monastery 
called  Sub  Lobio, *  s  and  alongside,  a  night 
refuge  and  the  first  hospice  for  pilgrims. 
He  came  from  Li6bana  and  on  February 
14,  in  869,  the  King  gave  him  the  church 
and  monastery  of  S.  Martin  de  Li6bana: 
on  the  same  day  of  the  year  in  874,  he  gave 
to  the  Apostle,  S.  Maria  de  Lie*bana.  That 
church  stands  yet,  being  possibly  of  .the 
Visigothic  age,  and  affords  a  perfect  model 
for  the  church  that  King  and  cleric  were 
then  building  at  Compostella. 1 6 

The  second  of  the  name  was  driven  from 
his  See  and  S.  Rosendo  installed  in  his  place : 
on  the  news  of  the  king's  death,  the  dis- 
possessed Bishop  reappeared  in  Santiago 
and  drew  back  S.  Rosendo's  bed-curtains 



with  the  left  hand  holding  a  naked  sword 
in  the  right :  to  this  the  words  of  S.  Rosendo 
were, "  He  that  draws  the  sword  shall  perish 
by  the  sword" :  then  he  dressed  himself  and 
returned  to  Celanova.  In  truth,  Bishop 
Sisnando  II  was  killed  under  the  walls,  by 
Norman  pirates.  He  had  lived  more  like  a 
mundane  prince  than  like  a  shepherd  of 


The  Asturian  buildings,  then,  were 
copied  at  Santiago  about  a  century  later. 
There  was  nearly  a  century  in  which  to 
finish  and  adorn  this  sanctuary,  and  then 
it  came  to  an  end. 

Almanzor  reached  Santiago  twice,  in 
988  and  in  907.  The  shrine  was  known 
to  the  Moors  from  the  beginning  as  a  place 
of  pilgrimage:  I  have  already  cited  the 
visit  of  Al-Ghazal.  The  account  of  Edrisi, 
which  I  shall  quote  later,  deals  with  the 
twelfth  century.  Spanish  historians  re- 
late that  Almanzor  respected  the  shrine 
and  set  a  guard  about  it,  while  he  burned 
the  city.18  "In  1002  Almanzor  died  and 
was  buried  in  hell,"  and  rebuilding  was 
taken  in  hand. 








WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

S.  Pedro  Mozoncio,  986-1000,  was  then 
Bishop  of  Iria,  for  the  translation  of  the  See 
to  Compostella  was  effected  only  at  the 
Council  of  Clermont,  by  Urban  II.  He 
was  rich,  noble,  and  influential,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  the  rebuilding  of  the  church, 
bettering  it.  * °  The  Silense  says  that  King 
Veremund  with  God's  help  "coepit  res- 
taurare  ipsum  locum  Jacobi  in  melius."20 
A  successor,  Bishop  Cresconio,  1048-1066, 
built  two  western  towers,  dedicated  to  SS. 
Benedict  and  Antolin:  the  Compostellana 
says  for  fortifying. 2  x  The  towers  belonged 
to  the  original  plan  of  the  Benedictine 
Romanesque  edifice.  If  this  seems  a  rash 
word,  the  argument  lies  in  the  life  of  Bishop 
Peter,  whose  father  was  well-born  and 
wealthy,  from  the  Asturias,  of  a  family  long 
since  famed  for  foundation  and  munificent 
endowment  of  churches,  and  whose  mother 
was  a  princess's  foster-sister.  He  grew  up  in 
the  palace,  was  the  infanta7 s  chaplain,  en- 
tered into  religion  at  Mozoncio  near  So- 
brado,  and  was  abbot  of  Antealtares  at 
the  time  of  his  election  to  the  See.  While  in 
the  tenth  century  Benedictine  did  not  mean 



Burgundian  quite  as  it  did  in  the  twelfth, 
yet  there  is  a  presumpti&n.  Veremund  was 
educated  at  Santiago  and  crowned  there 2  2; 
whatever  Spain  could  command  would  be 
used  for  the  rebuilding.  Cluny  had,  in  981, 
built  a  church  with  parallel  apses  and  west- 
ern towers.23  The  work  at  Santiago  by 
1066  had  only  reached  the  western  end. 
But  before  the  century  closed  it  was  seen 
that  a  much  larger  church  was  needed  and 
the  money  for  it  was  coming  in  steadily. 

To  D.  Diego  Pelaez  with  his  advisors 
belongs  the  project.  His  architect,  Master 
Bernard  the  Marvellous,  is  more  than 
likely  to  have  been  French  by  nation,  for 
the  intercourse  with  France  was  incessant 
already,  and  Bernard  is  a  French  and  not 
a  Spanish  name;  moreover,  Bernard  the 
Elder,  Dominus  Bernardus  senex  mirabilis 
magister,2*  enjoys  no  patronymic  of  the 
Spanish  sort,  though  Bernard  the  Younger, 
who  was  a  canon  in  11 20,  is  called  Bernard 
Gutierrez.  It  was  more  irritating  than 
amusing  when  M.  Anthyme-St.  Paul,  who 
had  lived  long  enough  to  know  better,  told 
the  Archaeological  Congress  of  Toulouse,  in 



Cluny  in 
the  tenth 

M  agister 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

1899,  that  "the  first  architect  of  S.  Sernfn, 
having  drawn  up  the  plan  of  the  whole 
church  and  begun  the  choir,  was  called  to 
S.  James  of  Compostella  and  went,  leaving 
in  the  chantiers  a  pupil  initiated  in  his  pro- 
jects and  apt  to  replace  him  in  his  ab- 
sences."25 The  only  thing  to  match  this 
assumption  is  M.  Enlart's  assertion  that 
Petrus  Petri,  who  made  the  plan  of  Toledo, 
was  a  Frenchman.  In  both  cases  the  archi- 
tect may,  indeed,  have  been  French,  I 
believe  that  he  was,  but  the  state^emains 
belief  based  on  inductive  reasoning,  and 
not  assertion  based  on  knowledge  of  fact. 
The  plan  of  Santiago  is  French  unques- 
tionably. It  belongs,  along  with  S.  Faith  at 
Conques  and  S.  Sernin  at  Toulouse,  to  the 
same  great  school  as  S.  Martial  at  Limoges, 
built  also  under  monks  of  Cluny,  conse- 
crated by  Urban  II  in  1095,  but  burned  in 
part  1 167.  S.  Sernin  was  consecrated  also 
by  Urban  II  in  1096,  again  by  Calixtus  II 
in  1 1 19.  S.  Faith  is  the  eldest  of  the  group, 
built  under  Abbot  Odalric,  1030-1065.26 
The  earliest  consecration  at  Santiago  was 
said  in  1899  to  have  taken  place  in  1082. 





I  can  only  conjecture  that  M.  Anthyme- 
St  Paul  took  that  date  from  the  opening 
of  Book  III  of  the  ComposteUana,  which 
refers  to  the  commencement  of  works. 
The  earliest  consecration  that  I  know  is 
1 102,  when  Diego  Geknirez  consecrated 
the  altar  of  the  Saviour  and  all  the  rest  of 
the  minor  ap6es.a7  Normally  the  capUla 
mayor  would  be  consecrated  first,  but  here, 
the  high  altar  was  so  sacred  it  needed 
nothing,  as  will  appear  later. 

The  chantier  was  formed  largely  of 
French  elements,  as  the  succeeding  analysis 
will  show:  to  these  Sr.  Lamperez  adds'* 
rather  cautiously  but,  as  I  believe,  with 
truth,  "The  cathedral  of  Santiago  shows 
in  some  of  its  elements  a  nationalization  of 
the  style,  produced  by  direct  foreign  in- 
fluences, e.  g.  Syro-Byzantine  elements,  and 
by  national,  that  is  Mahommedan  ele- 
ments. "  He  does  not  however  specify 
these  in  his  great  History  of  Architecture, 
and  as  his  opusculi  are  deplorably  hard  to 
come  by,  we  must  take  his  word. 

The  date  of  commencement  is  in  dispute. 
The  Book  of  S.  James  says29  that  it  was 










begun  in  1078,  fifty-nine  years  before  the 
death  of  Alfonso  I  of  Aragon  (1134  —  59  = 
1075),  sixty-two  before  that  of  Henry  I  of 
England  (1135  —  62  =  1073)  and  sixty- 
three  before  that  of  Louis  the  Fat  of  France 
(1137  —  63  =  1074).  These  dates  are  all 
inconsistent  each  with  the  other:  but  it 
seems  likely  that  in  Compostella,  where  the 
authors  got  all  the  material  for  this  part 
of  the  text,  the  date  of  commencement 
would  be  preserved,  though  deaths  of 
foreign  kings  might  be  misknown.  In 
Part  II  of  the  Codex,  the  Book  of  Miracles, 
occurs  another  blunder  about  the  death 
of  the  king  of  France. 

There  is  no  record  of  work  or  of  prepara- 
tion before.  It  were  not  amiss  to  point  out 
that  Diego  Pelaez  became  bishop  only  in 
1070,  and  that  his  predecessor  Gudesteo, 
who  was  related  to  the  high  Gallegan 
nobility,  both  quarrelled  and  fought  with 
them,  and  was  finally  hacked  to  bits  in  his 
own  bed  over  a  question  of  the  land  between 
Ulla  and  Tambre.  3°  The  chances  are 
against  his  beginning  the  preparations  for  a 
great  building;  and  D.  Diego  could  not 



possibly  have  collected  men  and  material, 
settled  legal  claims,  and  made  all  sure 
financially,  within  something  less  than  a 
year  and  a  half.  The  issue  is  further  con- 
fused by  a  passage  in  the  His  tor  ia  Com- 
postellana  to  the  effect  that  at  the  date  of 
the  opening  of  Book  III,  viz.  a.d.  1128, 
forty-six  years  had  elapsed  since  the  begin- 
ning of  the  works,  "ab  inchoatione  novae 
ecclesiae  B.  Jacobi."  3  x  That  would  set  the 
date  at  1082  for  digging  of  foundations  and 
actual  erection  of  walls. 

At  any  rate,  in  1077  a  concord  was 
signed  between  Pagildo,  the  abbot  of  the 
convent  of  Antealtares,  and  the  bishop 
Diego  Pelaez.32  The  plan  of  the  great 
church,  on  which  work  was  beginning, 
forced  them  to  sacrifice  the  church  of  the 
monastery  and  a  part  of  the  cloister.  In 
a  case  like  this  the  high  altar  stands  over 
the  original  crypt,  the  confessio;  and  far 
beyond  the  probable  three  parallel  apses 
of  the  eleventh  century  church,  stretched 
the  new  ambulatory  with  its  crown  of  five 
radiating  chapels.  The  room  for  these  had 
to  be  secured  at  once,  and  terms  made  with 







A  hard 

in  1078 

WAY    OF    S.  J  AME  S 

the  monks  who  still  called  themselves  the 
Guardians  of  the  Shrine.  Another  incident 
will  have  contributed  to  delay  the  com- 
mencement. 1077  was  a  hard  winter,  from 
Michaelmas  to  Quadragesima  Sunday  the 
bitter  cold  endured,  memorable  throughout 
Spain. a  3  While  no  building  could  be  begun, 
D.  Diego  attended  to  the  law  business, 
awaiting  the  hour. 

In  the  capitals  of  the  two  columns  at  the 
entrance  to  the  chapel  of  the  Saviour, 
you  may  read: 

Regnante  Principe  Adefonso  constructum  opus 
tempore  presulis  Didaci  inceptum  opus  fuit. 

The  date  of  1078,  on  the  door-jamb  of 
the  south  transept,  is  good  evidence  that 
the  work  of  the  church  was  begun  in  that 
year.  At  Val-de-Dios,  in  Asturias,  the 
lintel-stone  of  the  south  transept  records 
the  date  of  commencement,  in  a  curious 
form;  and  undamnitum,  it  says,  and  yet 
the  portal  is  untampered  with,  and  the 
word  after  the  architect's  name  is  construxit, 
which   marks   some   sort  of   completion. 




Finally,  the  inscription  must  be  read  from 
bottom  to  top34: 





IOHAK.  QVA-  _ 



The  statement  that  work  was  begun  on 
the  first  of  May,  1218,  and  that  the  archi- 
tect's name  was  Walter,  is  made  as  ob- 
scurely as  possible:  but  the  position  of 
the  inscription  corresponds  precisely  to 
that  at  Santiago. 

Earlier  in  the  same  chapter  that  pre- 
serves the  dates,  Aymery  had  said : 

"Of  the  master-builders  who  in  the 
beginning  built  the  church  of  Santiago, 
one  was  named  Master  Bernard  the  elder, 
and  he  was  a  very  marvellous  master,  and 
Robert,  with  about  fifty  other  masters. 
They  worked  on  it  steadily  ":  every  day, 
says  the  Gallegan  version.  The  original 
Commission  of  Administration  consisted 
of  the  Abbot   Gundesind,   the  treasurer 





The  old 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Sigered,  and  one  Wicart  who  was  probably 
a  canon,  too.35 

The  Historia  Cotnpostellana  says,  under 
the  year  of  1078,  that  the  new  building 
was  so  undertaken  as  not  to  involve  the 
destruction  of  the  old  church,  which  was 
left  in  the  new.  In  11 12  the  old -church, 
grown  ruinous,  was  taken  down,  and  the 
western  towers  before  1120.36  What  that 
signifies  is  that  the  Bishop  and  Canons 
could  not  afford  to  give  up  their  sanctuary 
and  place  of  pilgrimage  through  all  the 
years  the  building  might  go  on.  The  Chap- 
ter of  Salamanca,  in  151 2,  had  voted  for 
the  sake  of  comfort  to  retain  the  old  Church 
while  the  new  went  up  alongside,  and  the 
Chapter  of  Segovia  had  probably  the  same 
intention.  Here  more  was  involved  than 
merely  comfort:  not  money  only  but  the 
business,  which  had  a  money  value,  like  a 
physician's  practice  or  the  good-will  of  a 
shop.  They  wisely  kept  on  with  business 
as  usual,  and  the  high  altar  was  never 
moved  from  its  place  above  the  tomb,  till, 
the  new  building  being  entirely  fit  for  ser- 
vice, the  old  was  dismantled  and  carried 



piecemeal  out  the  three  great  doors.  In 
the  ninth  Miracle  we  read  that  Bishop 
Stephen  lived  in  the  church  in  a  straw  hut 
over  against  the  altar:  intus  in  B.  Apostoli 

About  the  origin  of  the  little  church  of 
S.  James  Undercroft  a  suggestion  seems 
plausible  to  offer  modestly:  it  occurred 
because,  like  the  pilgrims,  I  have  known 
the  great  shrines  of  France,  and  climbed  not 
only  the  hill  of  the  Magdalen  at  Vezelay 
but  also  the  steep  stairs  to  Notre-  Dame-du 
Puy.  Of  this  chapel,  Sr.  Villa-amil,  after 
disposing  of  the  thick  walls,  narrow  vesti- 
bule, and  strait  passage,  added,  some  in  the 
time  of  Archbishop  Alfonso  de  Fonseca,  and 
some  in  the  seventeenth  century,  says37 
that  in  the  beginning  the  little  nave  had  no 
doors,  probably  for  the  sake  of  light,  but 
that  doors  were  put  further  in;  and  that 
there  were,  moreover,  doors  which  led  to 
the  church  above,  that  opened  in  the  rec- 
tangular niches  just  eastward  of  the  cross- 
ing, and  took  one  up,  by  inclined  planes  as  I 
understand,  to  emerge  in  the  nave  of  the 
cathedral.    He  admits  that  Master  Mat- 



The  Origi- 
nal Stairs 


Lc  Puy 

WAY     OF     S.  JAMES 

thew  rebuilt  the  whole  more  or  less;  it  is 
safe  to  put  stress  upon  the  more,  remember- 
ing that  Master  Matthew  with  his  Portico, 
was  more  than  doubling  the  weight  those 
three  central  piers  sustained.  But  descend- 
ing alongside  by  the  street  that  runs  under 
the  Palace,  or  feeling  the  steep  pitch  of  the 
ground  approaching  from  westward  .and 
measuring  the  strong  ascent  that  begins  in 
the  gully  at  the  foot  of  the  town  and  ends 
far  above  the  great  church,  I  have  seen  in 
a  flash  the  great  front  at  Le  Puy,  where 
the  steep  winding  street  debouches  into  a 
yawning  arch  and  continues  up  a  flight  of 
steps  that  once  emerged  in  front  of  the  high 
altar,  and  was  only  afterward  turned  to 
come  out  into  the  transepts.  That  west 
front,  of  which  Diego  Pel&ez  approved  the 
plan,  and  Diego  Gelmirez  saw  the  conclu- 
sion, carved  with  the  great  scene  of  the 
Transfiguration,  was,  it  seems  more  than 
likely,  comparable  to  Le  Puy.  About  this 
of  Le  Puy,  M.  Enlart  has  a  significant  word, 
that  would  exactly  describe  what  I  conceive 
it  was:  he  says  "&  la  fois  un  porche,  un 
perron  couvert,  et  une  crypte."38 



The  Fountain  at  Santiago 



This  is  confirmed  by  the  passage  in 
ThurkilTs  Vision  where  souls  standing  in 
the  grass  outside  the  Basilica,  look  up  the 
great  staircase  and  see  the  altar. 

Inceptum  opus:  with  the  easternmost  por- 
tion and  the  new-fangled  possession-path 
and  with  them  the  building  began.  The 
consecration  in  1102  indicates  probably 
that  the  work  had  just  passed  the  transepts, 
which  originally  had  each  two  small  apses 
eastward,  and  was  starting  on  the  nave.  In 
1 1 16  and  1 1 1 7,  popular  risings  did  no  small 
damage  to  the  fabric,  and  when  the  towns- 
folk tried  to  smoke  out  the  Archbishop  and 
Queen  they  burned  out  entirely  one  of  the 
western  towers,  and  brought  down  the 
bells.  These  injuries  to  the  fortifications 
would  be  repaired  before  anything  else. 
Under  the  date  a.d.  1128,  the  Historic  Com- 
posteUana39  relates  that  the  church  had 
yet  no  cloister,  nor  proper  offices,  nor  was 
it  adorned  with  edifices  or  decorated,  like 
other  churches  less  held  in  honour,  and 
pilgrims,  priests,  and  laymen,  went  about 
asking  where  were  the  cloisters  and  offices. 
Indeed,  they  wandered  about  and  looked 








mean  something  like  the  cloister  of  the  Sar. 
In  1 134,  on  the  occasion  of  the  consecra- 
tion of  a  Bishop  of  Avila,  an  effort  was 
made  to  start  up  the  work  again,  which 
"aliis  causis  impedientibus  neglectum  et 
intermissum  fuerat,"  and  the  Archbishop 
again  gave  generously.41  In  1138,  when 
King  Alfonso  tried  to  attach  the  alms- 
boxes  and  probably  the  great  "ark  "  and 
had  to  remove  his  seals  again,  some  of  the 
money  went  to  masters  and  workmen 
working  on  the  cloisters. 4a  Aymery  when 
enumerating  the  doors  of  the  church,  calls 4  3 
the  two  in  the  south  flank  "de  Petraria," 
which  must  mean,  "of  the  chanticr  ";  it  is 
possible  that  the  cloister  was  going  up  in 
the  midst  of  that. 

The  next  date  of  importance  is  that  of 
the  grants  of  Ferdinand  II,  in  1168,  not 
only  that  for  the  works  of  the  cathedral, 
for  such  had  been  given  in  1107,  n  29,  and 
1 13 1,  but  that  to  Master  Matthew,  already 
in  charge  of  the  works:  they  exist  in  much 
the  same  form  as  Alfonso's  to  Peter  the 
Pilgrim.  He  gets  100  maravedis  a  year. 44 
In  the  reign  of  this  Ferdinand,  Master 







Like  Apo- 
lonius  of 

WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

Matthew's  porch  was  raised  in  the  time 
of  Bishop  Peter  the  Third,  who  preceded 
Bishop  Peter  Mufioz  the  Necromancer, 
poet  and  theologian,  great  scholar  and  great 
teacher.  He  it  was  who  being  in  Rome 
came  back  by  wizardy  on  Christmas  night, 
in  order  to  sing  the  last  lesson  of  Matins, 
which  had  to  be  performed  by  a  dignitary 
of  S.  James's  in  Rome.45 

From  Aymery,46  who  came  there  not 
later  than  1 138,  you  would  think  the  church 
was  finished.  It  was,  however,  consecrated 
by  Archbishop  Peter  Munoz,  in  121 1:  the 
record  exists  in  a  set  of  Annals  preserved 
in  the  MS.  that  is  called  the  Tumbo  Negro 
and  adorned  with  miniatures.  This  is  the 
date  of  the  consecration  crosses  in  the 

The  Poitevin  saw  in  place,  at  any  rate, 
the  three  great  portals,  the  altars  in  use, 
the  triforia  accessible.  There  are  to  be 
nine  towers,47  he  says;  some  are  built, 
some  are  building.  He  does  not  mention 
the  cloister,  or  the  chapel  under  the  stair- 
case, of  Santiago  Abajo,  which  is  strong 
testimony  to  the  theory  earlier  indicated, 



that  in  his  day  that  was  the  staircase. 
For  him,  the  crypt  has  become  fabulous: 
there  lies  S.  James  in  a  marble  ark,  in  a 
fair  vaulted  sepulchre,  wonderful  for  size 
and  workmanship;  it  is  lighted  heavenly- 
wise  with  carbuncles  like  the  gems  of  the 
New  Jerusalem,  and  the  air  is  kept  sweet 
with  divine  odours;  waxen  tapers  with 
heavenly  radiance  light  it  and  angelic 
service  cares  for  it. 

Otherwise,  his  account  is  accurate  to  the 
last  degree:  on  a  plan  of  the  church  you 
may  name  the  chapels,  trace  the  doors 
he  enumerates  and  place  the  towers:  two 
over  the  south  transept  [two  over  the 
north]  two  over  the  west  front;  two  stair- 
case turrets,  and  a  glorious  lantern  over 
the  crossing.  The  stone  is  strong  and 
living,  hard  and  brown,  like  marble  [for 
polish]  painted  within,  in  divers  ways: 
covered  without  with  tile  and  lead.  And 
he  is  scrupulous  to  add  that  the  towers 
are  not  yet  finished. 

In  his  dayvthe  transepts  had  each  two 
apses  eastward,  as  you  may  discover  from 
the  dedications  of  the  altars  t  to  S.  Nicholas 







S.  Maria  de 
la  Corticela 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

and  Holy  Cross,  on  the  north:  to  S.  Martin 
and  the  Baptist,  on  the  south.  Another 
behind  the  high  altar,  dedicated  to  S.  Mary 
Magdalen,  served  for  the  early  pilgrims, 
mass.  The  little  church  of  the  Corticela, 
was  then  as  now  connected  with  the  church : 
the  passage  now  has  been  cut  through  the 
chapel  of  S.  Nicholas,  but  a  glance  at  the 
plan  will  show  how  that  church  has  a 
south  door  which  leads  by  a  winding  pass- 
age into  the  square,  and  the  other  end  of 
that  passage  once  came  into  the  transept 
between  the  two  apses  where  now  is  the 
crooked  little  chapel  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 
The  northern  chapel  of  the  corona  or 
charolle  is  now  dedicated  to  S.  Bartholo- 
mew but  once  to  S.  Faith,  and  to  its  dedi- 
cation came  the  Bishop  of  Pampeluna 
who  had  been  a  monk  of  Conques. « 8  That 
corresponding  to  it  on  the  south,  was  S. 

So  with  the  doors:  the  first  one  named, 
that  of  the  north  transept,  is  called  S. 
Mary's,  for  it  led  to  the  Corticela;  the 
next,  the  Via  Sacray  is  still  opened  for 
A  tics  Santos.    The  third  now  goes  through 



what  was  once  the  southernmost  transept 
apse:  formerly,  it  must  have  led  out  be- 
tween the  two  little  apses  and  was  named  of 
S.  Pelayo.  The  fourth  is  called  "de  Can- 
onica";  it  opens  yet  on  the  Sacristy  where 
canons  go  to  smoke  a  cigarette  in  between 
psalms.  The  fifth  and  sixth  still  exist  in 
the  south  flank  of  the  church,  and  opened 
then  on  the  chantier;  the  seventh,  in  the 
north  flank,  was  the  grammar-school  door 
and  gave  access  to  the  Archbishop's  palace. 
The  usual  entry,  however,  for  the  episcopal 
family  seems  to  have  been  by  an  upper 
door  into  the  triforium  and  Aymery's  word 
for  that  is  usually  Palacio.  The  triforium 
had  forty-three  windows.  The  windows 
were  glazed:  the  central  chapel  had  three, 
the  clerestory  of  the  apse,  five.  This  is 
entirely  French. 

Although  the  transepts,  like  the  nave, 
have  aisles,  the  great  portals  have  two 
doorways  and  not  three:  Aymery  notes 
this  with  surprise.49  It  was  not,  however, 
uncommon  in  the  south-west  of  France,  and 
was  the  western  arrangement  at  S.  Faith 
of  Conques  and  S.  Sernin  of  Toulouse;  also 




La  Aza- 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

the  cathedral  of  Bordeaux,  though  later, 
preserves  the  regional  trait. 

The  north  door,  named  now  from  the 
Azabacheria,  the  market  for  pilgrim's 
trumpery  and  in  especial  the  jet  tokens  for 
which  Compostella  was  famous,  was  then 
called  Porta  Francigena.  Twelve  col- 
umns filled  the  door-jambs,  reliefs  the 
tympana;  and  by  an  adaptation  of  the 
Poitevin  style,  as  it  appears  variously  modi- 
fied in  Notre  Dame  la  Grande  and  in  the 
Cathedral  of  Angouleme,  the  face  of  the 
wall  above  the  doorway  carried  the  most 
important  sculpture.  Here,  in  pariete,  ap- 
peared a  great  Apocalyptic  Christ,  blessing 
with  the  book,  enthroned  within  a  mandorla 
that  the  four  evangelists  hold  up,  as  the 
angels  in  the  tympanum  at  Cahors  and 
Autun.  Eastward,  on  His  right,  the  reliefs 
show  Adam  and  Eve  created  and  enjoined; 
on  His  left,  dismissed  from  Paradise.  And 
everywhere  around,  in  a  bewildering  multi- 
tude that  will  recall  the  portals  of  Leyre 
and  Sanguesa,  and  those  of  Notre  Dame  la 
Grande  and  Conques  as  well,  are  figures 
of  saints,   and  beasts,   men  and  angels, 



women  and  flowers,  and  what  not,  past 
telling.  This  suggests  a  whole  scheme  of 
Genesis  it  1-26.  In  the  tympanum  of  the 
eastern  door,  under  a  tabernacle,  you  have 
the  Angelic  Salutation  of  the  second  Eve: 
the  angel  Gabriel  speaks  to  her : 

"Che  non  sembiava  imagine  che  tace, 
Giurato  si  saria  chei'dicesse:  Avel"so 

In  the  tympanum  of  the  western  are  the 
signs  of  the  zodiac  and  other  lovely  matters 
which  we  may  guess  to  be  the  labours  of 
the  months:  some  of  these,  and  parts  of 
the  Creation,  and  King  David  who  must 
be  counted  among  the  cloud  of  witnesses  on 
the  face  of  the  wall,  still  exist,  built  into 
the  south  side.  Finally,  the  good  Poitevin 
notes  the  odd  little  figures  high  up  on  the 
face  of  the  jamb  proper,  four  little  apostles, 
blessing  those  who  pass  through:  SS. 
Peter  and  Paul,  John  and  James.  Each 
stands  on  a  bull's  head,  like  the  saints  at 
Leon:  and  lions  flank  the  doorway,  watch- 
ing the   doors,   much   as   in   Lombardy. 



Genesis  i 

of  the 





WAY    OF     S.  JAMES 

Here,  however,  they  lean  over  and  look 
down  from  the  top  of  the  doors. 

The  northern  fagade  commemorated  the 
Creation;  the  southern,  the  Judgement; 
the  western,  the  Transfiguration.  At  the 
south  transept,  which  still  exists,  the  east- 
ern tympanum  shows  the  Betrayal,  the 
Scourging,  and  Pilate  sitting  as  one  in 
judgement:  above  that,  S.  Mary,  God's 
Mother,  with  her  son  in  Bethlehem,  and 
the  three  Kings  who  bring  offerings,  and 
the  star,  and  the  Angel  warning  them. 
On  the  other  tympanum  is  all  the  story 
of  the  temptation,  "the  evil  angels  like 
larves,  and  the  candid  angels  which  are 
the  good,"  and  what  each  offers:  and 
others  ministering  with  censers.  The  four 
apostles  guard  the  jambs,  as  before  [I 
think  that  he  is  wrong  in  one  case  and  that 
there  was,  even  then,  the  sign  of  the  Lion] 
and  four  lions  as  well,  two  below,  and  two 
more  again,  above  the  central  pier,  back  to 
back.  Eleven  columns  are  here,  carved 
with  all  manner  of  images,  flowers,  birds, 
and  the  like,  and  these  are  of  marble ;  either 
those  are  gone  and  replaced  by  others  filled 




with  kings  and  saints,  or  he  has  confused 
them  with  the  western  in  recollection. 
In  the  tympanum  appears,  thus  early,  that 
sign  of  the  Ram  that  M.  Bertaux  identified 
so  cleverly,  s  i  and  the  legend  of  the  adulter- 
ous wife  is  told  of  it  already,  how  her  hus- 
band surprised  her  lover,  and  cut  off  his 
head,  and  compelled  her  to  fondle  and  kiss 
it  twice  a  day,  while  it  corrupted  in  her 
hands.  It  was  a  bitter  and  sensual  ven- 
geance but,  after  all,  she  might  have  been 
such  a  great  lover  as  that  in  the  story  of 
William  of  Cabestang. 

Above,  on  the  face  of  the  wall,  four 
angels  trumpet  to  announce  the  Judgement 
Day,  and  Christ  stands  erect  with  S.  Peter 
on  His  left,  bearing  the  keys,  and  S. 
James  on  His  right  between  two  cypress 
trees,  and  his  brother  S.  John  alongside, 
and  the  other  apostles  spread  out  to  left 
and  right,  and  beyond  them,  and  above  and 
below,  flowers,  men,  beasts,  birds,  fish,  and 
other  works. 

The  west  door  surpasses  far  the  others: 
it  too  has  only  two  doorways,  with  many 
steps    outside,    and    columns    of    divers 



verger  s 

The  Doom 




Mount  of 


marbles,  decorated  in  many  ways:  [here 
follows  the  same  enumeration  of  all  created 
things].  Above,  is  marvellously  carved 
the  Transfiguration  upon  Mount  Tabor: 
the  Lord  in  a  white  cloud  [somewhat, 
perhaps,  like  the  crimped  clouds  of  Moissac] 
His  face  shining  like  the  sun,  His  vesture 
gleaming  as  snow;  and  the  Father  above 
speaking  to  Him,  and  Moses  and  Elias 
who  appeared  with  Him,  talking  of  the 
sacrifice  which  was  to  be  accomplished  in 
Jerusalem.  Here  also  are  SS.  James  and 
Peter  and  John  to  whom  before  all  the 
others  the  Lord  revealed  His  transfigura- 
tion. Two  things  are  to  notice  here:  that 
there  are  no  tympana,  and  that  the  descrip- 
tion has  changed  from  exact  observation 
into  something  literary.  Aymery  could  not, 
stand  close,  and  stare,  and  take  notes,  here: 
and  the  only  explanation  is  that  already 
urged,  that  if  this  first  facade  resembled 
structurally  that  at  Le  Puy,  the  steps  were 
a  very  long  way  below  the  huge  relief.  «2 

Recapitulation    may   serve,    at    this 
point.    It  is  probable  that: 




i.  Alfonso  the  Chaste  built  a  little 
brick  church,  a  local  shrine. 

2.  Alfonso  III  the  Magnanimous 
built  at  the  end  of  the  ninth  century  a 
basilica  of  the  Asturian  type  with  marble 
columns.    Almanzor  burned  this. 

3.  The  church  of  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury was  Benedictine  Romanesque,  with 
three  parallel  apses,  probably  transepts, 
and  western  towers:  the  style  of  Cluny. 

4.  The  church  of  the  twelfth  century 
belonged  to  another  French  type  of  which 
the  greatest  examples  were  S.  Martial  of 
Limoges,  S.  Sernin  of  Toulouse  and  S. 
Faith  of  Conques.  It  kept  however  the 
towers,  which  were  in  France  to  be 
handed  on  to  pure  Gothic:  it  possibly 
borrowed  a  west  end  from  Le  Puy,  and 
took  over  decoration  from  Poitou.  All 
these  regions  are  traversed  by  the  Pilgrim 
Way.  Something  Syrian  and  Byzantine 
and  something  Mohammedan,  were 
added  on  Spanish  soil. 

5.  At  the  end  of  that  century  Master 
Matthew  rebuilt  the  west  end,  with  a 
porch  or  narthex  that  shows  acquaint- 
ance with  the  Burgundian  and  with 





Master  of 
the  works 

and  sons 


WAY     OF    S.  JAMES 

Wherever  men  work  with  level  and 
square,  the  name  of  Master  Matthew 
is  revered,  with  those  of  Robert  de  Coucy 
and  Pierre  de  Chelles.  He  was  Master 
at  the  works  before  he  began  the  Gloria  in 
1 1 68:  he  had  been  living  in  Galicia  at 
least  since  1161  when  he  was  at  work  on 
the  Puente  Cesures,  the  bridge  below 
Padron.  In  11 88  he  set  the  lintel  and 
the  inscription  underneath  it: 

•fc  Anno:  Ab  Incarnatione:  Dni: 

m.°  c.°  lxxxviii.vo:  Era  IA  ccxxHvIA: 
Die  K-L,  Aprilis:  super:  liniharia: 
Principalium:  portalium. 
Ecclesiae:  Beati:  Iacobi:  sunt  collocata: 
Per:  Magistrum:  Matheum:  qui:  a 
Fundamentis:  ipsorum:  portalium: 
Eressit:  magisterium. 

He  was  secular,  married,  with  various 
sons,  one  of  whom  was  booked  to  succeed 
him  in  the  work,  as  at  Burgos  worked  the 
generations  of  Colonia  and  at  Toledo  those 
of  Egas.  The  Compostellan  School  was 
recognized  as  an  organization  from  the  end 




of  the  eleventh  century:  in  1135  Alfonso 
VII  enriched  and  protected  it  with  various 
privileges  and  exemptions:  Matthew's  post 
was  director  and  master  of  all  the  workmen 
of  this.  In  1 168  Ferdinand  II,  because  he 
held  in  his  charge  the  direction  and  magis- 
tracy of  the  works  of  the  Apostle,  granted 
him  100  maravedis  a  year  "to  be  used  for 
his  own  person  and  for  the  same  work  so 
that  he  might  see  the  completion  of  his 
art."  His  name  occurs  as  a  witness  in 
documents  of  11 89  and  1192;  in  1217  he  is 
still  working  and  is  called  Dominus:  and  in 
1352  and  1435  the  houses  in  which  he  had 
lived  in  the  Plaza  de  la  Azabacheria  were 
still  called  Master  Matthew's  houses.53 
The  kneeling  figure  beneath  the  portal,  if 
it  is  indeed  his  portrait,  in  its  strong  so- 
briety, its  inalienable  youth,  is  a  worthier 
monument  than  Peter  Vischer's  or  Adam 
Kraft's  quaint  effigies  in  Nuremberg. 

The  PMico  de  la  Gloria  is  a  narthex 
of  the  Burgundian  type,  taken  off  the 
lowest  story  of  the  nave.  Above,  the 
triforium  gallery  is  continued  over  it, 
and  opened  by  western  arches  into  the 



and  name 





and  open 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

great  nave,  precisely  as  it  is  carried  around 
the  transept  ends.  In  this  it  differs  from 
those  of  Wzelay  and  Autun,  but  conforms 
to  the  same  tradition  as  S.  Pere-sous- 
V6zelay,  the  churches  of  S.  Benigne  and 
Notre  Dame  in  Dijon,  he  Burgundian 
church  of  S.  Sepulchre  at  Barletta.  The 
cathedral  at  Chartres  which  was  burned  in 
1 1 94  approached  possibly  to  this  type,  the 
three  carved  portals  of  the  lower  story 
standing  back  in  line  with  the  eastern 
wall  of  the  towers,  kept  therefore  in  very 
low  projection;  the  affect  being  something 
like  that  of  S.  Vincent  of  Avila.  Like  S. 
Vincent,  probably,  also,  and  like  Autun, 
which  was  certainly  known  to  the  first 
builders  of  Avila,  almost  as  certainly  to 
those  of  Compostella,  the  portico  at 
Santiago  opened  westward  without  tym- 
panum or  door,  by  three  lofty  arches, 
adorned  with  statues  on  the  four  piers 
which  enframed  these.  Roland,  we  know, 
in  the  fifteenth  century,  stood  among  them, 
and  so  probably  did  Charlemagne;  and 
almost  certainly  such  effigies  of  Solomon 
and  David  as  are  built  in  at  Orense. 



From  Santiago  was  copied  the  portico 
at  Orense  called  El  Paraiso,  with  such 
scrupulous  exactitude  that  its  evidence 
may  not  be  impeached  on  points  where 
destruction  or  misinterpretation,  at  Santi- 
ago, must  be  supplied  or  corrected.  Only 
a  single  bay  in  depth,  and  three  across,  the 
porch  of  Santiago  is  ribbed  quadripartite 
vaulting  very  richly  moulded,  the  ribs  and 
arches  adorned  with  flowers  and  leaves. 
In  the  four  corners,  four  angels  trumpet  to 
Judgement.  On  the  jambs,  and  the  western 
piers,  stand  twelve  Apostles,  and  the  two 
Evangelists  who  were  not  of  the  twelve; 
prophets;  Moses,  Esther,  and  the  Queen  of 
the  South;  the  hermit  Pelayo;  two  sera- 
phim, high  in  the  outer  wall;  and  two 
angels  with  scrolls.  Over  the  doors  into 
the  aisles  the  round  arch  in  two  orders  is 
filled  with  sculpture;  the  central  door  is 
divided  and  the  head  of  it  filled  by  a 
sculptured  tympanum:  on  the  trumeau 
sits  S.  James  facing  westward,  above  a 
marble  shaft  carved  with  the  Trinity  and 
the  Tree  of  Jesse;  and  on  the  eastern  face, 
at  the  foot  a  figure  kneels,  which  im- 







WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

memorial  tradition  identifies  with  Master 
Matthew  himself.  It  is  indeed  of  the  right 
age,  with  its  smooth-shaven  cheek  and 
heavy  curls:  for  this  work,  like  the  first 
doors  of  Ghiberti  in  Florence,  belongs  to 
the  youth  of  a  long-lived  man. 

The  theme  of  the  whole  is  not  the  Last 
Judgement,  though  that  enters  in,  nor  even 
the  terrible  Four  Last  Things:  rather,  it  is 
a  theophany.  On  the  tympanum,  a  gigantic 
Christ,  seated,  shows  His. wounds,  but  the 
wide  gesture  has  more  of  blessing  in  it  than 
of  terror.  Shoulder  and  chest  bare,  He 
has  neither  book  nor  crown.  Beside  Him 
sit  the  four  evangelists,  S.  Matthew  writing, 
the  other  three  fondling  their  symbolic 
beasts,  like  the  jeune  hotntne  caressant  sa 
chimbre.  Seven  angels  display  the  instru- 
ments of  the  Passion,  and -in  the  extreme 
corner  on  the  Gospel  side  a  kneeling 
figure  testifies  and  intercedes:  this  is  not 
the  Blessed  Virgin.  It  stands  for  S.  John, 
the  brother  of  James,  the  disciple  whom 
Jesus  loved,  and  the  witness  of  the  Revel- 
ation: "and  I  John  saw  these  things  and 
heard  them."    By  the  introduction  of  this, 




the  whole  scene  comes  to  bear  to  the  Trans- 
figuration, which  it  supplanted,  the  same 
relation  as  the  Gospel  bears  to  the  Old 
Testament:  the  Transfiguration  was  of 
earth,  transitory,  and  a  type:  this  is  eternal 
in  the  heavens. 

In  the  upper  part  of  the  tympanum,  on 
either  side,  are  crowded  tiny  figures,  the 
multitude  whom  no  man  could  number,  in 
their  washed  robes,  who  shall  see  His  face, 
and  His  name  shall  be  on  their  foreheads. 
Above  the  piers,  on  either  hand,  angels 
gather  up  little  naked  souls,  "who  are  just 
born,  being  dead  ";  they  shelter  them  in 
the  folds  of  their  garments,  carry  them  in 
their  bosoms,  bringing  them  to  swell  the 
number.  54  Across  the  archivolt,  on  the 
radius  of  the  arch,  are  seated  the  four- 
and-twenty  elders,  making  music  on 
divers  instruments.  Beneath  the  feet  of 
Christ,  which  rest  on  the  springing  foli- 
age of  the  Tree  of  Life,"  the  capital  of 
the  trumeau  depicts  on  its  four  faces  the 
scenes  of  the  Temptation,  the  intention 
of  which  turns  on  Hebrews  i,  3,  ii,  18, 
iv,  14-15,  this  being  one  called  of  God 





The  great 
and  famous 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

a  high  priest  after  the  order  of  Mel- 

The  grand  figure  of  S.  James  seated 
here  with  Tau-staff  and  scroll  from  which 
the  writing  was  erased  long  since —  "Misit 
me  Dominus"  it  read — is  perhaps  the  most 
magnificent  single  figure  of  the  Roman- 
esque age:  his  throne  rests  on  the  backs  of 
lions,  but  his  bare  feet  on  cool  green  leaf- 
age. s6  The  capital  of  the  carved  shafts 
which  fills  the  remainder  of  this  space,  is 
dedicated  to  the  Trinity:  the  Dove  hover- 
ing above  the  Ancient  of  Days  who  holds 
the  Son  enthroned  upon  his  lap  as  in  a 
Sedes  Majestatis.  Angels  adore  with  in- 
cense and  offerings.  This  motive  is  very 
rare:  I  recall  it  however  at  Soria,  on  the 
church  of  S.  Thomas. 

The  rest  of  the  shaft  is  carved  most 
marvellously  with  the  Tree  of  Jesse,  that 
culminates  in  an  exquisite  young  prin- 
cess, crowned,  with  long  plaited  tresses 
like  the  Virgin  of  Solsona,  but  without 
the  Holy  Child.  This  is  not  Mary  Vir- 
gin, the  lily-flower  on  the  rod  of  Jesse;  it 
is  Mary  Salome,  the  mother  of  Dominus 



Jacobus,  whom  a  hymn  calls  preclarafilia 

In  hardly  any  other  church  the  Mother 
of  God  gets  so  little  attention:  the  high 
altar  is  occupied  by  S.  James,  the  place  of 
the  Lady  chapel  by  the  altar  of  S.  Saviour, 
in  the  chapel  which  celebrates  the  Feast  of 
the  Transfiguration;  the  statues  that  flank 
the  transepts  on  the  Gospel  and  Epistle 
side  are  James  Minor  and  Mary  Salome 
the  Mother;  the  place  in  the  porch,  among 
descendants  of  David,  is  usurped  by  the 
younger  sister.  In  each  of  the  transept 
portals  she  figured  once,  in  a  symbolic 
capacity:  on  the  north,  as  the  second  Eve, 
on  the  south,  as  present  when  the  Kings  of 
Earth  brought  their  riches  for  an  offering. 
Now-a-days,  as  in  many  Spanish  churches, 
the  altar  of  the  trascoro  is  dedicated  to  her 
of  Soledad;  her  widow's  veil  and  heavy 
weeds  draw  crowds  there  to  the  morning 

The  door  of  the  south  aisle  represents 
the  Judgement,  in  a  form  which,  like  all 
the  imagery  at  Santiago,  presupposes  a 
good  knowledge  of  Scripture  but  also  some 



digna  pro- 



But  the 
is  all  past 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

acquaintance  with  apocryphal  and  tradi- 
tional lore.  At  the  centre  of  the  outer 
archivolt,  a  bust  of  Christ  with  the  cross- 
marked  nimbus  and  the  hair  white  like 
wool,  bearded,  not  very  young,  in  the  aspect 
of  the  Eternal  Word,  delivers  the  sentences 
upon  two  scrolls  (the  words  are  still  painted 
on  those  at  Orense),  the  Come,  ye  blessed  of 
my  Father y  and,  Depart  from  me!  In  the 
order  below  appears  the  Angel  Michael,  he 
who  weighs  souls,  in  adolescent  beauty, 
with  other  scrolls;  and  on  the  Lord's  right 
hand,  angels  gather  and  cherish  little  souls, 
and  the  elect  abide  in  Abraham's  bosom; 
on  His  left,  correspondingly,  four  devils 
champ  and  mangle  a  multitude  of  the 
wretched  reprobate.  In  the  outer  rim, 
which  is  carved  at  the  north  door  with 
leaves  and  in  the  central  with  flowers, 
another  row  of  figures  finds  place  here,  that 
represents  the  Wise  and  Foolish  Virgins; 
the  former  five,  in  wedding  garments,  some 
just  waking  from  sleep,  some  holding  up 
their  lamps;  the  other  five  tormented 
horribly  for  their  sins.  The  sins  here  are 
explicit:  gluttony  reaches  for  grapes,  pride 


Blue  Hydrangeas 



has  a  beast  tearing  at  the  brain,  envy  a 
crocodile  biting  her  tongue,  luxuria  is  past 
describing,  wrath  is  figured  as  that  woman 
"wearing  at  breast  a  suckling  snake  "  who 
reappears  at  Sanguesa  and  at  Moissac  and 

The  north  door  is  more  recondite:  some 
have  sought  to  see  in  the  ten  little  figures 
and  their  Master,  book  in  hand,  all  sitting 
in  amid  stiff  luxuriant  leafage,  the  ten 
Beatitudes,  and  others  in  those  ten  who 
lean  over  the  great  torus  moulding  of  the 
outer  order,  with  scrolls,  the  souls  of  those 
yet  held  in  the  bonds  of  death  but  found 
acceptable,  with  the  works  they  did  in 
statu  vitae.  Plastically  the  composition  is 
easy  to  account  for  by  a  reference  to  the 
figures  similarly  held  inside  a  chain,  over 
the  main  portal  of  S.  Croix  at  Bordeaux. 
The  motive  occurs,  also,  at  Toro,  on  the 
north  door.  Symbolically,  the  learned 
Benedictine  Dom  Roulin58  interprets  the 
leafage  as  the  locus  pascuae  of  the  twenty- 
third  psalm,  which  in  the  Alexandrian 
liturgy  is  "virentia  et  amoena  loca  para- 





Paradise  of 

the  West 

Also  for 
S.  Agnese 
in  Via 

WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

Yes,  these  little  figures  all  embowered 
are  the  souls  expectant  which  await  the 
resurrection  of  the  body,  in  the  Paradise 
of  God.  TundalTs  Vision  makes  that 
plain.  Here  there  seem  to  be  fusion  or 
confusion  of  the  Paradise  of  the  West 
which  figures  in  classical  and  Celtic  legend, 
where  the  deathless  enjoy  green  trees  and 
bird-songs,  as  well  as  tall  grass  and  sea- 
cold  springs,  with  the  Earthly  Paradise 
situate  in  Asia  somewhere,  there  where 
Shelley  lays  the  loveliest  scene  of  his 
Prometheus,  where  the  Phoenix  goes  to 
renew  his  ageless  immortality,  where  Our 
Lady  tends  the  unborn  souls  who  live  in 
the  trees  and  sing  perpetually.  Thus 
Lazzaro  Bastiani  painted  them  on  the 
organ-doors  of  S.  Anne's  in  Venice.  An 
unknown  Roman  painted  them  also  in  the 
Catacombs  for  the  cemetery  of  SS.  Peter 
and  Marcellinus  where  on  one  side  stands 
the  Gentle  Shepherd,  a  lamb  over  His 
shoulders  and  two  springing  up  to  lick 
his  hands:  on  the  other,  the  Good  Lady, 
beguiling  two  birds  which  flit  about  in  the 
branches  of  the  Tree  of  Life.     The  Par- 



adise  of  Souls  is  recalled  again,  for  a 
moment,  in  Spain  two  centuries  later, 
where  on  the  western  portal  at  Toro  and 
Ciudad  Rodrigo,  in  forms  derived  from 
France,  the  Doom  figures,  and  S.  Peter 
admits  the  redeemed  through  a  gate  into 
a  fair  garden  full  of  trees  and  greenery,  and 
the  little  souls  walk  under  the  shade,  and 
look  out  from  openings  in  the  bowers.59 

The  bases  of  the  clustered  shafts  rest 
on  crouching  monsters,  splendid  and  not 
ignoble,  grotesque  yet  terrible,  that  stand 
for  sins:  griffin-beaked,  some,  or  lion- 
headed,  with  claw  and  hoof,  with  wing 
and  tail,  strong  and  deadly.  One  figure 
is  wrath,  one  lust,  and  avarice  and  envy 
may  be  guessed  at,  but  of  the  meaner  sins, 
of  sloth  and  gluttony,  one  can  hardly 
make  sure,  and  the  wrinkled  lips  and  sneer 
of  cold  command,  proper  to  pride,  appear 
repeatedly.  The  trumeau  rests  on  a 
prostrate  man  hugging  two  Kons,  whose 
intention  once  was  indicated  by  the  scroll 
he  bears,  now  blank. 

The  figures  who  stand  close  upon  the 
jambs  are  not  easy  to  make  sure  of:  the 




Garden  of 








WAY     OF     S.    JAMES 

words  have  faded  from  their  scrolls.  Sr. 
Lopez  Ferreiro's  identification  of  them 
does  not  correspond  with  the  figures  at 
Orense,  where,  in  all  other  respects,  the 
imitation  was  close,  nor  yet  does  it  agree 
with  what  is  known  of  the  iconography  of 
the  Apostles  in  Eastern  and  Spanish  art. 
Certainly  the  figures  on  the  north  and 
left-hand  side,  counting  from  the  tru- 
meau,  are  taken  from  the  Old  Testament, 
although  that  is  the  right  hand  of  Christ, 
and  those  on  the  south  are  Apostles.  They 
are  as  follows: 

North  aisle:  Left,  Obadiah  and  Joel; 
right,  Amos  and  Moses;  this  last  is  im- 
possible, perhaps  Habbakkuk. 

Centre:  Left,  Jeremiah  (the  scroll  is 
said  to  have  been  lately  decipherable), 
Daniel,  Isaiah,  Moses  with  the  tables: 
right,  SS.  Peter  of  the  keys,  Andrew 
the  Greek  bishop  (though  possibly  Paul), 
Philip,  and  James  Minor. 

South  aisle:  Left,  SS.  Thomas  and 
Bartholomew;  right,  SS.  Simon  and  Jude. 
The  inner  figure  here,  the  next  to  the 
last,  is  plainly  out  of  place.     He  is  by 




rights  a  prophet  and  should  be  inter- 
changed with  that  in  the  same  place 
on  the  north  door;  then  both  will  look 
toward  the  central  Christ..  Of  the  re- 
maining three  apostles,  two  are  Evan- 
gelists and  the  third  has  the  place  of 
.  honour. 

These  figures,  with  the  central  seated 
S.  James,  constitute  the  noblest  figure- 
sculpture  between  the  Roman  age  and  the 
Gothic,  between  the  arch  of  Trajan  and  the 
sculptures  of  Chartres.  If  M.  de  Lasteyrie 
is  right,60  they  are  earlier  than  even  the 
kings  and  queens  of  the  western  portal 
there.  Now  that  Paris  is  restored  and 
Rheums-  is  ruined,  the  Gloria,  as  a  whole, 
is  the  most  superb  monument  of  the 
Middle  Age  that  we  possess.  Chartres  is 
more  beautiful,  this  is  more  virile. 

Apart  from  that  single  figure,  it  is*  hard 
to  say  what  is  earlier  or  later,  master's 
work  or  pupil's:  the  whole  is  the  fruit  of  a 
single  brain,  like  Phidias's.  The  Christ  is 
archaic  of  course,  even  at  Amiens  He  is  that, 
and  the  arrangement  of  angels  in  the  lower 



and  Gothic 





WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

row  and  the  crowding  multitude  in  white 
raiment,  and  all  that  is  not  in  one  scale,  is 
an  admission  of  hesitation,  but  other  ten- 
tatives  there  are  none.  The  kings,  the 
apostles  and  prophets,  the  side  archivolts 
and  angels,  have  an  achieved  perfection. 
I  fancy  the  right  door  earlier  than  the  left, 
and  I  judge  from  two  statues  in  the  Mu- 
seum of  S.  Clemente  that  after  the  portal 
came  the  angels  and  the  witnesses  that  face 
east,  Solomon  and  Saba  the  Precursor,  and 
Judith  in  the  Spanish  widow's  garb,  a  long 
veil  over  all.  Last  came  the  outer  figures, 
now  gone.  This  conclusion  comes  on 
studying  the  drapery  and  faces,  which 
grow  a  little  freer:  without  so  much  of 
difference  as  between  the  north  and  south 
porches  of  Chartres,  but  somewhat  like 
that  in  kind.  In  the  ends  are  four  angels 
trumpeting;  two  with  scrolls  on  the  east 
face  of  the  central  piers,  two  wing-folded 
seraphs  like  knights  with  long  shields,  and 
the  central  figures  all  adoring  toward  the 

Here,  in  this  portal,  appear  all  stages 
of  the  statuary's  art,  from  unmitigated 



dogma  in  the  central  tympanum  to  pure 
arabesque  in  the  lateral  carved  shafts. 
Much  of  the  leafage,  well  curled  over,  is  a 
very  beautiful  variant  of  the  acanthus,  free, 
soft,  sappy,  and  rather  strong,  which  does 
a  little  suggest  the  Gallegan  cabbage  of  the 
field,  and  the  name  is  convenient.  In 
another  form,  the  leaf  curls  little  but  is 
twisted  on  the  bell  of  the  capital.  This, 
Spanish  architects  call  Santiaguese.  The 
figures  in  cast  of  feature  are  quite  Gallegan, 
but  the  style  is  referable  in  certain  respects 
to  Chartres,  in  others  to  the  great  school  of 
Toulouse.  It  is  precisely  in  the  turning 
of  one  to  another,  the  placing  and  move- 
ment of  the  bodies,  that  these  Apostles 
recall  those  of  S.  Etienne,  but  the  chantier 
that  had  existed  for  a  hundred  years  when 
these  came  to  be  made,  has  a  tang  of  the 
soil:  they  are  racy,  regional,  and  varonil. 
It  is  hard  to  remember,  looking  at  the  San- 
tiago, that  this  is  of  the  twelfth  century: 
not  France  nor  Italy  can  show  anything  so 
final.  It  was  the  last  thing  in  place,  pro- 
bably, and  is  ripe  with  the  wisdom  of  a 
whole  laborious  life,  and  triumphant  with 



and  varonil 






Brother  of 
the  Lord 

WAY    OF     S.  JAM  ES 

the  approved  strength  of  an  immense 

About  the  end  of  July,  toward  six  o'clock 
in  the  evening,  when  the  sun  lies  pale  on 
archivolt  and  capital,  and  the  church  is 
empty  and  echoing,  they  are  like  all  the 
sacred  company  of  heaven.  Fixed  in 
their  changeless  smile,  they  hold  eternal 
colloquy;  with  unalterable  gesture,  in  a 
sort  of  immutable  life,  they  abide  in  per- 

The  Christ  himself  is  not  the  Victor  of 
the  Psalmist  for  whom  gates  lift  up  their 
heads  and  the  everlasting  doors  are  lifted 
up,  but  the  apparition  of  the  Apocalyptic 
Vision:  not  the  King  of  Glory,  but  the 
terrible  Victim,  gigantic,  with  hair  white 
like  wool,  mouth  passionless,  and  ageless 
eyes.  But  James  the  brother  of  the  Lord 
has  the  likeness  of  His  humanity,  worn 
and  very  beautiful,  graver  than  mild,  and 
deeper  than  serene.  His  chair  is  set  on 
lions  for  indomitable  strength,  but  his  feet 
are  planted  firmly  and  the  staff  is  set  be- 
tween his  knees — those  bare  feet  of  the 
tireless  journey,  that  staff  of  the  uncounted 



miles,  going  to  and  fro  upon  the  earth  and 
finding  no  place  wherein  to  abide.  His 
eyes  look  further  than  he  has  ever  gone 
but  he  sits  quietly  at  last. 









WAY     OF    S.  J  AMES 




He  was  a  great  man, 
good  at  many  things,  and 
now  he  has  attained  this 
also,  to  be  at  rest,'* 

In  1077  Bishop  Diego  Pelaez  signed  an  im- 
portant document  which  refers  to  the  com- 
mencement of  the  works:  in  1087  or  1088 
he  was  deposed  and  in  prison,  accused  of 
conspiring  with  Normans  and  English  to 
invade  the  city  and  kingdom.  Peter  II, 
whilom  Abbot  of  Cardena,  was  elected  to 
succeed  him;  that  is  to  say  a  Castilian, 
-eckoned  by  Royalty  a  safe  friend.  After 
him  came  Bishop  Dalmatius,  formerly  of 
Cluny,  to  whom  Urban  II  gave  great  con- 
cessions. He  went  on  a  visit  to  Cluny  and 
died  there  in  1095;  at  the  news  of  his  death 




Diego  went  to  Rome  and  tried  to  be  re- 

The  Bishop  of  Santiago  was  a  great 
temporal  lord.  A  proverb  says:  "Obispo 
de  Santiago,  bacula  y  ballesta,"  which 
means  being  interpreted  that  the  Bishop 
can  wield  cross  and  cross-bow.  He  was 
lord  of  the  city,  all  citizens  being  subject 
to  him  and  to  his  courts,  with  all  law  suits 
civil  and  criminal;  and  also  of  a  wide  dis- 
trict in  which  he  raised  troops  and  led  them 
himself.  He  had  an  organized  body  of 
knights  to  receive  his  orders  and  come  at 
his  summons.  Diego  Pelaez,  with  his  an- 
cient Spanish  name,  had  a  part  in  the  great 
losing  fight  to  keep  Spain  for  Spaniards, 
against  the  usurpation  of  Rome  and  the 
ascendancy  of  Cluny.  A  Spanish  writer 
has  said  that  in  this  struggle  Cluny  played 
the  part  of  the  trained  elephant  which 
beguiles  and  coerces  the  wild1:  Gallician 
liberty  being  lost,  the  great  abbey  came  in 
to  help  reduce  the  Spanish  Church.  If  old 
Diego  turned  for  help  where  he  could,  to 
the  overflowing  strength  of  Normandy,  and 
the  English  who  were  Normans  in  1087,  he 



BAcula  y 


Espafla  ! 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

showed  wisdom,  for  the  Normans  and  their 
establishments  for  a  hundred  years  more 
were  not  particularly  subservient  to  the 
chair  of  Peter,  in  England  or  in  Sicily.  The 
alliance  with  England  was  tried  a  dozen 
times,  not  the  last  being  that  of  Philip  II 
and  Mary  Tudor,  out  of  which  came  the 
expedition  of  the  Armada.  The  trend  of 
things,  however,  was  too  strong  for  the  old 
Bishop,  and  the  other  party,  that  sent  him 
packing,  put  in  men  with  a  thousand 
French  connections.  They  were  to  find,  in 
the  end,  that  their  own  creature,  raised 
from  a  simple  clerk  to  the  pallium  and  the 
primacy,  dreamed  in  his  Spanish  heart  of 
setting  on  high  his  Apostolic  seat,  to  be 
with  Jerusalem  and  Rome  equal  and  co- 
ordinate, a  Tertium  Quid  in  Christendom. 
When  after  some  hard  fighting  Diego 
Pelaez  drops  out  of  sight,  his  epitaph  in 
F16rez  is  that  he  was  a  man  of  a  great  spirit, 
but  not  lucky. 

Raymond  and  Urraca,  the  count  and 
countess  of  Galicia,  in  1090  had  for  chan- 
cellor a  clerk  named  Diego  Gelmirez.  He 
was  by  1094  administrator  of  the  diocese, 
— — ^ — — , —  -- 



and  with  Bishop  Dalmatius  went  to  the 
Council  of  Clermont.  He  founded,  or 
perhaps  restored,  the  old  hospice  of  San- 
tiago opposite  the  north  door,  he  pushed 
on  the  cathedral  building  also,  and  in  noo 
he  received  subdeacon's  orders  in  Rome. 
Then  he  was  elected  Bishop.  He  made  sure 
of  the  strong  help  of  Bernard  of  Toledo, 
himself  a  Frenchman  and  a  monk  of  Cluny, 
and  he  was  going  to  Rome  for  consecration, 
but  Diego  Pelaez,  in  alliance  with  Peter  I 
of  Aragon,  held  all  the  roads  into  France. 
Therefore  the  Bishop  of  Maguelonne  conse- 
crated him,  noi,  in  conjunction  with  those 
of  Lugo,  Tuy,  and  Mondonedo,  the  point 
being  apparently  that  while  Braga  was  the 
Metropolitan,  the  Pope  was  the  proper  and 
immediate  lord,  and  nothing  was  wanted 
from  Toledo.  An  understanding  of  this 
sort  was,  of  course,  equally  good  for  popes 
and  bishops.  In  1 102  he  began  a  palace  to 
entertain  visiting  bishops,  such  men  as  that 
of  Pampeluna  who  had  just  consecrated 
an  altar  to  S.  Faith.  It  is  pleasant  to 
remember  that  intercourse  went  on,  be- 
tween S.  Faith  of  Conques  and  the  greater 



The  clerk 






and  the 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

church.  The  palace  is  described  as  having 
three  vaulted  rooms  above  the  ground 
floor,  and  a  high  and  spacious  tower.  The 
Candnica  he  also  rebuilt.  He  planned  a 
cloister,  but  only  got  as  far  as  the  fountain 
basin  in  which  fifteen  men  could  bathe,  this 
was  used  later  for  the  Par  also  on  the  north 
side.  There  was  trouble  in  the  Chapter 
about  rebuilding  the  High  Altar :  the  canons 
wanting  to  keep  the  old  one.  He  gave  it, 
finally,  to  the  Monastery  of  Antealtares, 
whither  the  precious  altar  and  column  of 
S.  James  had  already  proceeded  in  1077 
when  Abbot  Fagildo  had  to  move.  But 
inside  the  new  altar  was  enclosed  still  the 
oldest  of  all;  so  the  chronicle.  The  silver 
frontal  was  finished  in  1105,  the  baldachin 
by  1 1 12. 

In  these  years  Gelmirez  pulled  down 
three  churches  and  rebuilt  them;  first  that 
of  S.  Cruz  on  the  height  called  Montjoy, 
or  Manxoi,  a  hillock  covered  with  pines  to 
the  right  of  the  Lugo  road,  very  popular 
in  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries, 
abandoned  in  the  seventeenth.  Today  you 
can  hardly  see  its  foundations.     It  was 




called  also  Capilla  del  Cuerpo  Santo,  from 
one  of  the  Miracles  of  S.  James,  in  the 
matter  of  a  Lorrain  who  stayed  with  a  sick 
friend  in  Gascony,  1080.  Then  he  rebuilt 
that  of  S.  Sepulcro,  called  thereafter, 
from  the  relics  he  had  secured  in  Portugal, 
S.  Susanna,  which  stands  on  a  hilltop  in  the 
midst  of  cattle-market:  thirdly,  that  of  the 
Sar,  for  nuns,  whom  he  installed  11 29. 
There  is  a  tradition  that  this  church  was 
founded  by  a  French  lady,  called  Rusinda, 
whose  lover  Alberic  had  died  on  the  jour- 
ney. There  she  buried  him  and  there  she 
stayed.  The  Bishop  planted  for  his  nuns 
orchards  of  apple,  cherry,  and  other  fruits, 
and  started  fish-pools  in  the  Sar.  He  did 
also  much  work  abroad,  for  instance  at 
S.  Martin  de  Tiobre,  and  at  Cacabelos,  as 
elsewhere  mentioned. 

In  his  day  the  church  had  seventy-two 
canons,  of  whom  two  became  bishops  of 
Leon,  orie  of  Oporto,  one  of  Mondofiedo, 
and  two  cardinals,  and  one  an  Archbishop; 
all  these  three  being  bishops  at  one  time 

S.  Giraldo,  Archbishop  of  Braga,  Diego, 


Miracle  IV 

Bishop  of  Orense,  Alfonso,  Bishop  of  Tuy. 


A  great 


Pilgrim  8 
as  Couriers 

of  Cluny 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

They,  like  the  rest,  had  to  take  their  week 
of  service  when  it  came  in  rotation,  and 
when  the  Cardinal  of  Rome,  Deusdedit, 
was  canon  later,  he  writes  to  Gelmirez 
(mi)  to  send  him  the  date  of  his  week  by 
the  first  pilgrims  setting  out  for  Rome. 
They  had  a  common  table  and  a  common 
dormitory,  but  some  had  also  their  own 
houses,  whence  apparently  they  sent  to  the 
kitchen  for  their  meals.  Only  seven  seem 
to  have  been  priests,  or  cardinals,  the  rest 
were  in  deacon's  orders.  The  offerings  of 
the  week  were  counted  on  Sunday,  and  the 
canon  of  the  week  got  a  third;  of  the  re- 
maining portion  one  third  went  to  the 
fabric,  one  third  to  the  Prelate,  one  third 
for  a  meal  in  the  canonical  refectory.  Of 
the  offerings  at  the  altar  of  S.  Cross  and 
that  of  the  Magdalen,  half  was  for  the 
hospital  of  pilgrims. 

He  found  the  canons  living  more  like 
soldiers  than  clerks:  he  introduced  the  rites 
and  style  of  the  churches  of  France.  I  am 
not  sure  whether  this  means  that  the  Moz- 
arabic  use  had  persisted  until  then.  It  does 
mean,    amongst   other   things,   that  the 



canons  must  come  shaven,  in  surplice  and 
cope,  they  having  been  used  to  come 
spurred  and  cloaked  and  apparently  with 
three  days'  beard.  He  improved  the 
school,  that  taught  oratory  and  logic,  and 
fetched  a  doctor,  Robert,  from  the  school 
of  Salerno  to  teach.  He  continually  sent 
canons  who  showed  promise,  to  France, 
probably  to  Paris,  for  study,  besides  send- 
ing frequent  embassies  to  Rome,  Cluny 
and  other  great  later  centres  of  culture. 
His  Maestrescuela,  he  sought  in  Pistoja, 
Ramiro,  a  skilled  musician  who  had  studied 
in  Quintonia  a  city  of  England:  is  this  S. 
Mary  Winton?  One  of  the  authors  of  the 
Historia  is  a  Frenchman  called  Hugh,  who 
was  to  become  Bishop  of  Oporto. 

The  canons  had  to  swear  (this  was  in 
1 102)  to  be  always  and  in  all  things  faithful 
and  obedient,  to  defend  his  life  and  person 
and  exalt  his  dignity.     They  hated  him 

quite  wonderfully.  They  had,  however, 
plenty  of  dignity  of  their  own:  they  call 
themselves  cardinals  and  dress  in  scarlet, 
remarks  Sobieski.2  Finally  he  commis- 
sioned the  canon  Munio  Alfonso  and  the 




to  Win- 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

French  clerk  Hugh  to  write  the  Historic 

In  1 104  he  went  to  Rome,  visiting  on 
the  way  the  possessions  of  Compostella  in 
Gascony,  in  the  dioceses  of  Bayonne,  Agen, 
Auch,  Toulouse  and  Aix:  he  stayed  at 
Moissac,  Cahors,  Uzerches,  Limoges,  and 
thence  came  to  Cluny  visiting  Abbot 
Hugh.  The  community  came  out  in  pro- 
cession to  meet  him  and  the  old  abbot 
gave  him  counsel,  to  the  effect  that  the 
Court  of  Rome  was,  as  we  say,  down  on 
Santiago.  The  Council  of  Rheims,  1049, 
had  excommunicated  Bishop  Cresconico 
for  using  the  title  "Bishop  of  the  Apo- 
stolic See." 

Only  forty  years  earlier,  as  I  pause  to 
note,  some  Milanese  clergy  had  denied  the 
jurisdiction  of  Rome  over  the  Ambrosian 
church,  and  it  was  not  until  two  hundred 
years  later  (in  1303)  that  Spanish  bishops 
began  to  call  themselves  such  by  the  Grace 
of  God  and  of  the  Church  of  Rome. 3  The 
fisherman's  successors  were  fighting  hard 
for  dominance.  The  great  Pope  Gregory 
once  called  his  own  instrument  maldito, 




and  wrote  Abbot  Hugh  to  fetch  him  home 
again4;  and  Pons  of  Cluny,  the  friend  and 
councillor  of  Gelmirez  later,  for  prodigality, 
luxury  and  ambition  was  excommunicated 
by  Pope  Honorius  with  all  his  particular 
adherents — the  word  is  his  "push." s 

S.  Hugh,  who  possibly  had  visited  San- 
tiago in  1090,  reminded  the  Bishop  that  his 
predecessor  Dalmatius  at  the  Council  of 
Clermont,  though  habit-brother  of  Urban 
II,  and  though  supported  by  many  great 
prelates  in  his  application  for  the  Pall,  did 
not  get  it.  "This  may  be  due,"  concluded 
the  old  monk,  "to  the  way  one  earlier 
prelate  treated  a  Roman  legate:  'Go,'  said 
he  to  his  clergy,  'meet  this  cardinal  and 
treat  him  as  he  treated  you  in  Rome.' 
That  was  a  mistake.  Go  on  to  Rome,  but 
don't  ask  for  the  Pall  yourself."  However, 
Gelmirez  got  it.  He  went  by  S.  Jean  de 
Maurienne  and  Susa,  by  the  old  road  of 
travellers  before  the  railway;  and  he  was 
the  first  bishop  of  Santiago  of  whom  there 
was  a  memory,  to  visit  Rome;  and  he  pro- 
tested his  entire  submission  to  Roman 




So  went 



Alfonso  of 



WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

He  kept  somewhat  out  of  politics  in  the 
years  noo  to  mi;  then  he  seems  to  have 
led  the  organized  revolt  against  Alfonso  of 
Aragon,  in  the  name  of  Urraca  and  the  child 
Alfonso,  Raymond's  son.  September  27, 
mi,  he  anointed  the  child  of  seven  and 
put  sword  and  sceptre  in  his  hands,  crown 
on  his  head,  and  set  him  on  the  pontifical 
throne.  The  coronation  banquet  he  held 
in  the  Episcopal  palace,  with  all  the  great 
Gallegan  nobles  enacting  their  titular  r61es, 
bearing  bason  and  cup,  undressing  the 
King,  and  putting  him  to  bed. 

They  started  with  him  for  Leon:  Lugo 
opened  her  gates  at  the  summons:  they 
spent  a  night  at  Viadangos  on  the  old 
Roman  road,  and  there  they  were  caught 
by  the  cavalry  of  Aragon.  D.  Fernando, 
Count  of  Traba,  was  killed,  Pedro  Ansurez 
taken  prisoner,  but  D.  Diego  got  away  with 
the  boy  and  found  a  refuge  in  Astorga. 
Thence  with  the  queen  and  young  king  he 
went  home. 

The  Queen  called  a  Corks  in  Compostella 
for  Easter,  then  wandered  about  Galicia, 
apparently  looking  for  things  to  give  to 



Santiago,  odd  granges  and  villages  and 
little  stray  churches.  She  got  up  an  army 
to  invade  Castile,  and  from  Triacastela 
sent  D.  Diego  back.  Alfonso  of  Aragon, 
meanwhile,  had  taken  what  he  could  get, 
especially  in  the  churches;  for  instance,  at 
Sahagun  a  Lignum  Cruris,  on  Palm  Sunday 
of  1 1 12.  He  had  fetched  from  Aragon 
three  hundred  knights  and  slingers  {lorica- 
dos),  was  defeated,  and  had  to  shut  himself 
up  in  Carri6n.  The  nobility  and  clergy 
were  for  Urraca,  the  burghers  for  Alfonso, 
those  of  Najera,  Burgos,  Carri6n,  Palencia, 
Sahagun,  and  Leon.  She,  while  she  be- 
sieged, was  considering  the  jewellery  of 
Saragossa,  presents  from  the  Moorish 
king;  meanwhile  Galicia  rebelled,  and  was 
sacked  by  an  English  pirate  fleet  on  the 
way  to  Palestine.  Possibly  these  ships 
came  from  the  Orkneys,  under  Jarl  Hakon 
Paalsson. 6 

On  May  30,  11 13,  the  Gallegan  army 
left  Santiago  by  the  pilgrim's  road  to  come 
to  her  assistance.  They  kept  meeting 
pilgrims  with  sorry  tales.  Urraca  was 
angry  because  it  was  slow  in  coming.    She 



Alfonso  of 


D.  Diego 
in  Castile 

A  Lom- 
bard hat 


WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

was  now  in  Carri6n  and  Alfonso  was  march- 
ing on  Burgos,  which  hastened  the  re- 
conciliation between  the  soldiers  and  the 
Queen  and  together  they  gained  the  hills 
above  Burgos,  where  D.  Diego  celebrated 
Mass  and  preached,  on  Midsummer  Day. 
Thence  they  struck  over  to  Atapuerca. 
Nothing  seems  to  have  happened,  except  a 
general  meeting  in  the  cloister  of  S.  Mary 
of  Burgos,  at  which  D.  Diego  denounced 
any  reunion  of  the  King  and  Queen.  They 
had  been  separated  on  the  usual  ground  of 
consanguinity,  though,  as  old  Briz  Martinez 
says,  they  were  no  more  near  of  kin  than 
when  they  married  and  the  Pope  and 
bishops  had  known  everything  then.  It 
must  be  remembered  however  that  Alfonso 
had  supported  Diego  Pelaez,  which  may 
have  influenced  the  Bishop.  The  crowd 
was  ill-pleased  with  him,  and  he  did  no 
good.  He  was  mobbed  in  Carrion,  and  got 
away  in  a  red  cloak  and  a  Lombard  hat; 
he  reached  home  in  August. 

Then  D.  Pedro  Froilaz  "came  in,"  as  the 
Scots  put  it,  with  royal  gifts  and  all  his 
family,  the  matter  being  the  recognition  of 



the  young  king.  He  was  Count  of  Traba. 
Alfonso  was  busy  conquering  Saragossa: 
he  had  kept  Castrojeriz,  Carrion,  and  the 
other  towns,  but  did  little  there.  Urraca, 
who  was  really  a  terrible  woman,  went 
into  Galicia:  she  planned  to  imprison  D. 
Diego  and  the  Count,  but  failed:  then  she 
came  back,  insisting  on  an  interview  with 

After  three  days  he  met  her,  behind  the 
quire  of  the  cathedral,  surrounded  with 
armed  men.  The  negotiations  were  long, 
and  she  had  to  leave  hostages,  twenty 
knights,  in  pledge,  ten  Gallegans  and  ten 
others.  She 'collected  in  Galicia  the  ten, 
but  no  more. 

In  1115  Ali  ben  Mamon  the  Admiral  of 
the  Almoravide  king,  raided  the  coast,  as 
well  as  Catalonia,  France,  Sicily,  Italy  and 
Constantinople,  and  thereafter  Syria. 7  D. 
Diego  sent  to  Genoa,  Pisa,  and  Aries  for 
shipbuilders;  a  Genoese  called  Engerio  or 
Angerio  came,  and  built  in  Iria  two  galleys 
which  sacked,  burned,  and  ruined.  Where 
they  landed,  they  burned  houses  and 
grain  fields,  cut  down  trees  and  vines,  de- 



Arms  to 
meet  the 



Raids  into 



WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

stroyed  and  sacked  mosques — the  reader 
pauses  here  to  remember  the  Spanish  testi- 
mony to  Almanzor's  conduct  in  Santiago — 
after  committing  all  sorts  of  outrages  in 
them,  cut  the  throats  of  women  and  child- 
ren, or  loaded  with  chains  those  that 
seemed  likeliest  for  slaves.  When  the 
galleys  were  crammed  they  came  back  and 
in  the  partition  gave  one  fifth  to  the  Prelate 
including  gold  and  silver,  besides  his  share 
as  lord  of  the  two  galleys.  In  return, 
Seville  and  Lisbon  blockaded  the  ports  of 
Galicia  for  five  years  with  twenty  ships, 
then  D.  Diego  broke  the  blockade  and  did 
the  same  again. 

At  the  end  of  1116,  the  young  Alfonso, 
who  had  been  learning  war  under  the  Count 
of  Traba,  sent  to  claim  his  rights,  and  came 
with  his  party  to  enforce  them.  Met  by 
D.  Diego  at  Padr6n,  in  the  cathedral  of 
Santiago  he  took  possession  of  his  kingdom. 
Dona  Urraca  stayed  in  Mellid  and  gathered 
her  forces.  The  people  of  Compostella  rose, 
for  "without  the  right  to  rise,  and  without 
changing  masters  at  every  step,  they  can- 
not conceive  liberty,"  says  the  Composld- 



lana;  and  a  conspiracy  in  the  palace  was 
directed  to  the  same  end,  toward  the  Queen. 
Gelmirez  had  to  fortify  himself  in  the 
church  towers,  while  the  populace  and  sol- 
diery sacked  and  pillaged  below,  and  he 
had  to  accept  the  Queen's  conditions.  Hie 
townsfolk  formed  an  Hermandad  or  confra- 
ternity of  which  the  Queen  was  Lady  or 
Abbess.  There  are  traces,  even  in  the 
ecclesiastic's  story,  of  such  trouble  between 
church  and  town  as  at  Sahagun.  They 
wanted  to  annul  the  authority  of  the  Bishop 
in  the  city  at  least,  and  reduce  him  to  the 
estate  of  a  simple  though  decorative  chap- 
lain. "  Renovant  leges  et  plebiscita" :  they 
reorganized  the  city  government.  D.  Diego 
had  to  sell  his  plate  and  rich  stuffs  to  buy 
food.  At  last  he  went  to  the  Queen,  who 
was  very  kind,  and  gave  him  the  head  of  S. 
James  Alphaeus,  that  the  Archbishop  of 
Braga  had  brought  from  Jerusalem.  On 
his  return,  at  Ferreiros,  he  sent  word  ahead 
of  his  treasure.  The  procession  came  in 
barefoot,  he  laid  the  head  on  the  altar,  said 
Ma&,  and  assisted  at  the  Solemn  Office  that 



Town  and 

John  of 
P.  330 


The  Siege 



WAY     OF     S.  JAMES 

Peace  for  a  while  was  kept.  The  Queen 
made  peace  with  her  son  and  helped  D. 
Diego  to  punish  the  rebels  in  Compostella. 
She  asked  for  those  who  had  taken  refuge 
in  the  cathedral  and  pointed  out  that  arms 
ill  befitted  the  state  of  sanctuary.  Appar- 
ently within  a  few  hours  the  Bishop's  men 
were  the  besieged. 

She  went  up  into  the  tribunes  and  all  of  a 
sudden  the  civil  strife  was  alight  again.  In 
the  attack  men  set  a  fire  to  burn  them  out: 
some  of  the  roof  was  burned.  Some  of 
the  Bishop's  and  the  Queen's  men  were  in 
the  belfry;  that  burned  out  inside  and  the 
bells  fell.  The  affair  was  desperate.  Every 
one  confessed  himself,  the  Bishop  confess- 
ing to  the  Abbot  of  S.  Martin.  Then  said 
the  Queen:  "Get  out,  Father;  get  out  of 
this  fire  and  I  can  go  with  you."  "  None  of 
that,"  came  up  the  answer  from  below. 
The  Bishop  thought  they  wanted  him  par- 
ticularly, and  the  besiegers  shouted  up 
that  the  Queen  could  come.  In  the  tribunes 
the  crowd  jostled  her,  they  tore  her  clothes 
half  off  and  knocked  her  down,  and  one  old 
woman  slapped  her  face.    Some  men  forced 



a  way  out  through  the  swords  and  spears 
and  D.  Diego,  wrapped  in  an  old  cloak,  got 
away  unnoticed  to  the  little  church  of  the 
Corticela,  which  is  built  in  at  the  north-east 
corner  of  the  cathedral.  There  he  com- 
municated and  waited.  Presently  came 
Dona  Urraca,  but  for  greater  safety  they 
stayed  apart.  She  got  away  to  the  convent 
of  S.  Martin,  he,  over  roofs  and  under  walls, 
crept  in  by  the  window  to  the  house  of  a 
certain  Maurinus,  a  draper.  Two  French- 
men stood  by  him,  and  thence  he  moved  to 
a  cellar.  While  the  Frenchmen  went  off  to 
find  horses  on  which  he  could  escape  after 
night-fall,  through  the  garden  of  S.  Martin, 
a  committee  of  Peter  the  Prior,  the  Abbot 
of  S.  Pelayo  Antealtares,  and  Pelayo  Diaz 
a  monk  of  the  same  monastery,  waited  on 
D.  Diego  and  called  him  out.  They  hid 
him  in  the  treasury  of  Antealtares. 

The  Compostellans  decided  to  depose  the 
Bishop  and  make  peace  with  the  Queen, 
but  D.  Diego  got  away  to  Iria.  Then  the 
young  king  besieged  Compostella  and  D. 
Diego  joined  him  with  vassals  of  the  Tierra 
de  Santiago,  and  the   townsfolk  had  to 



The  escape 


Etapes  du 


WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

surrender  and  the  Queen  had  to  be  ap- 
peased. The  citizens  lost  everything,  were 
fined  1 50  marks  of  silver,  many  were  exiled. 

The  Metropolitan  question  was  still  the 
main  one.  Gelasius  II  needed  money.  The 
Bishop  and  his  party  melted  down  secretly 
the  old  altar  frontal,  which  came  to  120 
ounces  of  gold,  and  sent  off  Peter  the  Prior 
(D.  Diego's  nephew)  and  the  Cardinal  of  S. 
Felix  to  Rome  with  it.  They  were  caught 
at  Castrojeriz  and  the  King  of  Aragon  got 
the  money,  gold  and  silver,  stuffs,  horses, 
and  the  rest.  He  kept  the  Prior  in  chains 
in  the  castle  there,  but  shortly  set  the  Car- 
dinal free. 

The  exiles  were  strung  along  the  pilgrim 
way  at  all  the  stages: — Castrojeriz,  Villa- 
franca  de  Montes  de  Oca,  Najera,  Logrono, 
Estella,  PuentelaReyna,  Pampeluna,  and 
Jaca.  Another  pair  of  messengers  started 
from  Gelmirez  and  were  held  up  at  Saha- 
gun :  they  could  get  no  further.  The  Queen 
warned  and  finally  herself  fetched  the  Prior 
of  S.  Zoyl  of  Carrion,  who  got  Prior  Peter 
out  of  durance  for  70  marks  of  silver,  but 
the  messengers  had  to  give  up  their  papers, 



50  marks  of  gold  and  the  messenger  Ger- 
ard's mule. 

Gelmirez  got  a  safe  conduct  through  the 
Prior  of  Najera  and  the  Bishop  of  Jaca,  to 
go  to  the  council  of  Clermont  in  11 19,  but 
Alfonso  swore  he  should  not  set  foot  in 
Aragon.  He  moved  as  far  as  Palencia  and 
Burgos,  and  waited.  Pope  Gelasius  died, 
and  Guy,  the  Archbishop  of  Vienne,  the 
brother  of  Raymond  of  Burgundy,  was 
elected  and  took  the  name  of  Calixtus  II. 
D.  Diego  met  at  Burgos  a  French  knight,  a 
relative  of  Calixtus,  called  Robert  Francois, 
with  a  letter,  telling  the  news  and  holding 
out  great  hopes.  He  sent  off  Gerard  dis- 
guised as  a  pilgrim,  with  two  more  clerks: 
the  presents  were  to  be  sent  by  Bernard, 
Sacrist  of  S.  Zoyl,  and  another  monk  of 
Cluny  called  Stephen.  They  had  a  hard 
journey,  but  the  Pope  was  cheering:  then 
the  presents  went  through  for  love  of 
Cluny.  There  was,  however,  trouble  some- 
where; the  presents  did  not  please  as  they 
should,  and  Bernard  of  Toledo  and  Alfonso 
VII  wrote  quite  a  shocking  attack  on 
Gelmirez.     The  letter  was  shown.     The 









WAY     OF     S.    J  AMES 

Bishop  of  Oporto,  Hugh,  offered  to  go  to  the 
Council  of  Rheims,  disguised,  again,  as  a 
pilgrim,  and  he  travelled  fast  enough  for 
the  King  of  Aragon's  men  to  come  to  his 
lodging  only  the  next  day.  By  this  time 
the  Pope  was  reconciled  with  Abbot  Pons. 

Finally,  it  was  granted.  The  Metropoli- 
tan See  of  Merida  was  translated  to  San- 
tiago, and  further,  Hugh  asked  for  the 
Apostolic  Legacy  over  Menda  and  Braga. 
It  cost  much  plate  from  the  sacristy,  how- 
ever, Spanish  silver  and  Saracen  gold,  and 
Ordono's  golden  chasuble  and  crown.  The 
Archbishop  sent  all  this  by  a  Norman  ship. 

The  investiture  at  the  hands  of  Hugh 
took  place  late  in  1 1 19.  He  had  come  back 
by  01or6n,  where  for  a  while  he  lay  sick  of  a 
fever,  and  was  warned  that  the  King  and 
the  Bishop  of  Jaca  were  waiting  for  him, 
so  he  went  back  to  Auch  and  thence  around 
by  Bayonne,  the  mountains  of  Santander, 
and  along  the  coast,  till  he  got  somehow  to 
Carri6n.  A  railway  runs  now  down  the 
river  valley  he  followed,  past  Moarbes. 
There  were  no  good  roads,  the  heights  were 
steep,  the  woods  thick,  and  the  inns  bad. 


A  Beggar  by  the  Puerto  Santa 



He  was  met  in  solemn  procession  by  the 
Bishop  and  Chapter,  the  bulls  were  laid  on 
the  altar,  and  the  cross  that  he  was  now  to 
cany  was  raised  ahead  of  them. 

The  Palace  had  been  burned  in  the  rising 
of  1 1 17:  the  Archbishop  rebuilt  it  as  a  fit 
lodging  for  kings  and  the  great,  ecclesiastic 
or  secular,  and  in  one  corner  dug  a  deep 
well,  to  which  water  was  drawn  by  an  ad- 
mirable artifice.  This  is  when  the  earlier 
towers  were  taken  down .  He  built  a  chapel 
over  the  north  door  of  the  church,  which 
communicated  with  the  Palace,  and  conse- 
crated therein  altars  to  S.  Paul,  S.  Gregory 
the  Great,  S.  Benedict,  and  S.  Nicholas: 
in  n  22  he  built  over  the  south  portal  a 
chapel,  in  which  the  altars  were  dedicated 
to  SS.  Benedict,  Paul,  Antoninus,  and 
Nicholas.  There  was  also  an  altar  to  S. 
Michael  in  the  gallery  of  the  apse,  but  I  do 
not  know  the  date  of  its  foundation. 

In  1 1 20  Dona  Urraca  came  back  to  Gali- 
cia  to  claim  all  for  herself:  she  bargained 
with  Gelmirez,  but  he  got  her  signature  to 
boundaries  of  Church  land  between  the 
Ulla   and  the  Tambre,  which   had   been 



Urraca 's 



WAY     OF     S.   J  AMES 

given  in  1112  but  never  confirmed.  In 
return  he  gave  only  a  silver  service,  en- 
tremesa.  A  knight  of  hers  conspired  with  a 
knight  of  his  household,  who  betrayed 
everything  in  the  end.  She  forced  the  issue, 
denied  all,  and  the  two  knights  met  the 
ordeal  of  battle:  hers  lost  the  wager  and  by 
her  order  lost  his  eyes.  At  this  time  Henry, 
abbot  of  S.  Jean  d'Angely,  and  Stephen, 
chamberlain  of  Cluny,  were  in  Compos- 
tella,  whom  she  used  as  intermediaries,  and 
she  made  D.  Diego  governor  of  Galicia 
before  she  left.  This  was  clever  of  her,  for 
the  Magnates,  the  great  nobles,  laid  it 
against  him  and  moreover  she  could  thereby 
reduce  the  power  of  the  Count  of  Traba. 
Others  of  the  nobles  were  in  rebellion 
against  herself.  D.  Diego  went  campaign- 
ing and  took  the  castle  of  Grallarfa  on  the 
Iso,  and  his  men  step  by  step,  killed  the 
garrison  and  destroyed  the  castle. 

The  Count  of  Traba  was  Pedro  Froilaz, 
and  he  was  the  guardian  of  the  young  king. 
His  son,  Fernando  Perez,  was  the  husband 
of  Teresa  of  Portugal.  D.  Diego  went  with 
Dona  Urraca  to  fight  her  sister  Queen 



Teresa  of  Portugal,  at  Tuy,  and  took  it: 
then  he  pointed  out  that  neither  his  sacred 
character  nor  the  fueros  of  the  Compostel- 
lans,  which  did  not  allow  them  to  be  in 
fonsado  more  than  one  day,  would  permit 
of  more  war.  The  Queen  urged  that  the 
success  of  the  whole  depended  on  him,  the 
Compostellans  could  go  home  according  to 
law  but  in  that  case  the  enemy  would  retake 
everything.  She  beguiled  him :  he  dismissed 
the  Compostellans  and  stayed  on  with  his 
mercenaries  and  others  who  were  obliged  to 
serve.  There  was  no  opposition  as  far  as 
the  Douro:  Gelmirez  took  the  occasion  to 
recover  the  lands  and  churches  which  be- 
longed to  the  Compostellan  Mitre  in  the 
suburbs  of  Braga. 

Dona  Teresa  sent  him  a  word  of  warning, 
offering  him  any  castle  for  refuge  or  any 
ships  for  return:  he  disbelieved  her.  The 
expedition  started  back  by  Celanova  and 
Castrelo,  where  the  Mifio  was  to  be  crossed. 
At  night  they  encamped,  according  to  the 
orders  of  the  Queen  at  encamping  the 
night  before.  She  gave  orders  now  that 
Gelmirez's  troops  should  cross  early,  she 



of  property 
and  relics 




always  a 
menace  to 
the  Mitre 

William  of 

of  Flanders 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

intending  to  come  later  with  Alfonso  and 
the  Archbishop.  This  done,  she  arrested 
him,  with  his  three  brothers  and  Count 
Vermudo  Suarez,  and  all  his  servants  and 
familiars,  who  had  much  to  bear  from  the 
insolence  and  rapacity  of  the  soldiers.  The 
Archbishop  of  Braga  and  the  Bishop  of 
Orense  fled.  He  was  moved  about  a  little, 
from  castle  to  castle,  and  finally  shut  up  at 
Cira,  near  Puente  Ulla.  At  Compostella 
the  clergy  and  town  inquired  the  Queen's 
intentions:  they  were  indefinite.  She  came 
herself  for  the  twenty-fifth  of  July :  the  can- 
ons kept  the  feast  in  black  copes.  She  said 
she  would  free  him  if  he  (1)  cleared  himself 
of  charges  or  (2)  answered  with  his  own 
and  the  Chapter's  oath  to  take  no  revenge. 
He  was  accused  of  raising  troops  in 
France  to  put  the  prince  on  the  throne  of 
Leon  and  Castile,  and  in  evidence  letters 
have  been  quoted  which  he  wrote  to  Count 
William  of  Aquitaine  and  Clemence  the 
Countess  of  Flanders.  They  consist  of 
civil  nothings,  that  may  or  may  not  mean 
something.  Certainly  William  of  Aqui- 
taine had  urged  that  the  boy  should  be  kept 




in  Gelmirez's  guardianship  or  else  sent  to 
him  by  sea.    So  the  case  stands. 

The  Pope  urged,  and  his  legates  threat- 
ened: the  King  escaped  from  his  mother 
and  joined  the  Count  of  Traba.  On  the 
point  of  sending  D.  Diego  to  S.  Maria  de 
Oteres,  in  Valcarcel,  the  Queen  burst  into 
tears,  said  that  she  had  not  been  able  to 
help  herself;  the  Castellan,  turning  up  to 
take  charge  of  his  prisoner,  was  roughly 
hustled  and  the  Archbishop  was  sent  back, 
to  be  welcomed  by  a  joyous  crowd.  The 
castles  taken,  however,  were  not  given  up. 
Battle  was  actually  arranged  on  Pico  Sagro, 
when  a  pause  was  called,  and  a  committee 
of  ten  arranged  a  treaty  between  the  Queen, 
the  Archbishop,  the  Count,  and  the  King. 

In  1122-24  he  did  much  building,  both 
in  Compostella  and  abroad.  Sr.  Lopez 
Ferreiro  puts  here  the  commencement  of 
the  cloister.  At  this  time  he  rebuilt  S. 
Miguel,  S.  Felix,  and  S.  Benito.  He  and 
Bernard  the  treasurer  built  a  pool  and 
fountain,  repairing  Sisnando's  old  aque- 
duct, and  fetched  water  into  the  convent  of 
S.  Martin,  by  wooden  conduits  reinforced 






WAY     OF     S.  JAMES 

by  iron  clamps  and  lead  plates.  The  in- 
scription is  Bernard's,  dated  April  n,  1122, 
Aymery  Picaud  says  of  these8: 

We  French  pilgrims  go  into  the 
church  from  the  north  side:  before  you 
get  there,  a  hospital  for  poor  pilgrims 
stands  close  to  the  street,  and  then  as 
you  go  along  further  you  come  upon  a 
certain  Paradise,  that  lies  down  nine 
steps.  At  the  bottom  of  the  steps  there 
is  a  marvellous  fountain,  whose  like 
could  not  be  found  in  all  the  world.  On 
three  steps  of  stone  stands  a  vast  stone 
basin,  round  and  deep  in  which  fifteen 
men  could  easily  bathe  at  once:  a  bronze 
column  rises  out  of  this  crowned  by  four 
spouting  lions,  and  the  water,  which 
falls  into  the  basin,  is  conveyed  away 
by  underground  conduits,  invisibly.  It 
is  wholesome  water,  clear  and  sweet, 
cool  in  summer  and  warm  in  winter. 
Under  the  lions'  feet  an  inscription,  in 
two  lines  runs  as  follows: 

—  I  Bernardo,  treasurer  of  S.  James, 
brought  this  water  hither  and  made  the 
present  work  for  the  cure  of  my  soul 
and  my  parents*.  Mt&  MCLX,  tertio 
idus  Aprilis." 




The  Paradise,  in  Aymery's  day,  had 
nothing  of  a  garden  but  the  name.  It  was 
paved  with  stone.  There  were  sold  little 
crosses,  and  cockle-shells,  fishes,  and  other 
tokens  that  pilgrims  want,  and  also  wine- 
flasks,  shoes,  horn  mulls,  pouches,  shoe- 
strings, belts;  all  manner  of  medicinal 
herbs,  spices,  and  everything  else.  These 
booths  are  set  up  now  in  the  square  behind 
the  eastern  doors  of  the  church,  and  pretty 
much  restricted  to  articles  of  religion. 

He  built  also  a  palace  in  Padr6n,  where 
the  church  of  S.  James  had  been  rebuilt 
about  1106  under  Bishop  Pelaez,  because 
the  servants  would  not  stay  in  what  had 
been  the  Bishop's  palace  at  Iria,  but  left 
him  alone  and  in  danger  there.  In  Torres 
de  Oeste  near  Puente  Cesures  he  built  a 
new  chapel  and  a  new  big  palace  to  hold 
the  archbishop,  his  clergy,  their  servants 
and  escort,  with  the  idea  of  having  a  sure 
refuge  if  he  should  need  it. 

The  Queen  had  been  away  in  Castile, 
where  someone  had  made  a  disturbance  on 
the  ground  that  Count  Pedro  Gomez  de 
Lara  had  with  Dona  Urraca  thore  f amil- 



of  jet 





The  Queen 


Bernard  of 
died  i i 24 

WAY     OF     S.   JAMES 

iarity  than  was  right.  She  came  back  in 
the  spring  of  11 23  and  beguiled  the  young 
prince  and  got  hold  of  the  Count  and 
Countess  of  Traba  and  put  them  and  their 
children  in  prison.  Galicia  revolted  and 
she  made  a  treaty  with  the  Archbishop. 
Pedro  Garcia,  who  had  been  in  his  service 
and  been  disgraced,  came  to  her  with  a 
plot  to  waylay  him  going  from  Iria  to 
Honesto  (Torres  del  Oeste)  or  else  to  assas- 
sinate him  at  night  in  his  bed-chamber  at 
Iria.  She  told  of  it  and  turned  over  the 
conspirators  to  Gelmirez:  he  locked  them 
up  for  a  year  and  fined  them  heavily. 

At  Pentecost,  May  25,  11 24,  Alfonso 
VII  was  knighted  at  Santiago.  Gelmirez 
blessed  the  arms  and  Alfonso  took  them  off 
the  Apostle's  altar,  giving,  to  redeem  them, 
a  great  gift  of  land. 

There  was,  of  course,  from  time  to  time, 
trouble  with  Bernard  of  Toledo  over  Sala- 
manca. Each  archbishop  in  turn  conse- 
crated a  bishop,  and  the  other  complained. 
Also,  Braga  and  Coimbra  stayed  away 
from  a  Metropolitan  Council:  La  Fuente 
says  that  there  were  six  hundred  years  of 




struggle.  Gelmirez  wanted  the  Primacy 
and  the  Patriarchate,  and  he  worked  in- 
cessantly for  that  end;  when  Bernard  of 
Toledo  died,  in  1124,  Alfonso  and  Urraca 
had  to  write  to  him  to  stop  perturbing  the 
honour  and  jurisdiction  of  the  Church  of 
Toledo.  His  answer  is  a  marvel  of  clever- 

As  the  discord,  which  up  to  now,  for 
our  sins,  reigned  between  you  occa- 
sioned the  destruction  of  the  poor  and  all 
the  churches,  so  the  concord  which  by 
God's  favour  you  have  made  at  last  will 
be  the  substance  of  holy  peace  and  sup- 
port of  religion.  .  .  . 

He  thanks  God  and  the  Blessed  S.  James 
who  inclined  them  to  it,  so  that  it  has  come 
at  last  and  sees  it  with  joy,  rejoicing,  and 

In  respect  of  the  humiliation  of  the 
church  of  Toledo,  that  we  too  are  far 
from  wishing,  of  which  you  speak  in 
your  letter,  God  knows  well  that  in  no 
wise  I  wanted  nor  now  do  want,  to  abase 


The  matter 
of  the 



of  Rome 

WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

the  proper  honour  of  that  church  or  of 
any  other. 

He  repudiates  the  slanders  of  the  envious, 
he  is  willing  to  face  such  and  disprove: 

Note,  however,  that  among  the  other 
things  that  your  royal  Prudence  said  to 
us,  you  promised,  namely  to  do  nothing 
in  any  wise  to  abate  our  Church  and 
always  to  defend  it,  exalt  and  augment, 
supported  by  our  help  and  counsel.  If 
we,  by  God's  grace,  do  receive  and  shall, 
something  of  the  dignities  of  the  Church 
of  Rome,  that  we  have  always  done  and 
shall  do,  always  reckoning  on  your  help 
and  counsel. 

And  he  sends  his  Mayordomo,  Suero  Froi- 
laz,  to  say  what  can't  be  written;  they  may 
tell  him  what  they  think  and  want.  He 
ends  by  praying:  "God  omnipotent,  by 
love  and  intercession  of  his  most  blessed 
Apostle  S.  James,  keep  your  person  and 
your  kingdom  and  bring  you  into  Eternal 
Life.  Amen." 
At  the  Council  which  opened  January 



1 8, 1 1 2  s,  he  reached  apogee.  He  published 
a  bull  for  a  crusade  in  Spain,  "to  open  a 
short  way  to  the  Holy  Tomb,"  in  which  he 
absolves  from  all  sins  those  who  will  take 
part,  and  excommunicates  those  who  will 
not,  "with  the  authority  of  God,  Father 
Omnipotent,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost,  and  the 
Blessed  Apostles  Peter,  Paul,  and  James." 
The  only  mention  of  the  Pope  is  that  the 
Council  is  called  by  his  authority. 

On  the  13th  of  December,  1 1 24,  Calixtus 
had  died.  The  first  messenger  to  Honorius* 
II,  with  gifts,  was  robbed  in  church  by  some 
knights  of  Salamanca.  The  new  Pope 
sends  word  that  he  is  to  tell  the  Bishop 
to  punish  them;  it  was  a  sorry  hold-up. 
Meanwhile  Gelmlrez  must  send  fresh  gifts. 
Anon  the  Pope  sends  a  short  letter,  being 
very  busy  and  new  to  the  work,  enforcing 
humility  and  meekness;  he  cannot  at  the 
moment  answer  the  Archbishop's  letter. 
It  ends:  "Procure  the  discreet  prudence 
of  your  Fraternity  to  use,  and  not  abuse, 
the  dignity  of  the  Pall,  a  sign  of  humility, 
that  has  been  conceded  to  you  by  the 
clemency  of  your  holy  Mother  the  Church 




Death  of 
Calixtus  II 


Urraca  dies 

Juan  Diaz 
and  Cira 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

of  Rome":  given  at  the  Lateran,  Janu- 
ary 10,  1 1 26.  A  letter  pf  July  11  is  short 
again.  He  has  heard  tales  which  may  not 
be  true,  he  wishes  to  love  him  with  real 
charity  and  not  lend  facile  consent  to  what 
a  detractor  may  say.  "Do  you,  for  your 
part,  act  humbly  and  devotedly,  that  with 
greater  ease  you  may  in  all  things  keep 
the  favour  of  the  blessed  Peter"  and  Ours; 
"given  in  Lateran."  Aymeric,  Cardinal 
Deacon  and  Legate,  writes  to  his  "dearest 
friend"  that  he  has  worked  and  will  work 
for  the  desired  end. 

Dona  Urraca  died  at  Saldafia  on  the 
eighth  of  March,  n  26,  and  Alfonso  was 
consecrated  at  Toledo.  He  was  twenty- 
one;  he  combined  force,  power  and  ability. 
Gelmirez  was  called  to  Leon  to  assist  at 
the  coronation:  Diego  of  Leon  did  the 
crowning,  however,  and  he  was  passed 
over  again  at  Zamora.  There  was  humili- 
ation, also,  about  the  castle  of  Cira.  He 
had  written  to  the  King  about  the  castle 
and  had  the  promise  of  it,  but  one  Juan 
Diaz  came  to  court  and  got  it  and  was  con- 
firmed in  it.    This  Juan  Diaz,  by  the  way, 



once  held  the  Archbishop  in  that  same 
castle  of  Ara.  Now  the  King  had  confirmed 
him,  but  Gelmirez  gave  to  the  Mayor domo 
and  a  principal  councillor  each  ten  marks 
of  silver  and  to  the  King  himself  fifty,  who 
then  said  that  if  there  were  any  way  to 
oblige,  saving  his  dignity,  he  would.  So 
the  matter  was  laid  before  the  court:  they 
pronounced  for  the  Archbishop,  but  Juan 
Diaz  got,  in  compensation,  1500  sueldos 
jaqueses.  In  the  time  of  settling  and 
securing  the  King  in  his  inheritance,  D. 
Diego  helped  to  reduce  Galicia  to  order,  by 
argument  or  fight;  for  instance,  he  reduced 
the  castle  of  Arias  Perez  with  the  help  of  a 
novel  machine  called  a  cat.  He  went  on 
the  Portuguese  campaign. 

He  was  hated  in  the  city,  by  the  burghers, 
the  nobles,  and  some  of  his  own  Chapter. 
Somebody  suggested  to  the  King  to  squeeze 
him;  who  deprecated  bodily  violence  but 
went  on  a  visit  of  state  to  Santiago  in- 
continent, and  the  third  day,  in  the  Treas- 
ury, made  known  his  needs.  Gelmirez 
offered  three  hundred  marks  of  silver, 
that  is  to  say,  165  pounds.    The  King  was 



The  king 
saves  his 


Yet  Justus 
ut  palma. . , 

WAY     OF     S.  JAMES 

silent.  At  last  he  said  he  should  like  to 
deliberate  with  his  councillors,  and  while 
they  deliberated  Gelmirez  waited  in  the 
choir.  The  King  asked,  finally,  six  hundred 
marks  and  leave  to  get  as  much  more  from 
persons  in  the  town.  Gelmirez  wanted 
names.  They  would  be  the  treasurer 
Bernard,  his  son  Peter  Estevez,  his  nephew 
Gonzalo  Pelaez.  Then  the  old  prelate 
spoke  nobly:  "I  should  not  give  leave," 
he  said,  "to  take  from  the  meanest  rustic 
in  the  Tierra  de  Santiago,  how  much  the 
less  from  persons'  so  worthy  and  so  dear 
to  me!"  The  councillors  carried  back 
what  he  said,  and  Alfonso  sent  word  that 
he  must  find  another  thousand  marks  or 
lose  the  lordship  of  the  Land  of  Santiago, 
of  which,  however,  a  little  should  be  left 
to  him  on  which  he  might  live  decorously. 
He  called  the  Chapter,  repeated  the  King's 
word,  and  bade  them  elect  a  new  shepherd, 
for  he  would  lay  off  all  his  honours  before 
he  would  pay  so  huge  a  sum,  that  he  knew 
not  where  to  get.  "  t  will  be  content  for 
the  remainder  of  my  life  to  serve  God  Al- 
mighty in  my  Order  and  dignity  that  not 



the  King  nor f any  other  can  take  away." 
They  offered  to  make  up  the  sum,  the 
King's  messengers  coming  in  to  hurry  them, 
and  D.  Diego  consented  to  pay,  but  got  a 
pledge  that  no  one  else  should  have  to  pay, 
neither  in  the  city,  nor  in  the  Land  of 

The  King  was  lodging  in  a  citizen's  house, 
and  mischief-makers,  clerks  among  them, 
said  that  he  had  made  a  bad  bargain,  and 
themselves  would  give  three  thousand 
marks  if  he  would  give  them  the  lordship 
of  the  City  and  Land  of  Santiago.  The 
King  consulted  with  a  certain  Count  Jeru- 
salemito,  so  called  because  he  had  been 
twice  to  Jerusalem.  I  think  he  must  have 
been  Fernando  Pe>ez  de  Traba.  At  any 
rate,  he  was  husband  of  Teresa  of  Portugal, 
and  on  her  death  tried  to  take  the  king- 
dom, was  defeated  by  Alfonso  and  retired 
to  Galicia  and  to  works  of  piety.  He  was  a 
great  friend  of  S.  Bernard's  and  helped  to 
found  Sobrado,  Osera,  and  Montero.  In 
this  crisis  he  told  the  King  plainly  that 
such  action  would  do  no  good  and  would 
disgrace  him  forever. 







of  the 

WAY     OF    S.JAMES 

The  King  was  a  little  ashamed  and  in 
compensation  promised  to  Santiago  his 
sepulchre,  and  a  castle  of  Rodrigo  Perez  de 
Traba's,  when  the  count  should  die,  to  be 
given  to  the  Chapter.  His  sister  Dofla 
Sancha  likewise  promised  to  be  buried 
there,  and  to  bequeath  to  them  S.  Miguel 
de  Escalada.  Her  promises,  like  her 
brother's,  were  sheer  civility:  D.  Alfonso 
was  buried  in  Toledo,  Dona  Sancha  in  S. 
Isidro  of  Leon.  Gelmirez  at  this  time  was 
eagerly  collecting  promises  of  sepulture. 
He  had  them  amongst  others  from  the 
Count  and  Countess  of  Traba,  who  are 
really  buried  there. 

Though  once  disappointed  and  once  de- 
spoiled, he  was  still  a  very  superb  man, 
unimaginably  strong  and  powerful,  hated 
by  all  the  rapacious,  the  cowardly  wrong- 
doers and  those  who  had  done  him  wrong. 
There  is  a  kind  of  parallel  to  his  position 
in  that  of  the  archbishops  of  York,  but 
with  a  vast  difference  in  magnitude.  He 
kept  amazing  state.  Pascal  II  gave  him 
the  right  to  wear  tunic  and  stole  even  in 
his  familiar  conversation.    The  accusation 



was  made  that  in  his  vestings  and  manner 
of  receiving  the  offerings  of  pilgrims,  he 
acted  like  a  Pope,  "Apostolico  more  uti 
imprudent ier. "  Honorius  questioned  the 
prelates  of  Braga  and  Toledo,  his  accusers, 
and  sent  a  Legate  secretly;  Gelmirez 
learned  of  it:  his  next  move  was  to  send 
the  Pope  money.  Unluckily  that  was 
wasted,  for  at  this  point  Honorius  died,  in 
1 130,  and  two  Popes  were  elected,  both 
bidding  for  Gelmirez.  He  recognized 
Innocent  II. 

On  May  25,  11 28,  Alfonso  signed  a  di- 
ploma by  virtue  of  which,  in  case  of  vacancy 
the  church  and  all  the  Land  of  Santiago 
should  be  untroubled,  at  the  free  disposi- 
tion of  the  Chapter,  till  a- new  archbishop 
was  named.  Bernard,  now  chancellor  by 
Gelmirez's  recommendation  and  nomina- 
tion, had  vowed  a  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem; 
Gelmirez  dissuaded  him.  Alfonso  sent  a 
goblet  to  sell,  valued  at  seven  hundred  gold 
maravedis,  Bernard  bought  it  for  one 
hundred  marks  of  silver  (about  four 
hundred  pesetas)  and  in  addition  went  on 
with  the  works  of  the  church.    He  begged 



bought  by 
Vol.  I, 
p.  68 

A  golden 



WAY     OF    S.  JAM  ES 

a  rock-crystal  vase  from  Raymond  of 
Toledo,  by  the  king  as  intermediary,  and 
sent  it  home  with  another  smaller  but  no 
less  precious,  and  a  chalice.  On  December 
1 8,  1 131,  Alfonso  gives  privileges  and 
exemptions  in  the  same  form  as  when  the 
work  of  the  cathedral  began:  releases  the 
Chapter  from  fonsodo,  etc.  The  work 
takes,  in  short,  a  fresh  start. 

It  took  great  revenues  to  meet  the  de- 
mands upon  the  Archbishop;  for  the  up- 
keep of  his  palace,  the  pay  of  his  knights, 
the  incessant  levy  of  papacy  and  kingdom 
like  the  two  daughters  of  the  horse-leech, 
gifts  to  the  great,  support  for  the  cathedral. 
For  revenue  he  had,  first,  what  the  Land 
of  Santiago  and  the  city  of  Compostella 
yielded,  in  some  instances  to  the  See,  in 
others  to  the  bishop;  second,  donations, 
endowments  and  gifts,  of  various  sorts; 
we  have  seen  how  many  of  these  were 
melted  down;  lastly,  his  private  fortune. 
His  ventures  by  sea  were  important,  as 
business.  Between  Norman  pirates,  Moor- 
ish raiders,  and  the  Archbishop's  galleys, 
the  difference  will  have  been  small,  but 



they  served  their  end.  In  1122  or  there- 
abouts, for  a  young  Pisan  pilot  named 
Fuxion,  he  built  a  new  galley,  which  de- 
fended the  Gallegan  coasts  and  ravaged 
the  others.  Prom  one  expedition  the  Arch- 
bishop netted  thirteen  marks  of  silver, 
and  some  valuable  objects:  from  another 
twenty-five  marks  of  silver  and  a  powerful 
Moor  who  promised  great  ransom. 

While  the  Archbishop  in  his  wars  by  land 
was  thus  working  to  secure  public  peace 
among  citizens,  says  Sr.  Lopez  Ferreiro 
with  a  serenity  which  outranks  the  best 
irony  of  the  eighteenth  century,  he  showed 
no  less  force  against  public  enemies.  His 
galleys  attacked  the  Moorish  pirates  again 
and  surprised  four  ships  in  Vigo  harbour. 
One-fifth  came  to  Gelmirez  as  lord  of  the 
land,  and  furthermore,  a  share  as  owner  of 
the  galleys.  But  the  magnanimous  gener- 
osity of  Gelmirez  passed  the  frontiers  and 
the  sea,  and  was  felt  in  the  farthest  regions. 
The  patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  Veremund 
or  Warmund,  wrote  that  he  had  heard  of 
him,  his  goodness  and  prudence,  from 
Brother  R —  who  had  just  come  from  Com- 



To  seek 

peace  and 
ensue  it 


and  Cluny 

WAY     OF     S.  JAMES 

postella,  he  thanks  him  for  kindness  to 
messengers,  gifts  and  favours,  and  begs 
him  to  keep  up  help  with  his  prayers,  his 
alms,  and  the  material  means  of  defence 
against  Saracens.9  The  Archbishop  also 
sends  gifts  to  Cluny  for  the  church  then 
building,  entrusting  letter  and  gifts  to  a 
knight  named  Hugh  who  is  making  the 
pilgrimage  and  who  will  bring  back  again 
any  communication. 

There  was  trouble  in  the  Chapter.  In 
1 133  it  came  to  a  head  with  Dean  Peter 
Elias  and  Treasurer  Bernard.  Bernard  the 
treasurer  was  figuring  in  full  court  with 
fifteen  canons;  and  he  had  made  out  that 
he  was  a  more  important  person  than  he 
had  supposed,  till  the  Archbishop  con- 
vinced him  that  he  was  mistaken.  Alfonso 
as  usual  lent  himself  to  the  trouble. 
Bernard  had  to  yield  and  take  his  title  of 
Chancellor,  not  merely  his  nomination, 
from  the  Archbishop;  then  the  King  wrote 
to  D.  Diego  to  confiscate  all  the  goods, 
real  and  personal  of  Bernard  and  his 
brother  Pedro  Ansurez  as  disaffected  per- 
sons.    The  Archbishop  replied  that  such 



conduct  would  ill  become  him.  The  King 
insisted.  The  messenger  was  ordered  back 
to  the  Archbishop  by  five  successive  cour- 
riers,  and  the  unlucky  pair,  caught  be- 
tween two  millstones,  were  ~  imprisoned. 
Not  unnaturally,  Bernard  was  an  enemy 
after  that. 

In  1 133  the  Archbishop  published  a  tariff 
of  prices  lawful  in  the  town:  this  was,  of 
course,  to  protect  the  pilgrims.  So  much 
was  fixed,  and  no  more  could  be  exacted: 
it  touched  the  bakers,  money-changers, 
bankers,  fishers,  old  clothes  men  (revendi- 
dores),  huxters,  tavernors,  shoemakers, 
smiths,  etc.  In  1136  he  consecrated  S. 
Maria  del  Sar,  which  had  so  rich  a  Chapter 
that  various  canons  exchanged  the  cathe- 
dral for  it.  Any  canon  who  wished  to  live 
the  regular  life  in  S.  Maria  could  keep  his 
week  and  his  ration  in  the  canonry  and  his 
part  in  the  distributions,  and  when  he  came 
up  on  Sunday  and  holidays  to  the  mother 
church  could  have  his  seat  in  choir  and 
refectory  with  the  other  canons. 

The  strong  old  frame  of  soldier  and 
monk,  began  to  break.   D.  Diego  never  was 


de  Turismo 




and  the 


well  after  1129,  and  the  canons,  possessing 
the  diploma  he  had  wrested  from  Alfonso, 
got  impatient  for  him  to  die.  If  he  would 
not  die,  then  he  ought  to  go,  and  give 
others  a  chance.  They  offered  the  king 
three  thousand  marks  of  silver  and  wrote 
to  the  Pope.  His  Legate  came,  but  re- 
fused to  depose  without  authority.  The 
city  was  up  again:  on  August  10,  1136,  a 
mob  broke  into  the  church  and  battered 
the  palace;  the  clerks  fled.  The  Arch- 
bishop got  out  of  bed  and  went  into  the 
church,  they  stoned  him,  but  the  canons 
got  him  into  the  capilla  mayor  and  fas- 
tened the  locks  of  the  gratings  there.  But 
from  the  town  came  up  the  women,  who 
loved  him  as  Spanish  women  have  always 
loved  priests,  with  a  more  than  human 
devotion,  and  they  brought  their  hus- 
bands, and  the  mob  had  to  go.  D.  Diego 
rested  and  got  ready  for  the  Council  of 

The  first  day  of  the  Council  a  canon  of 
Santiago  told  the  story  of  the  attack  and 
denounced  Guillermo  Seguin.  He  sat  still 
until  he  was  removed.     The  Council  ex- 



communicated  the  actors  in  the  matter 
and  the  King  (now  called  the  Emperor) 
ordered  the  rigour  of  the  civil  law  to  be 

Even  allowing  for  the  bias  of  the  chron- 
iclers, it  is  hard  to  understand  Alfonso  the 
Emperor,  in  his  relations  with  Galicia. 
Elsewhere  he  fills  a  grave  rdle  not  unworth- 
ily. There,  in  the  light  of  his  recorded 
acts,  he  seems  like  that  peculiarly  offensive 
type  called  the  mean-minded  man,  which 
is  both  weak  and  cheeky,  which  can  do 
anything  except  blush.  This  will  shortly 
appear  plainlier  than  ever. 

On  the  second  day,  comes  the  Prior  of 
Cluny  with  a  letter  from  his  abbot  to  the 
Emperor  and  the  Cardinal  Legate,  urging 
them  to  treat  the  Archbishop  of  Santiago 
with  the  respect  and  consideration  he  de- 
serves, otherwise  the  Pope  shall  be  in- 
formed. Hard  upon  this  comes  the  Clerk 
Boson  with  the  long-desired  letters  from 
Rome:  the  petitioners  are  not  to  molest  the 
Archbishop  but  listen  respectfully  to  his 
admonitions  in  council  and  any  other  time. 
It  appears  that  a  citizen  of  Pisa  who  had 


The  Mean- 



En  su 
noble,  en  su 
mono  .  .  . 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

been  on  pilgrimage,  had  seen  the  stoning 
and  known  the  motives,  and  the  Papal 
court  being  then  at  Pisa  he  presented  him- 
self and  told  everything. 

Alfonso  sent  a  messenger  to  the  old  man. 
He  answered  that  they  needed  no  third 
party  but  would  talk  face  to  face.  Alfonso 
told  of  the  offer  of  three  thousand  marks, 
said  he  had  refused  it,  but  begged  for 
money.  The  Archbishop  offered  him  four 
thousand  marks:  there  you  have  again  the 
grand  gesture. 

On  the  last  day  of  the  Council  the  rebels 
appeared:  there  was  a  general  outcry. 
The  Archbishop  calmed  it.  Some  of  the 
canons  of  Compostella  asked  the  Cardinal 
to  intercede  with  him.  He  pardoned  them 
the  canonical  offences.  The  King  re- 
frained from  punishing  the  legal. 

Next  year,  the  Archbishop  helped  the 
Emperor  with  men  and  two  thousand  suel- 
dos  and  the  Emperor  visited  the  Arch- 
bishop in  triumph  at  Compostella  after  the 
Portuguese  war  and  kept  state  there  for 
twelve  days.  The  Archbishop  spent  five 
marks  of  silver  a  day  in  entertaining  him, 



without  counting  the  cost  of  the  five  pre- 
lates and  the  counts  and  grandees  who 
accompanied  him.  On  a  Sunday  in  Chap- 
ter, Alfonso  said  that  he  would  follow  his 
advice  in  all  matters  in  Galicia  thence- 
forth, and  that  his  annual  tribute  was  a 
shame,  the  money  he  had  been  forced  to 
give  from  year  to  year,  that  he  should  do 
so  no  more,  and  in  confirmation  of  this 
promise  he  took  a  hat  from  one  of  his 
knights,  bent  his  head,  and  kissed  the 
Archbishop's  hand.  On  this  visit  he  did 
punish  the  stoning,  and  gave  to  the  church 
all  the  goods  of  one  of  the  ring-leaders, 
called  Juan  Lombardo. 

Shortly  after,  a  new  campaign  against 
Gelmirez  commenced.  Alfonso  listened: 
the  plotters  bid  two  thousand  marks  and 
he  sent  officers  to  seal  up  the  alms-boxes. 
Gelmirez  convoked  the  Chapter.  The 
King  was  said  to  be  coming,  but  in  a  short 
time  came,  instead,  some  of  the  conspira- 
tors escorting  a  royal  delegate,  a  friend  of 
the  Archbishop's,  with  a  faculty  to  open 
the  alms-boxes  again  and  ask  something 
for  the  Royal  Treasury,  leaving  the  rest 



la  cruz, 
el  celro  y 
el  blazdn 
tenia  .  . 



WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

for  the  masters  and  officials  who  were 
working  in  the  cloister,  and  at  the  disposi- 
tion of  the  prelate.  He  offered  five  thou- 
sand marks  of  silver. 

Here  the  chronicle  runs  out  and  is  lost 
in  the  sand.    We  know  D.  Diego  received 
the  Papal  summons  to  the  second  Lateran 
Council,  for  April  2,  1139.    Guy,  Bishop 
of  Liscar,  his  friend,  brought  it.    He  also 
witnessed  for   Gelmirez  a  document   on 
October  9, 1 138.   Alfonso  came  to  Santiago 
but  we  have  no  records  aside  from  some 
documents  he  signed,  that  are  dated  there 
and  countersigned  by  Diego,  Archbishop. 
Later,  he  witnesses  one  dated  at  Sahagun, 
April  17,  1 130,  a  donation  tor  Tuy,  and 
another,  lastly,  for  the  monastery  of  Hoya, 
on  June   24,    n39.     His   anniversary   & 
January  15th.    He  died  in  n4o  and  was 
buried  in  the  cloister.     F16rez  calls  him 
for  an  epitaph,  Exemplar  of  heroic  church- 

His  ambition  was  as  high  as  his  courage 
but  it  was  for  Santiago.  His  personality 
was  too  great  ever  to  be  concerned  for  itselL 
He  was  a  good  soldier,  a  great  ruler,  a 



magnificent  prince.  Dona  Urraca  once 
outwitted  him,  but  she  was  a  woman  of  the 
rarest  and  subtlest  charm,  who  had  be- 
guiled everything  in  the  four  Spanish 
kingdoms.  He  stood,  for  a  moment,  fairly 
co-equal  with  the  Pope  of  Rome,  and  then 
it  was  Calixtus'  death,  and  no  miscalcula- 
tion, which  lost  him  that  ascendancy.  As 
years  oppressed,  and  his  fighting  strength 
ebbed,  his  spirit  burned  more  splendid. 
He  is  a  more  admirable  figure  at  the 
Council  of  Burgos  than  at  the  Council  of 
Compostella,  and  the  scorn  with  which  he 
bids  against  his  canons  to  Alfonso,  does  not 
belittle  the  Archbishop,  but  the  Emperor. 
He  had,  it  seems,  one  unpleasant  surprise: 
when  Calixtus  said,  to  his  emissary, 
"Read  that  letter!"  as  Bernard  of  Toledo 
and  the  prince,  his  ward,  tried  to  denounce 
him.  All  he  needed  to  learn,  he  got  from 
that  lesson.  His  figure,  against  the  ruddy 
twilight  sky  of  his  distant  century,  stands 
always  superb;  picturesque  where  he  meets 
the  fair  glozing  queen  with  his  back  against 
the  choir,  ringed  round  with  fighting  men, 
or  where  the  Emperor,  borrowing  a  hat 



Una  llama 
fuerte  y 
beUa  .  .  . 



that  he  may  uncover  and  hold  it  in  his 
hand,  and  stooping  in  conscious  pride, 
kisses  the  carven  gem  on  the  strong  old 
wrinkled  hand. 





Campanas   de   Bastabales 
Quando  vos  oyo  tocar 
Morrome  de  soledades. 

The  bells  of  Santiago  are  not  to  be 
named  along  with  the  carillons  of  the 
North,  that  had  a  prayer  for  every  hour, 
and  a  song  for  every  half  and  quarter,  and 
a  delicate  warning  like  a  recollection  for 
the  seven-and-a-half  minutes  in  between. 
We  that  have  heard  them,  say,  in  Ghent, 
or  in  Bruges  most  magical,  or  in  Antwerp 
most  musical,  shall  never  hear  the  like 
again.  So  felt  perhaps  these  townsfolk 
when  Almanzor  carried  off  the  bells,  on 
his  great  raid,  and  turned  them  upside 
down  to  burn  sweet  oils  in  the  forest  of 
pillars  at  Cordova :  but  for  them  a  day  was 






WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

to  come  when,  on  the  shoulders  of  captive 
Moors,  S.  Ferdinand  should  send  them 
home,  to  swing  in  the  familiar  place  and  to 
echo  abroad  through  the  ancient  airs.  In 
the  course  of  his  rebuilding,  meanwhile, 
as  the  bells  had  melted  when  the  tower 
burned  in  1117,  D.  Diego  Gelmirez  had 
fetched  a  bell-founder  from  across  the 
Pyrenees:  he  made  four  bells,  two -greater 
and  two  less,  proportionate  to  the  size  of  the 
church,  and  he  got  a  fixed  wage  and  his 
meals.  In  1134  a  master  bell-founder 
was  settled  in  Santiago:  as  witness  to  a 
document,  he  signs  Aeimar  campararius.1 
Martillon,  making  the  pilgrimage  by  proxy 
for  a  dead  king,  in  1484,  brought  with 
him  founders  to  make  goodly  bells. 2  They 
rang  a  carillon  in  those  days:  Manier 
reports  "Ton  y  sonne  a  la  francaise."3 

Under  the  year  11 22  the  Historia4  enu- 
merates the  articles  which  were  added 
to  the  treasury  in  the  way  of  vestments, 
books  and  other  ornaments,  in  the  Arch- 
bishop's earlier  time.  The  list  includes: 
four  citharas5  adorned  with  Greek  work: 
four  pontifical  copes,  and  twelve  others 



of  silken  stuff:  two  dalmatics:  a  black 
planeta:  four  complete  sets  of  ornaments 
to  celebrate  pontifically,  Hugh,  the  chron- 
icler and  bishop,  formerly  archdeacon  of 
Santiago,  giving  one,  Muiio  of  Mon- 
dofiedo,  formerly  treasurer,  another,  Ge- 
rard the  bishop  of  Salamanca  a  third. 
Then  there  is  a  purple  gospel,  which  may 
be  written  on  tinted  vellum,  and  two  silver 
ones,  where  the  word  may  refer  to  the 
covers,  as  also  in  the  case  of  a  gold  one, 
badly  damaged,  that  the  Archbishop 
restored  and  completed;  a  silver  Missal 
and  a  silver  Epistolary.  Of  vessels,  there 
is  a  syan,  or  ewer  of  silver,  a  girdle  of  gold; 
two  silver  coffers,  one  with  the  head  of  S. 
James  the  Less;  one  of  ivory;  one  of  gilt 
metal  enamelled  and  repouss6,  with  ad- 
mirable artifice;  another  of  gold,  that  cost 
him  three  thousand  sueldos  and  that  he 
gave  later  to  Pope  Calixt;  a  Lignum  Cruris 
that  Dona  Urraca  had  given;  a  gold  cross 
that  he  gave  later  to  Cardinal  Bos6n — a 
good  friend,  one  is  glad  that  he  got  it;  three 
silver  chalices  and  one  of  gold  that  he 
gave  to  the  Pope;  a  golden  censer  that  had 






Quant  nox 
cum  lacero 
vieta  fugit 


to  be  made  useful  to  the  church,  i.  e.y 
melted  down,  and  that  he  replaced  by 
another  out  of  his  own  money,  which  in 
F16rez's  text  goes  also  to  the  Pope,  but  in 
the  Cathedral  MS.  stays  where  it  should. 
After  three  silver  cruets,  the  plainer  books 
are  enumerated:  an  Antiphonary,  an  Office- 
book,  and  a  Missal,  three  Breviaries,  a 
Quadragesimal,  two  Benedictionals,  S. 
Gregory's  Pastoral  Care,  a  book  of  Bishops' 
Lives,  a  collection  of  Canons  and  another 
of  Divers  Sentences,  another  on  Faith  in 
the  Holy  Trinity,  another  of  Sentences, 
and  a  great  volume  with  the  Office  for  the 
year  round. 

These  are  only  the  major  accessions. 
The  minor  came  constantly,  not  seldom 
offered  in  kind.  In  1130  D.  Diego  peti- 
tioned the  king,  that  since  in  the  winter 
the  number  of  pilgrims  diminished  and 
there  was  not  wax  enough  to  light  the 
church  properly,  some  place  might  be 
allowed  him  that  would  supply  sufficient 
oil.  The  king  gave  him  a  property  near 
to  Talavera,  on  the  river,6  and  he  de- 
spatched the  canons  Pedro  EsteVez  and 



Fernando  Perez  with  orders  to  take  pos- 
session of  the  estate  and  if  anyone  tried  to 
collect  oil  to  arrest  him  and  send  him  up 
to  Santiago.  The  consumption  must  have 
been  enormous,  for  it  will  be  remembered 
that  until  1529  the  doors  were  open  day 
and  night.  Laborde  in  1808  says  that  a 
thousand  candles  burned  about  the  altar 
every  night  and  about  a  thousand  faithful 
were  prostrate  day  and  night  before  it: 
"Imagine  if  you  can,"  he  breaks  out,  "the 
fairy  spectacle  with  the  reflexion  of  all 
these  lights  on  these  masses  of  gold  and 
silver  wrought  in  all  fashions  and  covered 
with  diamonds,  precious  stones,  and 
pearls !"7  There  is  nothing  else  quite  so 
sparkling  and  splendid  as  this,  not  even 
the  account  of  Edrisi: 

This  great  church  frequented  by  travel- 
lers and  sought  by  pilgrims  from  all 
the  corners  of  Christendom,  yields  in 
size  only  to  that  of  Jerusalem,  and  rivals 
S.  Sepulchre  in  beauty  of  buildings, 
amplitude  of  distribution,  and  growth  of 
wealth  and  donations.     It  has,  between 


O  how  that 
me!  .  .  . 




retro  altaris 

WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

large  and  small,  three  hundred  crosses 
wrought  of  gold  and  silver,  incrusted  with 
jacinths,  emeralds  and  other  stones  of 
divers  colours,  and  about  two  hundred 
images  of  these  same  precious  metals.  A 
hundred  priests  attend  to  the  cult,  with- 
out counting  acolytes  and  other  servitors. 
The  temple  is  of  stone  and  mortar,  and 
the  houses  of  the  priests,  monks,  deacons, 
clerks  and  psalmists,  surround  it.  In  the 
city  are  markets  much  frequented,  from 
near  as  well  as  far,  and  around  it  are 
large  and  populous  villages  with  active 



Among  the  jewels  of  the  Sanctuary  he 
also  mentions  retables,  i.  e.,  plaques  of 
gold  or  silver  gilt,  with  enamels,  like  the 
Paliotto  of  Milan  and  the  Pala  d'oro  of 
Venice.  Santiago  had,  however,  a  true 
tabula  retro  altaris,9  of  precious  substance 
and  workmanship,  adorned  with  antique 
gems  and  cameos  perhaps,  like  the  statue 
of  S.  Faith  at  Conques.  The  text  says, 
"antiquitatibus  laboratam."  It  was  al- 
ready in  place  at  some  time  before  1135, 
for  in  that  year  Bishop  Berenguer  of  Sala- 


Puerto  de  Las  Platerias 


manca  swore  upon  the  altar,  and  the 
chroniclers  pause  thereupon  to  describe  it: 
there  it  stayed  until  the  end  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  A  number  of  years  before 
its  destruction  the  Candnigo  FabriqueroVega 
y  Verdugo  sketched  it.  The  design  shows 
the  Saviour  in  a  mandorla  that  reaches 
from  top  to  bottom,  six-lobed,  the  like  of 
which  I  know  nowhere,  but  the  Byzantine 
treatment  of  two  intersecting  glories  might 
be  thus  misinterpreted,  or  such  a  quatre- 
foil  as  fills  the  tympanum  at  Estella,  with 
four  apostles  on  either  hand  under  arcades 
below,  and  above,  in  a  sort  of  pediment, 
the  other  two  and  an  angel  on  each  side,  in 
diminishing  half-lengths.  The  magnificent 
golden  retable  of  Rhenish  work  in  the 
Cluny  Museum  can  help  the  imagination 
in  restoring  this. 

The  frontal  was  already  finished  in  1105. 
Morales,  who  saw  it  five  hundred  years 
later,  describes  it  as  "like  that  of  Sahagun 
but  more  massive,  and  not  closed."  It 
folded  back  in  some  way,  to  let  pilgrims 
look  upon  the  little  original  altar,  placed 
inside  the  later.     "The  figures  are  in  half- 



The  Pillar 


in  the 


in  Castile 


WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

relief:  God  the  Father  with  the  four 
Evangelists  around  him,  and  the  twelve 
Apostles,  and  the  four  and  twenty  Senores 
of  the  Apocalypse,  with  other  things,  and 
the  whole  with  much  majesty, l  °  likewise 
an  inscription  in  six  lines  running  around 
the  whole.  It  is  not  hard  to  call  up:  a 
little  like  the  enamel  frontal  from  Silos, 
or  that  still  in  the  hill-top  sanctuary  of 
S.  Miguel  in  Excelsis,  but  even  more  like 
in  disposition  and  general  effect,  to  the 
painted  frontals  in  the  Museums  at  Vich 
and  Barcelona."  Aymery  Picaud, 1 1  being 
contemporary,  is  more  correct  in  his  de- 
scription, and  more  explicit;  "a  seat  of 
Majesty,  four  evangelists  as  if  sustaining 
it."  The  twelve  apostles  stand,  on  either 
hand,  three  above  and  three  below,  under 
arcades,  and  the  four  and  twenty  elders  sit 
around  about  with  golden  harps  and  per- 
fume-vials in  their  hands.  Flowers  also 
are  on  the  edge.  "Of  gold  and  silver," 
says  Aymery,  from  which  the  work  may  be 
presumed  repousse*  and  not  enamelled. 

Over  this  altar  stood  the  baldachin,12 
that  must  have  been  finished  before  1112. 



The  account  of  it  we  can  interpret  partly 
by  that  of  Gerona,  partly  by  other  Catalan 
structures  of  painted  wood.  Of  a  truth 
those  poor  little  churches  of  the  eastern 
Pyrenees  that  faithfully  copied  with  their 
modest  means,  century  after  century,  the 
splendours  once  divined  of  a  rich  and 
far-away  world,  have  kept  for  us  of  today 
the  ordinance  of  mosaics,  the  design  of 
enamels,  the  pattern  of  ornaments  and 
furniture,  unimaginable  without  them. 
The  Museums  of  Vich  and  Barcelona  can 
interpret  the  description  of  the  Poitevin 
traveller,  helped  by  the  recollection  of  the 
sort  of  mosaics  that  went  in  domes  and 
vaults,  for  the  scheme  seems  very  Byzan- 
tine. The  spandrels  inside  had  "eight 
virtues  figured  as  women,  according  to  S. 
Paul,  and  above  them  angels  standing  with 
their  arms  upraised,  holding  a  throne  on 
which  stands  the  Agnus  Dei.  Outside  in 
the  spandrels  are  four  angels  trumpeting 
the  Resurrection,  at  front  and  back;  and 
on  the  sides  four  prophets  with  scrolls: 
Moses  and  Abraham  on  the  left,  Isaac  and 
Jacob  on  the  right.     Above,  the  twelve 




of  the 







apostles  sit  around,  S.  James  in  the  middle 
with  a  book,  blessing:  on  his  right  hand  is 
one  of  the  Apostles  and  on  his  left  another, 
in  due  order."13  This  I  think  makes 
a  sort  of  cornice,  above  the  arches  and 
below  the  roof.  On  the  cover  four  angels 
sit  as  guardians  of  the  altar,  but  in  the 
four  corners  are  the  four  Evangelists. 
The  three  persons  of  the  Trinity  appear  in  a 
sort  of  upper  stage  that  recalls  those  upon 
the  marble  tabernacles  of  Rome  and  south- 
eastern Italy,  the  Father  looking  west,  the 
Son  south-east,  the  Holy  Ghost  north-east. 
This  is  crowned  by  a  silver  globe  sur- 
mounted by  a  precious  cross.  As  the  inside 
of  the  tabernacle  is  depictus  but  the  out- 
side scttlptus  et  depictus,  it  is  possible  to 
conceive  of  the  Evangelists  sitting  on  the 
corners  like  antefixae  and  the  angels  also 
free  statues,  above  them,  but  it  is  also 
possible  that  the  angels  were  modelled 
in  high  relief,  with  the  Evangelical  beasts 
under  their  feet,  and  laid  along  the  steep 
slope  of  the  dome  or  pyramid,  somewhat 
as  figures  appear  in  the  pendentives  of 
Romanesque  buildings  at  Irache  and  Ar- 




mentia,  for  instance.  The  Book  in  saying 
that  it  is  adorned  without  and  within 
marvellously  picturis  et  debuxationis  specie- 
busque  diversis,  suggests  enamels  and  some 
sort  of  anticipation  of  niello,  or  possibly  the 
engraved  copper  ground  used  often  at  Li- 
moges, and  all  the  bossy  splendours  of  gems, 
cameos,  crystals  and  agates,  that  S.  Faith  of 
Conques  still  wears.  It  was  of  gold  and 
silver,  says  the  Compostellana. *  4 

Three  lamps  burned  before  this,  the 
central  the  biggest  and  made  in  the  likeness 
of  a  great  mortar  with  seven  lights,  in  which 
burned  seven  flames  for  the  seven  gifts  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  "and  these  have  nothing 
within  but  oil  of  balsam  or  myrrh  or 
ambergris  or  olive."  The  central  light 
here  is  the  largest  and  on  the  others*  are 
carved  two  apostles  apiece.  "May  the 
soul  of  King  Alfonso  el  Batallador  who 
gave  this,  it  is  said,  rest  in  sempiternal 
peace !"  A  marginal  note  on  the  ca- 
thedral MS.  adds  that  in  1399  there  were 
nineteen  silver  lamps  before  the  altar.15 
In  1577  the  Pelegrino  curioso  says,  forty- 





Todos  se 
visten  de 
verde  .  . 



There  is  a  description,  dating  from  the 
twelfth  century,  of  a  procession  in  the  ca- 
thedral, that  glows  and  shivers  with  splen- 
dours through  the  incense-heavy  air.  It 
was  the  Feast  of  the  Translation16  of  the 
Apostle,  on  the  last  day  of  the  year,  and 
the  King  was  there  with  his  knights,  and 
the  Archbishop  with  those  other  bishops 
who  were  canons  of  the  cathedral  Chapter 
and  virtually  suffragan  to  Santiago.  The 
account  was  written  by  one  who  had  been 
there : 

In  the  procession  that  day  the  King 
walked  vested  in  royal  robe  and  crown, 
surrounded  by  the  multitude  of  his 
knights,  escorted  by  the  divers  orders  of 
hie  counts  and  commanders,  bearing  in 
his  right  hand  a  silver  sceptre  adorned 
with  flowers  of  gold  and  other  rich  work 
and  set  all  over  with  many  sorts  of 
precious  stones.  The  diadem  with  which , 
for  the  Apostle's  greater  glory,  he  girt 
his  brow,  was  of  chiselled  gold,  decked 
with  enamels  and  niellosy  precious  stones 
and  shining  images  of  birds  and  quad- 
rupeds.    Before  the  King  was  borne  a 



two-edged  sword,  adorned  with  golden 
flowers  and  glittering  letters,  with  pom- 
mel of  gold  and  hilt  of  silver.  Before 
the  King  and  at  the  head  of  the  clergy, 
walked  with  the  other  bishops  the  Arch- 
bishop, pontifically  vested,  covered  with 
a  white  mitre,  shod  with  gilded  sandals, 
and  in  his  right  hand,  that  wore  a 
white  glove  and  golden  ring,  grasping  an 
ivory  crozier.  Of  the  two  and  seventy 
Compostellan  Canons,  some  were  vested 
in  silken  copes  adorned  with  the  loveli- 
ness of  precious  stones,  silver  morses, 
gold-flowered,  and  magnificent  fringes 
hanging  all  around  about.  Others  wore 
dalmatics  of  silk,  and  the  apparels  thereof 
from  top  to  bottom  were  gold-embroid- 
ered. Others  again  walked  there  be- 
decked with  golden  collars  sewn  with 
precious  stones,  bands  laced  with  gold, 
the  richest  mitres,  fair  shoon,  golden 
girdles,  stoles  also  broidered  with  gold 
and  maniples  set  with  pearls.  What 
more?  As  many  sorts  as  be  of  precious 
stones,  as  much  as  may  be  told  of  wealth 
of  gold  and  silver,  that  the  choir-clerks 
of  Santiago  displayed,  some  carrying 
silver  candlesticks,  others  censers  of  the 



el  obispo 
azul  y 



rabies  luces 

ados  .  .  . 

WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

same,  others  crosses  of  silver-gilt;  evan- 
gelaries  they  bore  with  golden  covers 
set  with  precious  stones,  or  coffers  with 
relics  of  Saints,  or  phylacteries;  others, 
finally,  sceptres  of  gold  or  of  ivory  tipped 
with  bosses  of  onyx,  beryl,  sapphire, 
carbuncle,  emerald  or  some  other  like 
precious  stone.  On  silver  cars  were 
carried  two  tables  of  silver-gilt,  that  held 
the  tapers  offered  by  the  faithful.  After 
the  King's  party  came  the  devout  folk, 
to  wit;  the  knights,  the  governors,  the 
Magnates,  the  nobles,  the  counts,  some 
of  this  land,  some  outlanders,  all  habited 
in  rich  feast-day  dress.  Lastly  came  the 
choirs  of  honourable  women,  shod  with 
gilded  sandals,  habited  in  furs  of  martin, 
of  fallow-deer,  of  ermine,  or  of  fox-skin, 
in  silken  petticoat,  in  dress  of  gris  and 
mantle  of  fine  scarlet  cloth  lined  with 
vair;  adorned  with  rich  crescents  of  gold, 
and  collars,  combs,  bracelets,  ear-rings, 
girdles,  chains,  rings,  owches,  mirrors, 
golden  baldrics,  shawls  of  silk,  with 
lacets  and  ribbons  and  veils  of  lawn,  and 
other  luxuries  and  jewels  in  attire;  and 
in  the  tiring  their  hair  was  tressed  with 
filaments  of  gold. 



Of  the  Great  Office  composed  for  the 
Apostle's  feast,  as  it  was  believed,  by  Ful- 
bert  of  Chartres,  I  have  said  something 
already.  All  the  hymns  of  S.  James  have 
splendid  passages,  and  among  the  anti- 
phons  preserved  at  Compostella  are  two 
pieces,  one  very  pretty  and  lyrical,  where 
the  waves  dance  about  the  God-led  boat, 
and  the  golden  stars  hang  low :  the  other  a 
set  of  long  sonorous  triplets,  in  which  the 
solemn  chorus  will  have  rung  and  rolled 
magnificently  under  the  brooding  vault. 
But  I  know  of  nothing  to  match  this 
Farse,  from  the  opening  call  of  the  Can- 
tors, while  the  celebrant  is  vesting,  after 
the  procession,  in  his  chasuble  stiffened 
with  more  than  Byzantine  pomp  of  gems 
and  gold, 

"Ecce,  adest  nunc  Jacobus —  " 

to  the  closing  doxology  after  the  Benedic- 

"Quia  sedes  aethereas 
Ascendid,  Deo  gratlas. " 



One  of 





The  Introit  is  astounding,  in  its  applica- 
tions of  Scripture  and  its  implications  of 
adoration,  and  as  these  bull-voiced  Boaner- 
ges, these  hierophants  of  the  Son  of  Thun- 
der, bellowed  out,  in  antiphonal  roaring 
that  would  rise  and  fall  in  the  crowded 
darkness  like  the  sound  of  great  winds 
and  mighty  waters,  the  testimony  which 
heavens  declare  and  the  firmament  showeth, 
the  multitude  would  hear  the  very  Voice 
which  thundered  out  of  a  terrible  cloud 
on  the  Mount  of  Tabor,  proclaiming 
that  this  was  His  beloved  son.  They  had 
been  summoned  by  the  echoing  and  re- 
echoing choirs,  Kings  of  the  earth  and  all 
peoples,  princes  and  all  judges  of  the  earth, 
young  men  and  maidens,  old  men  and 
children,  to  praise  the  name  of  their  Lord, 
and  to  hear  the  word,  how  Jesus  called 
James  the  son  of  Zebedee,  and  John  the 
brother  of  James  (for,  repeated  softly- 
breathing  and  soaring  voices,  it  is  good — 
how  good  it  is!  for  brethren  to  dwell  to- 
gether in  unity),  and  He  called  them  Sons 
of  Thunder.  Then  came  the  voice  out  of 
the  Cloud,  that  acknowledged  the  sonship, 



and  there  followed,  like  the  breaking  of  a 
sea  in  storm  " Quod  est  filii  tonitrui."  And 
when  the  heavens  have  declared,  and  the 
sea,  and  all  creeping  things,  the  calling 
comes  again,  and  the  sending  to  preach  the 
Kingdom  of  God,  and  the  thunder  comes 
back,  and  a  mighty  voice  from  heaven  "In 
the  beginning  was  the  Word,"  and  once 
more  the  word  is  the  same,  "Quod  est  filii 
tonitrui.,,  So  the  Gloria  rolls  through  the 
aisles  and  farthest  chapels,  dying  away 
in  the  long  rumble,  in  saecula  saeculorum, 
amen.  But  the  rapture  bursts  out  once 
more:  "O  all  ye  people  clap  your  hands, 
and  praise  ye  God  with  a  voice  of  exulta- 
tion, for  the  high  Lord  is  terrible,  a  great 
king":  and  the  answer  takes  it  up,  the 
calling,  and  the  brothers'  names,  and 
Boanerges,  and  the  Sons  of  Thunder. 

The  Kyrie,  however,  depends  on  the 
music,  on  the  wailing  that  rises  and  falls 
and  never  quite  dies  away,  and  it  will  have 
been  very  beautiful .  Rex  immense,  it  begins, 

Rex  immense,  pater  pie, 






Kyrie  eleison, 
Palmo  cuncta  qui  concludis, 

Kyrie,  eleison, 
Sother,  theos  athanatos, 

Kyrie,  eleison. 

Christe  fili  patris  summi.  .  .  . 

so  it  goes  on,  "  qui  de  coelis  descendisti  .  .  . 
tuum  plasma  redemisti."   The  Paraclete  is 

Consolator,  dulcis  amor  .  .  . 

Qui  Jacobum  illustrasti  .  .  . 
Cujus  prece  nobis  parce, 

Kyrie,  eleison. I7 


There  is  nothing  surprising  here,  except 
the  application  of  the  cult-epithet  Saviour 
(SwcT^p,  Soter,  Salvador)  to  the  first  per- 
son of  the  Trinity;  it  is  all  tender,  ex- 
quisite, delicately  impassioned.     The  long 
passage  which  is  headed  Epistola,  and  in- 
cludes what  takes  the  place  of  the  Gos- 





pel,  is  partly  narrative,  partly  lyrical,  but 
all  antiphonal.  The  hymn  after  the  Sanc- 
tus  is  a  wild  rejoicing,  broken  upon  by 
thunderous  Amens,  and  the  Agnus,  as  it 
says  itself,  pius  ac  mitis  es,  clemens  aique 
suavis.  But  enough  has  been  given  to  show 
the  power  and  beauty  of  the  composition, 
and  the  strange  devotion,  the  concentrated 
and  exclusive  emotion,  which  was  the 
worship  of  the  Son  of  Thunder.  To  this 
day,  that  name  is  the  favourite  with  Span- 
iards, such  modern  scholars  for  instance 
as  the  late  Menendez  Pelayo  and  Fr.  Fidel 
Fita  of  the  Academy. 

What  this  grand  Office  would  have  been 
like,  I  despair  of  conveying  to  the  reader: 
but  let  him,  if  he  will,  take  his  part  in  a 
reading  of  an  itinerant  poet  until,  lifted 
up  and  borne  on  by  the  great  wave  of 
common  feeling,  he  finds  himself  carried 
beyond  what  is  of  every  day  and  of  the 
single  self,  and  new  senses  opening  in  him' 
to  new  emotions.  That  offers  the  nearest 
parallel  that  I  know  to  the  complex  of  rit- 
ual worship  at  a  far-sought  shrine,  and  the 
unguessed  exaltation  of  the  soul  as  though 



O  Adonai 
el  dux  .  . 





it  should  take  the  wings  of  the  morning, 

and  the  incredible  loss  of  the  personality 


as  under  the  silent  procession  of  the  stars. 

et  colles 

The  words  matter  little,  so  long  as  they 

bunt  .  .  . 

are  good  words.     What  did  you  see  in 

Palestine?  will  serve  very  well,  or  this: 

King  Solomon  he  had  four  hundred 


We  were  the  oxen. 

You  shall  feel  goads  no  more, 

Walk  dreadful  roads  no  more, 

Free  from  your  loads 

For  ten  thousand  years.  .  .  . 

and  the  Congregation  rises  and  joins  the 


".  .  .  .  Glory,  Glory, 

*et  omnia 

We  were  his  people." 



So  is  the  mystic  ecstasy  attained. 


A  document  that  L6pez  Ferreiro  pub- 

lished, 1 8  in  which  Dona  Elvira,  the  daugh- 

ter of  Ferdinand  the  Great,  gives  to  the 

Apostle  the  monastery  of  Pilono  along 

with  many  other  properties,  opens  in  the 





same  sort  of  oriental  rapture,  and  calls 
him  by  strange-sounding  classical  cult 
epithets,  invictissimus  and  triumphatar. 
It  goes  somewhat  as  follows: 

In  nomine  genitalis  ac  unigeniti, 
patris  et  filii  et  Spiritus  Sane t us.  Ego 
indigna  geloira  Fredinandi  principis  filia. 
Timens  et  pauens  oram  extremitatis  mee 
dum  fatali  casu  deducere  me  volueris 
ante  dignissimum  conspectum  tuum 
preuidens  meo  intellectu  et  memoria  ut 
ex  quo  a  te  accepi  iterum  tibi  concederem. 
Sicus  dicit  propheta.  Cuncta  que  in  celo 
et  que  in  terra  sunt,  tua  sunt  domine. 
Tuum  regnum,  tue  divitie,  tue  virtus  et 
potent ia.  Tu  dominaris  in  omnibus  et 
per  omnia.  Peregrinienimsumus  coram 
te.  Presta  domine  hec  voluntas  cordis 
mei  ut  maneat  perheniter  in  tue  venera- 
tionis  auxilio.  Ego  jam  predicta  Geloira 
vobis  domino  meo  invictissimo  ale  trium- 
phatori  glorioso  apostolo  iacobo  patrono 
meo,  cuiis  corpus  manet  reconditum 
manet  arciuo  loco,  et  ecclesia  dignos- 
citur  esse  fundata  et  tuo  sco.  nomini 
dedicata  in  terra  Galecie  et  finibus 
amaee.  .  .  . 



1 62 

honor  virtus 
Quoque  .  .  . 


Amaya,  these  early  donations  call  the  field 
where  the  lights  were  seen,  which  seems  to 
have  been  a  town.  I  have  copied  the  exact 
words  here  upon  the  page  of  the  text,  feel- 
ing that  without  them  no  reader  would 
admit  that  it  was  possible  for  a  Christian 
and  a  Queen,  in  the  close  of  the  eleventh 
century,  to  call  a  mortal  man,  however 
well-canonized,  by  the  titles  of  God  Al- 
mighty, to  come  before  his  countenance  in 
fear  and  trembling,  and  say,  "All  things 
that  are  in  heaven  and  earth  are  thine,  O 
Lord ;  Thine  is  the  kingdom,  Thine  the  riches 
and  strength  and  power  ['For  Thine  is 
the  Kingdom  and  the  power  and  the  glory,' 
she  had  said  often  enough] ;  Thou  shalt  rule 
in  all  and  through  all. "  And  in  the  close  she 
looks  to  him  that  by  his  intercession  her 
sins  may  be  remitted,  and  she  may  attain 
eternal  life,  .  .  .  and  he  shall  cleanse  her 
soul  and  those  of  her  father  and  mother 
from  the  universal  contagion,  that  they 
may  enter  the  gates  to  everlasting  life. 



The  Church  of  a  Dream. 

The  mind  shall  build  the 
fabric  and  shall  keep 

Its  nurslings  in  the  room  of 
dreams  unsolved. 

Where  lies  their  grim  un- 
meaning horoscope. 

At  the  same  time  that  he  made  the 
frontal  and  the  baldachin,  D.  Diego  made 
all  fair  in  the  confessio,  to  which  steps  went 
down  from  under  the  tabernacle.1  This 
must  not  be  conceived  as  an  open  crypt 
like  those  at  Modena  and  Verona,  under 
the  Romanesque  raised  choir  of  parallel 
apses,  nor  even  quite  like  the  Confessio  at  S. 
Peter's,  though  that  would  fit  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  Compostellana,  and  agree  with 
S.  Eulalia's  shrine  at  Barcelona,  but  a  true 
subterranean  chamber,  to  which  the  new 
stairs  went  down  from  between  two  columns 
of  the  baldachin  and  were  lost  in  darkness, 
though  the  crypt  was  blazing  carbunculis 
paradisiacis  divinis,  below.  Over  the  tomb 
is  an  altar,  and  right  above  that  the  high 
altar  stands:  Aymery  is  clear  as  usual 
about  that,  and  the  measurements  of  that 
and  the  high  altar,  and  the  proper  size  if 




culis para- 

1 64 



tinople and 
at  Assisi 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

anyone  wanted  to  make  pall  or  altar-cloth 
foi  a  gift.  But  I  think  he  had  never  been 
inside  that  fairy  place,  with  all  its  candles 
and  all  its  perfumes. 

The  notion  of  a  secret  and  subterranean 
church,  arid  even  of  three  churches,  one 
above  the  other,  is  like  a  bit  out  of  a  fairy 
tale,  that  haunts  the  imagination.  This  was 
believed  of  S.  Sophia  at  Constantinople: 
in  the  fifteenth  century  Bertrandon  de  la 
Brocquiere  wrote  that  "it  is  of  a  circular 
shape  .  .  .  and  formed  of  three  different 
parts,  one  subterraneous,  another  above  the 
ground,  and  a  third  over  that." 2  The  same 
story  was  told  of  Assisi,  how  S.  Francis 
stood,  hands  crossed,  head  upturned,  whole 
and  uncorrupt,  in  an  underground  hidden 
church  far  surpassing  in  grandeur  and 
beauty  the  Lower  Church  with  Simone's 
frescoes  and  the  Upper  Church  with  Giot- 
to's. When  Vasari  writes  soberly,  "The 
tomb  containing  the  body  of  the  glorious 
saint  is  in  the  lowest  church,  where  no  one 
enters,  and  whose  doors  are  walled  up," 
he  is  simply  rationalizing,  after  his  kind, 
the  local  legend,  and  when  the  tomb  was 




violated  in  1818,  and  the  monstrous  erec- 
tion of  dark  and  heavy  marbles  was  edified 
in  the  kindly  earth,  that  every  tourist 
might  gape  and  chatter  at  his  ease  there  as 
in  his  inn,  the  then  Pope  was  only  fulfilling, 
with  a  touching  grossness  of  literality, 
this  vision  of  the  splendours  of  an  "  invisible 
church,"  a  house  not  made  with  hands. 
In  the  Collis  Parodist  Amoenitas,  published 
at  Montefalconi  in  1704,  figures  a  plan  and 
a  picture  of  it,  in  which  it  corresponds 
roughly  to  the  church  above.  "The 
vaulted  roof  is  supported  by  slender 
columns  with  chiselled  capitals,  and  the 
walls  and  floor  are  ornamented  with  marbles 
and  mosaics  of  different  colours,"  writes 
one  who  has  examined  the  book  of  the 
Padre  Angeli.  Now  the  Pelegrino  curioso, 
visiting  Santiago  in  1577,  relates  that  the 
crypt  was  as  big  as  the  church  above. 
This  was  entirely  from  hearsay,  for  Morales, 
five  years  before,  armed  with  full  authority 
from  the  King  of  Spain,  could  not  penetrate, 
and  wrote,  in  the  Viaje  Santo  (1572),  that 
it  was  Archbishop  Gelmirez  himself  who 
closed  up  the  entrance  to  the  crypt  where 





1 66 


The  wind 
from  a 
grave  .  . 


the  apostle  lay,  that  none  might  penetrate. 3 
In  the  Historia  del  Glorioso  Aposiol  Santiago 
the  Fr.  Hernando  de  Ojea  affirmed  (1615) 
that  "D.  Diego  Gelmirez  had  closed  with 
strong  ashlar  and  mortar  the  doors  of  the 
chapel  where  the  sacred  body  lies;  so  that 
not  only  the  body  but  even  the  tomb  and 
the  chapel  in  which  it  lies,  might  not  be 
seen  thenceforward."  Even  when  in  1589 
Drake  came  to  Corunna,  this  remained 
intact.  With  the  idea  of  removing  these 
relics  with  the  rest  to  Orense,  the  Arch- 
bishop D.  Juan  de  S.  Clemente  commenced 
works,  but  a  great  wind  and  a  great  light 
came  out  of  the  sepulchre  and  he  gave  over 
the  attempt.  We  know  that  wind,  it  has 
blown  out  of  a  thousand  caves,  on  a  thou- 
sand adventurers  in  magic  places.  Said  the 
Archbishop,  "Let  us  leave  the  Apostle, 
he  will  take  care  of  himself  and  take  care 
of  us."  In  1665  the  Canon  Vega  y  Ver- 
dugo,  the  same  who  sketched  the  retable, 
was  officially  enquiring  "<£Por  que  nos  dejan 
tapadas  las  escalerillas  que  bajaban  al 
cripto  del  Santo  Apostol?"  It  must  be 
remembered,  here,  that  the  wide  tribunes 



at  Santiago,  turning  as  they  did  around 
the  apse  and  spanning  the  western  porch, 
actually  constituted  a  sort  of  Upper  Church 
and  were  thus  used.  The  great  Archbishop 
consecrated  three  altars  in  three  chapels 
there;  he  entered  habitually  by  this  way 
from  the  palace:  at  times,  for  instance 
in  the  rising  when  they  were  besieged  in 
one  of  the  towers,  he  and  Dona  Urraca 
have  the  air  of  living  there  most  of  the 
time.  Aymery  calls  them  always  Palacio. 
So,  like  Constantinople  and  Assisi,  Com- 
postella  counts  three  churches  one  above 
another.  Certain  pilgrims,  arriving  after 
nightfall  and  miraculously  admitted  saw 
the  whole  church  blazing  with  light. 4 

In  1480  Erich  Lassota  of  Steblova,  an 
honest  man  and  a  loyal  soldier,  but  heavy- 
witted,  set  down  in  his  diary  that  there 
were  two  "b6vedas"  or  churches  one 
above  the  other,  i.  e.,  an  Upper  and  a  Lower 
Church,  crypt  and  nave,  with  a  gallery 
above. s   That  was  all  he  could  take  in. 

These  churches  underground,  ablaze 
with  lamps,  breathless  with  perfume,  filled 
with  the  rustle  of  awed  movement  and  the 



Sed  Deus 
dum  luce 


as  Erich 




1 68 

Assisi,  and 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

sound  of  sobbing,  historically  go  back, 
probably,  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre  and  the 
other  pilgrimage  places  about  Jerusalem. 
An  Italian  traveller  in  1306,  Torsello 
Sanuto,6  notes  that  the  scene  also  of  the 
Annunciation,  of  the  Nativity,  of  the 
Marriage  at  Cana,  lie  all  in  caves,  and 
churches  are  built  above.  And  the  legend 
has  attached  itself  to  the  three  churches  in 
Christendom  which  have  drawn  men  from 
far,  have  haunted  their  hearts  and  stirred 
them  with  a  greater  love,  with  a  stranger 
longing,  with  a  more  exotic  allurement, 
than  any  others.  The  name  of  Rome  is 
like  no  other  name,  but  there  is  not  one 
sole  Roman  church  like  S.  Sophia,  or  the 
shrine  of  Santiago  or  S.  Francesco.  And 
these  two  saints  are  those  who  have  come 
nearest,  in  all  Christianity,  to  supplanting 
the  Founder  himself.  S.  Francesco  for  a 
moment  was  a  warmer,  nearer  rival  of 
Jesus,  and  Santiago  for  centuries  was  more 
potent  than  the  pale  Christ  who  walked 
among  the  Golden  Candlesticks.  On  the 
baldachin,  as  already  described,  S.  James 
usurps  the  seat,  the  function,  the  very 




gesture  and  attribute  of  his  Master,  and 
if  Fr.  Fita  is  right,  then  above  his  statue 
on  the  portal  the  nimbus  is  cross-marked, 
and  if  Fr.  Dreves  is  right,  then  the  pil- 
grims' song  invokes  Got  Sanctiagu. 

The  best  description  I  know  of  the  stairs 
that  go  down  into  sacred  darkness,  and  the 
lights,  and  the  devotion,  is  given  by  a 
French  traveller: 

.  .  .  Dans  les  echoppes  .  .  .  des  ob- 
jets  d'obscure  ptete*  chr£tienne:  chapelets 
par  milliers,  croix,  lampes  religieuses, 
images.  .  .  .  Et  la  foule  est  plus  serree, 
et  d'autres  pelerins  .  .  .  stationnent  pour 
acheter  d'humbles  petits  rosaires  en 
bois,  d'humbles  petits  crucifix  de  deux 
sous,  qu'ils  emporteront  d'ici  comme  des 
reliques  a  jamais  sacrees.  .  .  .  Cette 
place  est  encombree  de  pauvres  et  de 
pauvresses,  qui  mendient  en  chantant; 
de  p&lerins  qui  prient;  de  vendeurs  de 
croix  et  de  chapelets,  qui  ont  leurs  petits 
6talages  a  terre,  sur  les  vieilles  dalles 
usees  et  venerables.  ...  La  facade 
...  a  deux  enormes  portes  du  XIIe 
siecle,  encadrees  d'ornements  d'un  arch- 



Pilgrim  s* 





WAY    OF    S;  J  AMES 

aisme  Strange;  Tune  est  muree;  l'autre, 
grande  ouverte,  laisse  voir,  dans  Pob- 
scurite*  interieure,  des  milliers  de  petites 
flammes.  Des  chants,  des  cris,  des 
lamentations  discordantes,  lugubres  a 
entendre,  s'en  echappent  avec  des 
senteurs  d'encens.  .  .  . 

La  porte  franchie,  on  est  dans  Pom- 
bre  seculaire  d'une  sorte  de  vestibule, 
decouvrant  des  profondeurs  magnifiques 
ou  brulent  d,innombrables  lampes.  .  .  . 
Oh!  Tinattendue  et  inoubliable  impres- 
sion, pen&rer  la  pour  la  premiere  fois! 
.  .  .  De  sanctuaires  sombres  ...  les 
uns,  sureleves,  comme  de  hautes  tribunes 
ou  Ton  apercoit,  dans  des  reculs  imprecis, 
des  groupes  de  femmes  en  longs  voiles; 
les  autres,  souterrains,  ou  Ton  coudoie 
des  ombres,  entre  des  parois  de  rocher 
demeurees  intactes,  suintantes  et  noires. 
Tout  cela,  dans  une  demi-nuit,  a  part 
quelques  grandes  tombees  de  rayons  qui 
accentuent  encore  les  obscurites  voisines; 
tout  cela  6toi\6  a  l'infini  par  les  petites 
flammes  des  lampes  d'argent  et  d'or  qui 
descendent  par  milliers  des  vcutes.  Et 
partout  des  foules,  circulant  confondues 
comme  dans  une  Babel,  ou  bien  station- 



nant  a  peu  pres  groupies  par  nation 
autour  des  tabernacles  d'or  ou  Ton 
officie.  .  .  .  Sous  les  hautes  colonnes, 
dans  les  galeries  ten£breuses,  mille  petites 
flammes  se  suivent  ou  se  croisent.  Des 
hommes  prient  a  haute  voix,  pleurent 
a  sanglots,  courant  d'une  chapelle  a 
Pautre.  .  .  ,7 

The  eight  piers  and  arches  of  the  chevet 
were  open  and  unencumbered,  as  they  are 
today  in  the  great  Norman  churches,  for 
the  Compostellana  says  expressly  that  the 
precious  altar  and  the  lofty  baldachin  over 
it,  drew  the  eye  from  every  side.  The 
painted  statue  of  S.  James  that  is  now  en- 
throned there,  belongs  to  the  thirteenth 
century,  like  that  above  the  place  of  offer- 
ings, on  the  north-east  pier,  and  that  of  his 
mother  which  corresponds  on  the  south- 
east, Mary  Salome.  Above  the  statue,  as 
pilgrims  tell,  and  a  document  confirms,8 
hung  a  crown  by  a  chain,  and  it  was  the 
pilgrims'  custom  to  put  that  crown  on  their 
own  heads.  Erich  Lassota  thought9  he 
remembered  two  crowns,  one.  at  Iria  and 




The  Crown 





one  at  Compostella:  the  Pelegrino  curioso 
thought  the  crown  was  upon  the  seated 
statue,  and  pilgrims  took  it  off  and  put  it 
on  their  own  heads.  That  hanging  crown, 
however,  was  a  bit  of  Byzantine  imperial 
splendour,  deliberately  copied  here  in  the 
West.  Benjamin  of  Tudela  in  describing 
the  throne  room  at  Blachernes,  wrote  in 
1161,  "the  throne  in  this  palace  is  of  gold, 
and  ornamented  with  precious  stones;  a 
golden  crown  hangs  over  it,  suspended  on  a 
chain  of  the  same  material,  the  length  of 
which  exactly  admits  the  emperor  to  sit 
under  it."10  This  crown,  moreover,  is  a 
part  of  the  panoply  of  heaven;  in  Adam- 
nan's  Vision  it  is  placed  above  the  Throne 
of  God":  in  the  Pblerinage  de  VAme  the 
Virgin  alone,  exalted  above  all  other 
creatures,  like  the  Spouse  in  Canticles,  has 
constant  access  to  her  Son  in  the  God- 
head and,  like  Esther  before  Ahasuerus, 
goes  in  under  the  crown.12  Finally,  in 
the  Chymical  Marriage  of  Christian  Rosen- 
creutz,  it  is  still  hanging  above  the  King 
and  Queen. 1 3  In  the  time  of  Manier  the 
crown  was  gone,  and  pilgrims  scrambled 



up  some  steps  behind  the  altar,  such  as 
acolytes  use,  to  kiss  the  image,  and  put 
their  tippets  on  his  shoulders,  their  hats 
on  his  head.  * 4 

As  Pilgrims  Pass 

Mas;  j^ue  fanalismo, 
locura  mlstica,  vertigo  dele 
.  .  ./  Y  como  la  mds  bella 
cosa  del  mundo,  me  des- 
criba  las  escenas  espantosas 
de  la  gran  orgia  mistica. 
— Gomez  Carrillo. 

In  the  great  years,  and  at  the  height 
of  the  season,  this  church  must  have  been 
— God  forgive  me! — rather  like  Coney 
Island.  Not  that  there  were  habitually, 
what  the  Knight  of  Rozmital  once  beheld, 
cows  and  horses  stabled  therein,  people 
cooking,  dressing  and  sleeping, z  but  simply 
that  immense  crowds  kept  arriving,  and 
tramping  through,  like  a  dozen  Cook's 
parties  in  a  day,  and  everything  had  to  be 
shown  to  them,  and  everything  explained 
so  that  those  on  the  outskirts  could  hear, 



A  dozen 




One  Lord, 
one  Faith, 
one  Sac- 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

and  offerings  had  to  be  accepted  and  if 
necessary  stimulated,  and  the  sacraments 
of  penance  and  the  Mass  somehow  put 
through,  with  the  perpetual  lisping  rustle 
at  confessionals  and  the  perpetual  tinkle 
of  sacring  bells  at  minor  altars.  At  the 
high  altar  only  once  a  day  is  offered  the 
one  Sacrifice.  The  pilgrims  pushed  about 
stupidly,  in  the  dark,  and  asked  each  other 
where  one  went  for  the  certificate  of  con- 
fession, and  Where  one  went  for  the  certifi- 
cate of  communion,  and  how  much  money 
to  have  ready  for  each,  in  the  exact 
change,  because  of  the  crowding.  Like 
Erich  Lassota,2  Manier3  copies  out  the 
formulae  and  sets  down  the  prices  of  his 

Alms  were  given  as  well  as  accepted:  the 
archbishop's  almoner  gave  a  cuarto  to  each 
of  his  party,  and  he  found  in  the  town  a 
perpetual  free  lunch  system.  Here  is  the 
record  of  one  day:  Mass  at  nine,  in  the 
cathedral,  then  to  dinner  at  S.  Francisco 
at  eleven  precisely,  on  bread,  soup,  and 
meat.  At  twelve,  soup  at  S.  Martin,  with 
stock-fish  and  meat  and  excellent  bread. 



At  one  o'clock,  to  S.  Teresa,  for  bread  and 
meat:  at  two  to  the  Jesuits  for  bread;  at 
four  to  S.  Domingo,  outside  the  town,  for 
soup,  which  does  for  supper.  Then  to  the 
Hospital  and  to  sleep  in  excellent  beds; 
this  was  in  November,  when  night  falls 
soon.  One  day,  when  Manier  was  at  S. 
Martin,  he  saw  a  Scotchman  who  was  black 
as  the  chimney-back,  and  astonished  the 
party;  the  reader  may  remember  that  Kip- 
ling, being  equally  astonished  with  the 
same  anomaly,  has  preserved  it  in  the 
coloured  cook  who  spoke  in  Gaelic,  of 
Captains  Courageous.  Travellers'  tales,  we 

Out  of  the  Constituciones  of  the  Holy 
Apostolic  and  Metropolitan  Church  Sr. 
Lopez  Ferreiro  has  extracted  a  sort  of  order 
of  the  day  for  vergers  and  others,  drawn  up 
in  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century. 
"Haec  sunt  consuetudines  quas  custodes 
arche  opens  Bti.  Jacobi  consueverunt 
observare  cum  custodibus  altaris." 

From  the  time  the  bell  sounds  for 
early  mass,  a  clerk,  with  the  verger  in 



His  tes- 
timony is 


1 76 

tions as 

WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

charge  of  the  ark,  the  chest  which  re- 
ceived offerings  for  the  works,  is  to 
station  himself,  and  the  verger,  with  his 
wand,  to  touch  pilgrims  on  back  and 
arms,  and  keep  them  moving:  they 
must  not  stop  long  enough  for  any 
writing,  nor  for  any  discussion  and  dis- 
turbance. The  clerk  is  to  be  vested  and 
to  stand  upon  the  ark,  which  is  the  most 
important  thing  in  the  church,  and 
phrases  are  provided  by  which  foreigners 
shall  understand  this.  To  the  French 
he  will  say:  Zee  larcha  de  lobra  monsefior 
Samanin;  zee  lobra  de  la  gresa  [C'est 
Parche  de  Tceuvre  de  Monseigneur  Saint 
James;  c'est  Pceuvre  de  l'eglise].  To 
Lombards  and  Tuscans  he  shall  say  0 
Micer  Lombardo,  queste  larcha  de  la 
lavoree  de  Micer  Sajocotne.  Questo  vay 
a  la  gage  fayre.  And  to  peasants  he  shall 
say:  Et  vos  de  Campos  et  del  extremo,  acd 
venide  d  la  archa  de  la  obra  de  Senor  Sant- 
iago, las  comendas  que  trahedes  de  mortos, 
et  de  vivos  para  la  obra  de  sefwr  Santiago 
acd  las  echade  et  non  en  outra  parte.  The 
last  sentence  seems  meant  for  English: 
Betom  a  atrom  Sang  yama,  a  atrom  de 
labro.    There  he  stands,  calling  and  cry- 


T'H  E     BOURNE 

ing,  all  day  long,  and  no  man  can  get  his 
pardon  before  giving  up  his  money, 
except  that  while  the  indulgence  is  read 
out  he  and  all  the  vergers  must  keep 
silence;  but  if  any  man  wants  to  lay  an 
offering  on  the  altar,  he  is  bound  to  point 
out  to  that  man  where  the  altar  is, 
though  he  is  permitted  to  show  also 
where  the  ark  stands.  So,  the  order 
is  prescribed  in  which  the  marvels  are  to 
be  shown,  first  the  altar,  then  the  crown, 
then  the  cross-steps  that  go  up  thither, 
and  the  chain,  and  then  the  ark.  Simi- 
larly, if  someone  wishes  to  carry  some- 
thing to  the  treasury,  the  verger  is  to 
ask  if  the  gift  is  made  to  S.  James  or 
to  the  works:  if  the  former,  he  may  put  it 
himself  on  the  altar,  if  the  latter,  put  it 
himself  in  the  chest.  When  necessary 
the  clerk  can  unvest  himself  and  help  to 
carry  offerings,  but  he  must  see  that  a 
verger  remains  in  charge  of  the  ark,  or 
that  some  man  sitting  on  the  steps,  with- 
out a  wand,  is  watching  the  linen,  wax, 
etc.,  without  touching  the  pilgrims.  But 
if  at  such  a  time  any  pilgrim  asks  where 
the  ark  is,  he  must  show  him  well  and 



cross,  and 



Old  rags 
hung  up 

Shown  at 



WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

To  the  Cruz  de  los  Harapos  on  the  roof, 
the  pilgrims  climbed,  and  thereon  hung,  not 
their  travel-worn  garments,  exchanging  these 
for  new  as  some  have  held,  but  any  rag  or 
scrap  of  clothing,  with  magical  intent,  by  a 
use  most  accident  and  primitive. 

The  staff  which  S.  James  had  used  in  his 
long  wanderings  was  shown  also  and  so  is, 
indeed,  unto  this  day,  if  anyone  cares  to 
ask  for  it.  The  Canon  L6pez  Ferreiro,  who 
had  as  stout  a  stomach  for  marvels  as 
the  next,  published  a  drawing  thereof, 4  a 
column  of  cast  bronze  enclosing  the  re- 
mains of  the  pilgrim's  staff, — borddn  in 
Spanish  and  in  French  bourdon.  It  is 
adorned  with  a  band  of  decoration  wound 
spirally  around,  like  the  ornament  of  the 
marble  shafts  at  the  west :  the  whole  topped 
with  a  capital  leafy  as  the  head  of  a  date- 
palm.  Lassota,  who  saw  here  Roland's 
horn,  also  took  notice  of  this, s  and  Nicholas 
of  Poppelau, 6  and  the  Secretary  of  Rozmi- 
tal:  Tetzel,7  naming  the  chain  with  which 
S.  James  was  bound,  adds  that  whosoever 
seeking  sanctuary  could  reach  that  chain 
and  wrap  it  about  his  body,  was  safe. 




They  saw  just  such  a  banner  as  hung  at 
I^eon,  of  the  saint  in  a  white  cloak  on  a 
white  horse,  killing  Moors.  In  this  con- 
nection I  should  perhaps  declare,  touching 
the  matter  of  the  rather  coarse  relief  built 
into  a  recess  up  in  the  south  transept,  that 
it  is  in  its  own  way  as  fabulous  as  any  of  the 
rest.  It  is  not  "of  great  historical  im- 
portance, "  for  it  is  Romanesque  work  of  the 
twelfth  century  like  the  rest:  if  any  com- 
mittee of  Spanish  architects  recognized 
it  as  belonging  to  the  church  of  Alfonso 
III  they  spoke  unwisely. 8 

But  the  sacristan  must  have  something 
to  say,  and  of  S.  James  Matamoros  he  has 
indeed  but  little,  for  that  aspect  of  the 
cult  of  the  Apostle  belongs  more  properly 
to  the  Ebro  basin  and  the  region  of  the 
Iberian  horseman,  as  you  see  him,  Castor 
or  another,  on  early  coins.9  Here  at  the 
world's  end,  the  Apostle  rules  as  Lord  of 
the  dead,  as  Far-traveller.  He  came  weary 
and  found  rest,  springs  welled  up  to  refresh 
him,  and  about  the  hillside  where  men 
saw  the  little  lights,  were  leafy  groves  of 
fruit-trees10;  and  to  pilgrims  it  was  told 







So  to 
this  day 

WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

how  when  S.  James  first  sent  his  disciples 
through  Spain,  he -gave  them  good  seed  to 
sow,  and  how  after  he  was  buried  there  at 
the  last,  the  nettles  and  tares  that  had 
sprung  up,  died  down,  and  harvests  were 
bountiful. x  x 

The  average  pilgrim,  however,  muddle- 
headed  or  tired  or  foolish,  conformed  to  the 
practices  of  the  place,  and  was  protected 
against  extortion  or  outrage.  In  1478  the 
Archbishop  and  Chapter  were  sending  a 
special  messenger  to  the  king  about  the 
harm  done  to  Romeyros  and  pilgrims  who 
came  to  S.  James. x  2  On  the  other  hand,  a 
reasonable  provision  was  made  to  receive 
offerings  in  kind:  of  the  oil  I  have  spoken 
already,  and  the  Constitutions  already  cited 
rule  that  the  verger  in  charge  may  not  re- 
ceive the  image  of  a  man  or  a  horse,  nor 
any  other  form,  nor  incense,  nor  any  stuffs: 
nor  anywhere  in  the  church  are  iron  staves 
received,  nor  iron  nor  leaden  crosses,  yet 
at  the  altar  a  good  sword  may  be  taken, 
or  a  good  bell.13  It  is  all  astonishingly 

Sebastian  Ilsung,  who  was  there  in  1448, 



feels  something  more.  "In  olden  days  it 
was  a  great  pagan  temple,"  he  says  amaz- 
ingly, "...  there  was  much  to  tell  if  there 
were  time.  Every  day  great  miracles 
were  done."14  But  he  finds  time  to  tell 
how  he  could  not  dine  with  the  Archbishop 
because  he 'was  leaving,  and  so  the  Arch- 
bishop sent  six  pairs  of  pheasants  and  as 
many  of  capons  to  his  lodging.  Nicholas 
of  Poppelau,  forty  years  later,  doubtless 
thought  it  all  very  magnificent,  but  cares 
more  to  relate  what  gift  he  accepted  from 
the  King  of   Portugal,   viz.   a  brace  of 




Castle  and  Church. 

Pensamiento  mio 
no  me  dels  tal  guerra 
pues  sots  en  la  tierra 
de  quien  solofio. 
— Diego  Hurtado  de  Mendoza. 

In  between  these  two  comes  the  visit 
of  the  noble  Bohemian,  Lev  de  Rozmital  de 
Blatna,  of  whose  journey  through  Spain  and 
Portugal  the  two  accounts,  written  one  in 



A  great 
temple  . 


Knight  of 

1 82 

The  ivy 


WAY    OF     S.  JA  MES 

Latin,  and  the  other  in  some  barbarous 
German  by  his  secretaries,  preserve  strange 
matters,  and  amongst  others  a  bit  of 
Spanish  history  which  his  editors  have 
thought  was  not  elsewhere  recounted. 
Schaschek,  in  the  former,  describes1  the 
approach  to  the  city  from  Padron,  by  a 
hilly  road  and  the  first  view  of  it: 

"The  city  of  Santiago  is  situated  among 
high  mountains,  is  very  spacious,  and  is 
girt  with  a  single  wall,  the  battlements  of 
which  on  one  side  are  full  of  yellow  violets 
that  you  can  see  far  off,  and  on  another 
the  ivy  is  so  thick  that  it  seems  a  wood. 
A  broad  ditch  goes  around,  and  above  rise 
square  towers  of  an  ancient  kind,  nowhere 
far  apart."  They  arrived  in  August,  to 
find  the  townsfolk  had  risen  and  held 
the  city,  the  Archbishop,  and  twenty-three 
priests:  they  were  besieging  the  cathedral, 
but  the  Prelate's  mother  and  brother  had 
barricaded  the  doors  and  were  making  a  good 
resistance.  Consequently  Galicia  lay  under 
an  interdict,  the  babes  were  not  baptized, 
the  dead  were  not  buried.  Nevertheless, 
the   whole   land   sided   with   their   lord, 




Bernard  Yafiez  de  Moscoso  who  was  be- 
sieging the  city.  The  Lord  Lev  himself 
visited  the  Baron  and  courteously  asked 
his  leave  to  visit  the  Cathedral  in  precisely 
the  terms  we  ail  have  ready  at  the  tongue's 
tip:  he  had  visited  many  courts  and  jour- 
neyed through  many  lands,  even  heathen- 
esse, to  come  to  the  place  where  lay  S. 
James's  bones,  and  these  with  him  had  a 
very  earnest  desire  to  see  these  famous 
places:  and  the  Baron  replied  civilly, 
but  doubted  whether,  if  he  should  let  the 
gentleman  go  in,  the  other  party  would  let 
him  get  out  again.  His  opinion  of  the 
Archbishop's  mother  was  like  what  some 
have  held  of  Dona  Urraca.  However, 
they  tried  it.  The  lady  then  pointed  out, 
to  begin,  that  they  were  all  in  a  state  of 
excommunication  because  they  had  had 
dealings  with  the  besiegers,  and  they  went 
through  ceremonial  purifications  quite 
such  as  would  be  exacted  if  the  besiegers 
had  small-pox:  they  were  taken  into  a 
tower  where  was  a  tank,  but  that  was  dry, 
for  the  besiegers  had  cut  off  the  water;  and 
all  unshod  and  set  on  their  knees.    Then 



ial puri- 

1 84 

Los  de 
aquel  siglo 
pasado  •  . . 

WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

from  the  church  issued  the  Legate  with  the 
choir  of  priests  and  clerks,  a  black  cross 
going  before,  and  in  Master  Matthew's 
porch,  the  Gloria,  they  stopped  and  intoned 
the  requisite  prayers,  and  the  Legate  came 
down  the  stairs  and  touched  them  all, 
from  the  Lord  to  the  least,  with  his  stole. 
Then  they  got  up  and  went  into  church 
barefoot:  the  priest  showed  them  every- 
thing, including  the  axe  of  S.  James's  mar- 
tyrdom, and  they  left  a  trophy  of  arms, 
apparently  as  an  offering,  and  not  with- 
out a  dash  of  vanity.  In  a  chapel  where 
hung  the  armour  of  the  Lords  and  Com- 
manders now  long  dead,  "the  Lord  and 
his  suite  likewise  left  theirs,"  says  Tetzel.2 
Another  traveller  says:  "So  I  took  leave, 
hanging  up  my  arms  in  the  cathedral 
church  where  there  were  many.  I  had  done 
the  like  already  in  the  chapel  at  Finis- 
terre . ' ' 3  The  Great  Captain  is  said  to  have 
made  the  same  offering  when  he  came  in 
pilgrimage  to  Santiago  after  taking  Naples, 
and  gave  other  rich  ornaments  and  jewels, 
and  a  rich  lamp  which  he  endowed  magni- 
ficently that  it  should  burn  night  and  day.4 



Tetzel  makes  a  longer  story  of  the 
adventure,  feeling  quorum  pars  fui:  he  had 
been  sent  ahead  with  one  Frodner,  who 
found  that  the  Baron  besieging  had  just 
been  wounded  with  an  arrow  in  the  throat, 
and  who  made  a  plaster  to  draw  the  arrow 
out.  Notwithstanding,  when  the  party 
came  back  from  Finisterre  to  Padr6n,  they 
heard  that  the  Baron  had  died  and  the 
enraged  mob  had  dragged  the  Archbishop 
before  the  church  and  cut  his  head  off  there. 
This,  however,  was  inexact,  for  Archbishop 
Fonseca  died  in  his  bed,  later. 

Sr.  Fabie',  who  has  edited  a  good  bit  of 
these  travels  for  a  pleasant  volume  of  the 
Libros  de  Antano,  confirms  the  rest  of  the 
story  in  a  discreet  footnote.  At  the  end  of 
the  Historic  Compostellana,  published  by  Fr. 
F16rez,  and  taken  from  the  last  appendix 
of  the  MS.  of  Salamanca,  he  has  read  this, 
which  is  the  closing  paragraph: 

"Item,  Dominus  Alfonso  de  Fonseca 
ejus  con  sobrinus  de  Ecclesia  Hispalensi 
ad  Compostellam  translatus,  in  1°  anno 
captus  juit  per  Bernardum  Joannis  in 
Villa  Doncia,  anno  Dni.  1465"* 



Tet«el' s 

Libros  de 

Yafiez  de 

1 86 



The  Gallegans  knew  the  story  however: 
Ruy  Vasquez  told  it  in  his  Historia  Iriense 
and  it  serves  Vasco  de  Aponte  for  another 
of  the  hazanas,  the  exploits,  of  his  Ancient 
Houses  of  Galicia. 6 

The  siege  of  1117,  and  that  of  1465,  are 
not,  belike,  the  only  ones  the  old  church 
has  stood.  When  the  Duke  of  Lancaster 
came,  the  town  had  no  mind  to  sacrifices, 
the  citizens  made  peace  cannily,as  Froissart 

And  when  the  duke  of  Lancastre  had 
sojourned  at  Coulongne  [Corunna]  the 
space  of  a  month  and  more,  then  he  was 
counsayled  to  dislodge  themseife,  and  to 
draw  towardes  saynt  James  in  Galyce, 
where  was  a  better  countrey  and  a  more 
plentyfull  for  men  and  horses;  so  he 
departed  and  rode  in  three  batayles; 
first,  the  marshal  with  CCC.  speres 
and  vi.  C.  archers;  then  the  duke,  with 
CCCC.  speres,  and  all  the  ladyes  and 
damoyselles  in  his  company;  and  in  the 
arrere  garde,  the  constable  syr  John 
Hollande,  with  a  CCCC.  speres  and  vii. 
C.  archers.     Thus  they  rode  fayre  and 




easely  in  iii.  batayles,  and  were  rydynge 
three  dayes  bytwene  Coulongne  and 
saynt  James.  .  .  .  The  marshaU  with 
his  vawarde  came  to  Compostella,  where 
the  body  of  saynt  James  lieth,  and  the 
town  was  closed  against  him;  howbeit, 
there  were  no  men  of  warre  there  in 
garyson,  but  men  of  the  towne  that  kept 
it,  for  there  were  no  Frensshmen  wolde 
undertake  to  keep  it  to  the  utteraunce,  for 
it  was  not  stronge  ynoughe  to  be  kept 
against  such  men  of  warre  as  the  duke 
had  brought  thyder.  The  marshal!  of 
the  host  sent  thyder  an  herauld  of  armes, 
to  know  their  ententes  what  they  wolde 
do :  the  herauld  came  to  the  barryers,  and 
there  founde  the  capytayn  of  that  warde, 
called  Alphons  of  Sene.  Then  the  her- 
auld sayde,  Syr  capytayn,  here  a  lytel 
besyde  is  the  duke  of  Lancastre's  marshal, 
who  hath  sent  me  hyder,  and  he  wolde 
gladly  speak  with  you.  Wei,  said  the 
capytayne,  it  pleaseth  me  well;  let  him 
come  hyder,  and  we  shal  speak  with  him. 
The  herauld  returned,  and  shewed  the 
marshall  as  they  said.  Then  the  mar- 
shall,  with  xx.  speres  with  hym,  wente 
thyder,  and  found  at  the  barryers  the 



An  herauld 
of  armes 

1 88 

The  King 

that  died 
at  Montiel 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

capytayn  and  certayn  of  the  chefe  heads 
of  the  towne;  then  the  marshal  lighted 
on  fote,  and  iii.  with  hym,  and  the  lorde 
Basset  and  syr  Wyllyam  Ferinyton. . . . 
Syr,  sayd  the  capytayn,  we  wyl  not  use 
us  but  by  reson:  we  wolde  gladly  acquyte 
us  to  them  that  we  belong;  we  know 
ryght  well  that  my  lady  Constaunce  of 
Lancastre  was  doughter  to  kyng  Dam- 
peter  of  Castel,  so  that  if  kynge  Dam- 
peter  had  abyden  peasybly  still  kyng, 
she  had  ben  then  ryghtfull  enherytoure 
of  Castell.  But  the  matter  chaunged 
otherwyse,  for  al  the  royalme  of  Castel 
abode  peasybly  to  kynge  Henry  his 
brother,  by  reason  of  the  batayle  that 
was  at  Nantuel,  so  that  we  al  of  the  coun- 
trey  sware  to  holde  kyng  Henry  for  our 
kyng:  and  he  kepte  it  as  long  as  he 
lyved;  and  also  we  have  sworn  to  hold 
kyng  John  his  sone  for  our  kyng.  But, 
syr,  shewe  us  what  have  they  of  Cou- 
longne  done  or  sayd  to  you,  for  it  maye  be 
so,  syth  ye  have  lien  there  more  than  a 
month,  that  they  have  made  some 
maner  of  treaty  with  you.  Syr,  sayd 
the  capytayne,  gyve  us  lytell  leysure 
that  we  may  speke  togyder  .... 



The  narrative  is  as  leisurely  as  the 
proceedings;  anon  it  continues: 


Within  ii.  lytell  Frensshe  myles  of 
saynt  James  in  Galyce,  there  came  in 
processyon  all  the  clergy  of  the  town, 
with  crosses  and  relykes,  and  men, 
women  and  chyldren,  to  mete  with  the 
duke  and  the  duches.  And  the  men  of 
the  town  brought  the  keys  with  them, 
whiche  they  presented  to  the  duke  and 
to  the  duches,  with  their  good  wylles  by 
all  semblaunt;  I  can  not  say  if  they  dyd  it 
with  theyr  good  hartes  or  no:  there 
they  kneled  down,  and  receyved  theyr 
lorde  and  lady,  and  they  entred  into  the 
town  of  saynt  James.  And  the  fyrst 
voyage  they  made,  they  wente  to  the 
chyrche  and  all  theyr  chyldren,  and 
made  theyr  prayers  and  offrynge  with 
grete  giftes,  and  it  was  shewed  me  that 
the  duke  and  the  duches  and  theyr  ii. 
doughters,  Phylyp  and  Katheryn,  were 
lodged  in  an  abbaye,  and  there  kept 
theyr  house;  and  that  other  lordes,  as 
syr  John  Holande  and  syr  Thomas  Mo- 
reaux  and  theyr  wyves  lodged  in  the 
town,  and  al  other  barons  and  knightes 



Clergy  and 





the  fevers 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

lodged  abrode  in  the  felde,  in  houses,  and 
bowres  of  bowes,  for  there  were  ynowe 
in  the  countrey.  They  founde  there 
flesshe  and  strong  wyne  ynough,  wherof 
the  Englysshe  archers  dranke  so  moche 
that  they  were  ofte  tymes  dronken, 
wherby  they  had  the  fevers,  or  elles  in 
the  mornyng  theyr  hedes  were  so  evyl, 
that  they  coulde  not  helpe  themselfe  all 
the  day  after. 

While  the  princely  pair  stayed  in  San- 
tiago, the  King  of  Portugal  sent  them  a 
gift  of  white  mules  which  was  greatly 
prized,  and  they  sent  back  to  him  in  return 
two  falcons,  the  fairest  ever  seen,  and  six 
English  greyhounds. 8 

A  traveller  in  the  sixteenth  century  says 
oddly:  "Cette  eglise  m&ropolitaine  est 
archiepiscopal,  tres  forte,  tres  naturelle, 
en  forme  d'un  gros  donjon  ou  chastiau."9 
The  castle-church  was  a  recognized  type 
through  southern  France  and  Spain,  and 
the  hastiest  recollection  of  incidents  in  the* 
history  of  Albigensian  persecutions,  will 
explain  how  it  came  into  being.  Froissart 
expounds  the  matter  clearly: 



Well,  said  the  king,  what  thing  were 
best  for  me  to  do?  Sir,  said  the  knight, 
we  shall  show  you:  cause  ye  your  towns 
and  castles  on  the  f ronter  of  Galyce  to  be 
well  kept,  such  as  be  of  strength:  and 
such  as  be  of  no  strength,  cause  them  to 
be  beaten  down:  it  is  showed  us  how 
men  ot  the  country  do  fortify  minsters, 
churches  and  steeples,  and  bring  into 
them  all  their  goods.  Sir,  surely  this 
shall  be  the  loss  and  confusion  of  your 
royalme;  for  when  the  Englishmen  ride 
abroad,  these  small  holds,  churches  and 
steeples  shall  hold  no  while  against  them, 
but  they  shall  be  refreshed  and  nourished 
with  such  provision  as  they  shall  find  in 
them,  which  shall  help  to  further  them 
to  win  all  the  residue. ,0 

Tuy,  close  to  the  grey  Atlantic,  Elne  in 
view  of  the  Gulf  of  the  Lion,  are  other  in- 
stances familiar.  Ujue*  in  Navarre  evokes 
the  memory  of  Mont-Saint-Michel:  but  the 
lonely  sanctuary  stands  not  in  Peril  of 
the  Sea;  her  foundations  are  upon  the  holy 
hills.  Of  the  towers  of  Santiago,  which 
Sir  John   Berners    calls  steeples,  some- 





bolt and 
S.  James 

A  warrior's 
whence  he 
will  rise 



thing  was  said  earlier.  Travellers  were 
never  weary  of  counting  them,  and  they 
were  landmarks  to  the  country-side.  A 
curious  refrdn  associates  them  with  the 

"OS.  Bastian  corramos 
a  cima  d'e  Pico-Sagro, 
para  ver  cal  raya  o  sol 
n-as  torres  de  Santiago." xx 

Remember,  says  Sr. '  Murguia,  that  the 
shrine  of  Santiago  is  founded  upon  a  tomb 
and  a  castle:  the  hill  was  a  castrum,  the 
church  was  a  fortress,  in  the  tomb  a 
warrior  lies.  Like  Barbarossa  he  wakens 
sometimes,  as  Luke  of  Tuy  testifies.11 
Ferdinand  the  Great  invaded  Portugal, 
and  fought  the  Saracens  all  over  the 
north-west,  and  last  besieged  Coimbra. 
He  went  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Santiago  and 
kept  a  triduum  in  the  church,  devoutly 
praying  the  Apostle  to  restore  Coimbra  to 
Christian  worship,  and  gave  much  money; 
then  went  back  to  camp.  "The  Lord," 
says  Luke,  and  Dominus  Jacobus  must  be 
the  one  intended: 



. . .  heard  King  Ferdinand's  prayers,  and 
while  he  fought  at  Coimbra  with  the 
sword,  the  Apostle  fought  for  him  in 
heaven  interceding  with  Christ.  That 
the  city  was  taken  by  the  merits  of  the 
blessed  Apostle,  is  manifestly  known. 
For  there  had  come  from  Jerusalem  an 
insignificant  Greek  pilgrim,  who  abode  in 
the  porch  of  the  church  of  S.  James,  in- 
sistent with  vigil  and  prayer.  When 
people  entering  sang,  praising  S.  James 
as  a  soldier,  he  contradicted  them,  saying 
S.  James  was  no  soldier  but  a  fisherman. 
While  he  watched  the  night  in  prayer, 
being  suddenly  rapt  in  ecstasy,  S.  James 
appeared  to  him,  and  holding  some  keys 
in  his  hand,  with  lively  countenance 
spoke  to  him:  "  Look  you  here,  you  have 
mocked  my  men  and  said  I  was  not  a 
soldier."  Then  appeared  a  shining  horse 
before  the  entrance  to  the  church, 
and  the  glory  about  him  lighted  all  the 
church,  through  the  open  doors.  The 
Apostle  mounted,  and  gave  the  pilgrim  to 
understand  that  with  these  keys  he  was 
going  to  open  the  city  of  Coimbra  and 
give  it  to  King  Ferdinand  at  about  the 
third  hour  of  the  day:  which  said,  he 




.  .  .  et 





disappeared.  The  Greek  told  it  to  the 
clergy,  and  when  the  news  came,  the  day 
and  hour  agreed.12 

That  blaze  of  light  which  pilgrims  some- 
times saw,  filling  all  the  church  in  mirk 
mid-night,  is  the  same  that  burns  above 
a  warrior's  grave-mound,  on  wintry  head- 
lands of  the  northern  seas. 

Yet  brothers  of  S.  John  Gualberto  have 
knelt  on  these  same  stones.  What  gifts 
they  sought,  the  pilgrims  brought:  at 
times,  pardon,  and  the  grace  to  forgive; 
peace,  and  the  gift  of  tears.  The  Bolognese 
Friar  Gian  Lorenzo  Buonafede,  almost 
contemporary  with  Manier,  after  long 
desire,  made  the  journey:  entering,  he 
found  the  church  crowded,  and  as,  kneeling 
before  the  altar,  he  wept,  he  was  not  the 
only  one.  From  day  to  day  he  went  back 
and  kissed  the  statue  with  sobs;  tears  came 
freely.  He  arranged  to  celebrate  his  daily 
Mass  in  the  cathedral,  and  again  we  are 
reminded  of  Lourdes;  the  first  one,  he 
said  for  the  intention  of  his  father  and 
mother.     They  put  him  up  very  kindly 



at  the  Friar's  convent,  and  he  came  back 
to  the  shrine:  "After  vespers,"  he  says, 
"I  sat  there  a  long  time  with  tears  in  my 
eyes. " 

Santiago  still  enjoys  the  great  advantage 
of  being  open  early  and  late,  and  is  best 
of  all  at  nightfall.  One  may  kneel  so  long 
at  the  reja  before  the  dim-glimmering 
sanctuary,  that  all  sense  of  hands  or  feet, 
of  brain  or  breathing,  is  lost.  No  other 
shrine  except  Chartres  can  so  stir,  can  so 
draw  back,  but  in  Chartres  the  light 
all  comes  from  the  east,  even  at  twilight, 
and  here  from  the  west.  The  transept 
doors  stand  open,  pale  patches  in  the 
luminous  warm  dark,  and  there  are  long 
lights  down  the  aisles  of  the  nave,  and  the 
cold  green  sky  looks  in  at  openings  of  the 



The  grace 
of  tears 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Los  Muertos  Mandan. 

Content  thee,  not  the  an- 
nulling light 

Of  any  pitiless  dawn  is 

Thou  art  alone  with  ancient 

And  all  the  stars  are  clear. 

It  is  a  dead  town,  monumental  and 
triste;  with  gigantic  edifices  of  churches 
and  convents  that  were  too  rich  for  their 
own  good.  Here  and  there  flowers  a  happy 
bit  of  Renaissance,  as  in  the  arcade  Tras 
de  Salome*,  and  one  day  we  came  suddenly 
upon  a  Gothic  house,  with  the  pointed 
arches  of  the  lower  story  built  up  but  the 
window  still  in  use,  and  the  corbels  with 
bag-piper  and  tumbler  still  holding  up  the 
cornice.  But  most  of  the  streets  are 
oppressed  with  the  heavy  pomp  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  square  doors  and 
shallow  mouldings. 

Santiago  has,  indeed,  a  University  still  in 
operation,  but  since  when  are  University 
towns  the  less  dead?  Bologna  with  the 
monstrous  horrors  of  the  Spanish  armouries 



plastered  against  its  fading  brick;  Padua 
with  the  thousand  heraldries  of  students 
early  dead  painted  upon  its  cloister  vaults; 
Salamanca,  choked  up  with  convent 
churches;  Alcald  tawdry  and  dirty  in  the 
power  of  the  Padres  Escolapios;  Oxford 
even,  with  the  worn  stone  of  its  colleges 
that  front  along  the  High  Street  perpetually 
replaced  and  perpetually  gnawed  away  by 
the  insatiable  tooth  of  time: — these  towns 
are  like  ancient  sepulchres  where  from 
time  to  time  the  living  return  to  banquet, 
with  tapers  and  baked  meats,  in  memory 
of  the  else-forgotten.  One  day  knows 
light  and  movement  and  mingling  voices, 
then  again  closes  down  the  darkness,  the 
flowers  drop  their  faded  leaves,  dry,  and 
turn  to  dust,  the  wine  thickens  and  then 
hardens  in  the  golden  cups,  silence  and 
sleep  come  home,  brooded  under  the  wings 
of  night. 

The  living  cannot  touch  that  life  of  the 
dead  which  the  University  enshrines:  dead 
theories,  dead  ideals,  dead  dreams  of  earth 
and  sky,  of  God  and  humanity.  An  instant 
long  loud  voices  trouble  it,  then  the  old 






maudan  " 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

ways  resume.  The  Copernican  system,  the 
Mosaic  cosmogony,  the  Tridentine  dogmas, 
are  there  inurned:  though  the  older  are 
for  long  undisturbed  and  are  at  last  for- 
gotten, you  may  lift  a  lid  and  stir  the  fine 
dust,  or  you  may  burn  incense  and  evoke 
the  pale  wraith. 

Yes,  the  dead  command  us  still,  all  the 
dead  of  the  most  ancient  earth,  not  those 
of  two  millenniums  alone.  The  children 
are  crying  in  the  market  place,  but  though 
they  pipe  we  may  not  dance,  though  they 
mourn  we  may  not  weep,  for  we  hear  other 
voices,  our  fathers'  and  our  fathers' 
fathers'.  The  smug  religion  of  pulpit 
and  pew  and  parish  house,  which  finds 
yet  no  room  for  the  unemployed  to  sit 
down,  and  no  supper  for  the  striker  to  eat, 
that  already  is  a  thing  of  yesterday,  and 
it  shall  not  know  tomorrow.  The  sweet 
religion  of  indulgence  and  confession,  of 
drowsy  rosaries  counted  through  fragrant 
dim-lit  hours,  has  fallen  to  women  and 
children,  and  they  are  outgrowing  it. 
The  religion  of  the  ancestral  dead,  which 
was  before  Confucius  and  before  Buddha, 



reclaims   the   heart.     Make    an   inward 


silence  and  listen,  at  last  you  shall  hear 
the  word.  Though  nationality  be  a  fatal 
mirage  and  races  mingled  inextricably, 
the  line  in  ascendance  is  real,  and  the 
heritage  awaits  inheritors.  The  accumu- 
lated illusions  of  the  centuries  fall  down, 
the  blood-built  battlements,  at  the  trump- 
etting  from  afar. 

They  are  everywhere,  these  dead,  and 
most  of  all  you  meet  them  in  the  Mass. 
In  the  clouds  of  incense  they  throng  and 
whisper,  theirs  is  the  commemoration, 
theirs  the  sacrifice.  As  day  followed  day 
and  year  came  after  year,  they  passed 
from  the  visible  to  the  invisible,  from  the 
militant  to  the  triumphant,  but  because 
they  once  were  there,  there  are  they  still. 
In  the  mingled  cup,  in  the  broken  wafer, 
the  priest  presents  again  the  pain  of  all  the 
world;  the  broken  heart  that  yet  could 
constantly  endure;  the  intolerable  wrongs, 
and  griefs,  that  yet  were  borne.  This 
anguish  of  the  indomitable  can  fortify, 
this  grief  of  the  long-past  can  console. 
Not   for   nothing   does   the   Italian   hill- 








The  pain 
of  all  the 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

peasant,  in  his  procession  of  Good  Friday 
night,  dress  the  Childless  Mother  like  any 
other  widow,  with  veil  of  crape  and  hand- 
kerchief of  lawn;  so,  other  mothers,  who, 
too,  have  lost  their  sons,  steep  their  grief 
for  anodyne  in  another's  wide  as  the  world. 
In  the  pale  Host  uplifted  you  recognize 
the  supreme  renouncement:  the  perfect 
becoming  subject  to  imperfection,  the  im- 
maculate submitting  to  contamination,  the 
supreme  sharing  the  brotherhood  of  oppres- 
sion and  ignorance  and  shame. 

In  the  strength  of  our  forefathers  we  go, 
not  in  their  tracks.  Their  stars  we  follow, 
not  their  dead  campfires,  their  virtues  not 
their  acts,  under  cruel  penalties.  Those 
dear  dead  of  all  the  world  who  come  back 
when  they  can  to  direct  or  to  console,  for 
whom  the  Romans,  not  unmindful,  brought 
fresh  flowers  to  an  image  and  poured  wine 
above  an  urn,  for  whom  the  Tuscan  family 
still  spreads  wreaths  before  a  sepulchre  and 
lights  lamps  upon  a  grave,  in  a  loving 
service  never  quite  intermitted,  these  dead, 
it  would  seem,  in  their  own  despite  are 
at  times  a  distress,  a  menace,  a  hideous 




instrument  of  destruction.  If  the  cup  of 
saki  be  really  set  only  to  send  the  poor 
little  ghost,  hunger-appeased,  back  to  bed, 
and  the  Lanterne  des  Marts  kindled  only  to 
guide  strayed  souls  back  into  the  kindly 
covering  earth,  a  little  sadly;  yet  there  are 
stories  more  terrible  than  these,  troubled 
observances  world-wide  as  they,  of  larves 
and  lemurs,  revenants,  ghouls,  vampires, 
women  dead  in  child-birt}i,  who  seduce 
night-travellers  in  the  jungle;  and,  with  the 
hell-hounds  of  northern  wintry  forests, 
not  the  hunted  alone,  but  dead  souls 
hunters  of  souls.  That  the  dead  can  betray 
and  can  destroy,  primitive  use  and  tale 
record  for  us  in  their  wise,  and  our  own 
life  shows  us  in  the  lives  about:  it  is  a  part 
of  piety  to  set  the  perturbed  spirits  at 
rest  where  they  can  do  no  wrong.  We 
are  not  better  than  our  fathers,  nor  worse. 
There  must  be  no  sound  of  chanting  in  our 
ears,  if  we  would  hear  the  most  ancient 
word.  Let  the  dead  bury  their  dead. 
He  dicho. 


20 1 

Dead  souls 


"A  great 
and  famous 
Page  350 

WAY     OF    S.JAMES 



Only  the  mists — only  the  weeping  clouds: 

Dimness,  and  airy  shrouds. 

Beneath,  what  angels  are  at  work,  what  powers 

Prepare  the  secret  of  the  fatal  hours? 

See,  the  mists  tremble  and  the  clouds  are  stirred. 

"S.  Yakob  is  the  capital  of  Jalikijah, 
and  is  the  greatest  and  most  holy  sanctu- 
ary which  the  Christians  have.  It  is  to 
them  the  same  as  our  shrine  is  to  us. 
Their  Kabah  is  a  colossal  idol,  which 
they  have  in  the  centre  of  the  largest 
church.  They  swear  by  it,  and  repair 
to  it  in  pilgrimages  from  the  most  distant 
parts,  from  Rome  and  from  lands  that 
are  yet  further,  pretending  that  the 
tomb  which  is  to  be  seen  within  the 
church  is  of  Yakob  one  of  the  twelve 
Apostles  and  the  most  beloved  of  Isa, 



may  the  blessing  of  God  and  salutation 
be  on  him  and  on  our  prophet." l 

Abn-Edhari  of  Morocco,  the  author  of 
the  Bayen-el  Mogrib,  writing  under  the 
year  996,  tells  how  Almanzor  came  to 
the  Gulf  of  Iria  "which  is  one  of  the 
sanctuaries  of  the  same  Santiago  whose 
is  the  sepulchre.  That  sanctuary  is  second 
in  importance  only,  the  Christians  feel,  to 
the  said  sepulchre,  and  to  it  come  the 
devout  from  the  remotest  lands;  from  the 
land  of  the  Copts,  from  Nubia,  and  others." 
Abn-Edhari  says  again: 

Yakoub  in  their  tongue  is  Jahcob, 
who  was  Bishop  in  Jerusalem  and  began 
to  run  over  all  lands  preaching  to  the 
dwellers  therein,  and  with  that  intent 
came  to  Spain  where  he  attained  the 
bound.  Afterwards  he  went  back  to  the 
land  of  Syria,  and  died  there,  when  he 
had  reached  the  age  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty  solar  years.  His  disciples  fetched 
his  body  and  gave  it  sepulture  in  this 
church,  the  furthest  of  those  which  re- 
ceived his  influence. 



A  Holy 


As  at  the 
Temple  of 
the  Sun 
and  Thur- 
kill's  Vision 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Thus  appears  the  Far-traveller  again,  very 
old,  and  destined  to  return 

"beyond  the  sunset,  and  the  baths 
Of  all  the  western  stars." 

When  the  disciples  were  in  Padr6n,  which 
is  Iria  Flavia,  being  oppressed  with  weari- 
ness and  pursuit,  they  laid  the  precious 
body  upon  a  stone,  which  softened  under 
the  touch  and  received  it.  Tetzel  and  the 
Latin  secretary  and  all  the  party  of  the 
noble  Slav,  saw  this  stone,  and  their 
testimony  2  is  true:  all  the  pilgrims  mention 
it,  but  because  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
throngs  was  chipping  it  to  bits,  it  had 
been  sunk  in  a  pool  of  deep  water.  Steps 
led  down  to  the  pool,  and  the  water  was 
very  clear  so  that  it  was  well  seen.  The 
stone  was  probably  genuine,  i.e.,  not  manu- 
factured to  match  the  legend,  for  it  was 
probably  just  such  a  stone  coffin  hollowed 
out  to  fit  the  head  and  shoulders,  as  was 
built  up  in  the  church  wall  at  Mellid.  It 
was  shown  to  Erich   Lassota,   in   1581, 


From  Cm*«f«ii  '•  Spain.  The  Century  Co. 

The  Great  Stair  at  Le  Puy 


as  S.  James's  bed.  The  Pelegrino  curioso 
apparently  saw  such  another  at  La  Barca 
on  the  Ria  de  Camarinas,  of  which  he  tells 
that  it  had  been  sunk,  in  the  same  way,  for 
the  same  reason:  he  says  also  that  S.  James 
sailed  over  sea  in  it.  For  parallel  to  this  we 
need  not  look  so  far  as  the  Isle  of  Penguins, 
for  there  is  the  journey  of  S.  Cuthbert 
down  the  river  to  Durham. 

Erich  Lassota  confirms  him3  (1580);  he 
calls  it  the  Barca  de  S.  Yago,  and  says  that 
Nuestra  Senorafs  bark  is  at  the  bottom  of 
the  sea,  though  her  statue  is  at  Manxia 
(Mountjoy).  On  the  road  to  Finisterre 
the  Bohemians  saw  this,  beside  the  way  a 
ship  with  cables,  hull  and  other  tackle,  all 
of  stone,  and  were  told  that  this  ship 
transported  God  and  his  Mother,  who  dis- 
embarked there,  and  climbed  the  hill,  and 
founded  a  chapel  for  the  Virgin.4  The 
compiler  of  the  Cancionero  popular  gallego5 
has  a  store  of  pretty  songs  about  this  Virgin 
that  came  from  over  sea: 

Ai!  mifia  Virxe  d'a  Barca, 
ai,  mifia  Virxe,  valeime 










WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

qui  estou  n-o  medio  d'o  mar 
sin  ter  barqueiro  que  reme. 

They  are  good  to  chant  gaily  all  together, 
sorting  and  packing  fish,  or  hauling  nets; 
they  are  better  to  sing  softly  while  the 
shuttle  flies  in  the  brown  net,  and  the  last 
line  trails  off  in  a  long  crying: 

Veno  d'a  Virxe  d'a  Barca 
veno  d'abana-la  pedra 
tamdn  veno  de  vos  ver 
Santo  Cristo  de  Finisterra  ! 

So,  it  appears,  the  rocking  stone  is  still 
frequented.  But  the  daintiest  belongs  on 
the  beach  with  the  mussel-fishers. 

Nosa  Seflora  d'a  Barca 
ala  va  po-la  ribiera 
collendo  conchinas  d'ouro 
metend'-as  n-a  faltriqueira. — 

According  to  Nicholas  of  Popplau,  who 
was  there  just  a  hundred  years  before 
Lassota,  in  1484,  Nuestra  Seflora  de  la 



Barca  herself  was  the  rocking  stone: 
"We  could  move  it  with  one  hand,"  he 

The  most  curious  thing,  however,  in  all 
this  trumpery,  is  Lassota's  Shield  of  S.  James 
at  Padron,  so-called  because  when  the  in- 
fidels pursued  him  he  hid  behind  it,  and  you 
can  see  still  how  the  stone  yielded '  'to  receive 
his  head  and  his  right  arm  so  he  could  hide 
in  it  "  —  I  translate  exactly  the  confused 
account.  This  recalls  with  uncommon  em- 
phasis the  sculptures  of  Mithras  emerging 
from  the  rock,  and  it  happens  that  among 
the  few  Spanish  inscriptions  which  M. 
Cumont  publishes,  is  one  from  Padron.7 

Sebastian  Ilsung,  who  had  made  the 
journey  in  1446,  records:  "The  cape  of 
Pinisterre  is  two  miles  high,  surrounded 
and  beaten  upon  by  the  sea;  there  are  the 
footmarks  of  our  Lord  S.* James  and  a  well 
that  he  made  himself  with  his  own  hands 
[there  is  one  in  the  hillside  above  Padron, 
and  one  just  before  you  get  to  Santiago, 
besides];  also  a  sort  of  chair  in  which  sat 
S.  Peter  and  S.  James  and  S.  John."  He 
was  a  shrewd  man,  with  a  sound  estima- 




of  Buddha 
in  Ceylon 


The  Cape 

WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

tion  of  political  and  social  matters,  not 
uncourtly,  and  though  he  could  bolt  mar- 
vels as  a  dog  bolts  sandwiches,  he  had 
the  sense  of  awe.  Of  all  the  travellers 
whom  I  have  read,  he  alone  feels  in  San- 
tiago how  venerable,  how  immemorial  is 
the  sanctuary,  and  here,  again,  he  shrivels 
under  the  brow  of  the  towering  cape: 

The  cape  of  Finisterre  is  two  days' 
journey  from  Santiago  [he  goes  on 
hurriedly],  on  horseback,  on  the  worst 
road  that  I  remember  in  my  life.  My 
servant  fell  sick,  and  I  had  to  leave  him 
behind.  The  second  day  I  lost  the  road 
and  went  above  and  below  by  the  coast, 
without  knowing  where  I  was,  till  God 
and  S.  James  came  to  my  help  and  I  got 
to  a  village  where  I  was  very  hungry 
because  there  was  nothing  to  eat.  There 
they  told  me  the  road  to  Finisterre.  .  .  . 
I  had  a  letter  from  the  Archbishop  to  the 
Prior,  who  took  me  in.  Otherwise  I 
must  have  slept  in  the  street.8 

In  a  different  temper  the  Friar  Buonaf  ede 
de  Vanli   went    to   Nuestra  Senora  and 



copied  out,  with  authenticating  licenses, 
and  the  like,  all  of  her  miracles.  He  also 
visited  Finisterre,  and  between  the  two 
places,  S.  Julian  de  Moraime.  "On  the 
twentieth,  by  a  hard  road,  up  a  hill,  ac- 
companied by  the  said  Giuseppe  Martinez 
in  whose  house  I  slept,  I  came  to  S.  Julian 
de  Moraime,  which  belongs  to  the  Padri 
Cassinensi  [i.  e.  Benedictines].  It  is  a 
place  of  no  rarity.  I  drank  the  chocolate 
the  Prior  gave  me. " 

Bartolome'  ViUalbay,  the  Pelegrino  cwri- 
oso,  gleamed  and  fluttered  all  about  like 
a  heath-butterfly.  He  went  to  the  Monas- 
tery of  Noya,  and  picked  up  there  two 
pilgrims  with  whom  he  shared  sausages, 
cheese,  and  fruit;  the  place  where  they  sat 
was  full  of  mountain-pinks.  They  held 
witty  talk,  and  they  talked  also  of  places 
that  they  hoped,  or  that  they  could  not 
hope,  to  see:  "the  insigne  city  of  Orense," 
Celanova,  and  S.  Esteban  de  Ribas  de  Sil. 
In  Santiago  he  called  on  the  Abbess  of  S. 
Clare's,  a  very  great  lady,  and  he  wrote 
some  pious  poetry  for  her;  and  called  on 
other  nuns,  and  had  a  monstrous  fine  time. 



Ya  has  en- 
contra  do 



Lucian  and 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

The  hospital  he  praised  as  well  furnished 
and  administered — this  is  the  great  founda- 
tion of  Ferdinand  and  Isabel, — and  found 
the  wards  all  whitewashed. 

Everyone  inspected  the  hospital.  Sobi- 
eski  said  that  it  could  rival  the  finest  in 
Christendom,  and  his  description  of  the 
court  is  worth  pausing  on,  but  Buonafede's, 
just  a  hundred  years  later,  is  even  more 
curious.  On  the  eve  of  the  Festival  of  the 
Portiuncula,  the  richest,  in  the  way  of 
profit,  of  all  Franciscan  teasts,  he  wrote: 
"At  the  Hospital  Royal  to  see  a  procession. 
First  came  men  masked,  dancing  and 
singing  spiritual  songs  with  castanets,  then 
priests  vested  with  the  cotta,  in  midst  of 
whom  they  carried  the  silver  statue  of 
S.  James9:  then  the  Sacrament  with  many 
torches  and  various  instruments,  to  the 
sound  of  which  the  whole  people  sang  a 
verse  of  Pange  Lingua"  To  hear  this 
would  have  been  worth  living  through 
even  the  spiritual  songs  to  the  castanets. 
"There  was  a  curious  thing:  in  the  first 
cloister  near  the  fountain,  were  three 
boxes,  like  opera  boxes,  one  above  the 




other;  in  the  lowest,  a  statue  in  black  of 
S.  Ignatius  or  S.  Francis  Xavier;  in  the 
middle,  the  Punch  and  Judy  show;  and  in 
the  top  one  was  represented  a  Priest  cele- 
brating with  Deacon  and  Sub-Deacon,  the 
priest  kneeling  on  the  steps  of  the  altar." 
This  is  only  the  beginning  of  things:  but 
Buonafede  is  too  good  to  snip  out  in  bits. 

That  most  of  this,  however,  is  pretty 
poor  stuff,  this  running  and  gaping  over 
the  countryside  you  must  blame  poor 
human  nature.  Mexican  ladies,  I  am  told, 
who  are  capable  of  swooning  on  Sunday 
morning  with  the  ecstasy  of  the  Sacrament, 
are  capable  of  dancing  all  Sunday  afternoon. 
One  is  not  content,  quite,  to  take  Padr6n 
and  Noya,  Moraime  and  Corcubion,  as 
simply  as  Fromista  and  Carri6n,  yet  they 
are  much  simpler  places.  I  propose  not  to 
take  them  at  all.  As  coastwise  Gallegan 
they  are  interesting,  and  they  shall  be  con- 
sidered later,  in  another  book,  along  with 
hill-top  Gallegan.  But  their  connexion 
with  Santiago  is  chiefly  geographical. 

Noya  still  uses  the  old  hospital,  carved 
on  the  huge  arch  stones  with  shell  and 









bourdon  and  Noah's  ark.  The  portal  of 
S.  Martin  is  imitated  from  Santiago,  bar- 
barously: the  interior  has  nothing  to  do 
with  it.  Up  in  the  facade  a  beautiful  wheel 
window  dazzles  like  a  wheel  of  stars:  in  the 
archivolt  the  crowded  figures  have  a  sort 
of  massy  beauty:  the  bestial  heads  at  the 
bottom  of  the  door-jambs  are  exceedingly 
like  these  of  Master  Matthew.  By  an 
unhappy  device  that  Bamberg  had  antici- 
pated, the  statues  stand  on  top  of  each 
other,  that  they  may  all  be  seen,  three 
and  three  in  either  jamb.  Sea  winds  have 
worn  the  granite  only  to  coarsen,  and  the 
work  at  newest  was  local,  inexpert.  The 
date  is  1434. 

There  is  a  sailors'  song,  that  rings  across 
the  brimming  tide  in  the  ria,  and  is  an- 
swered from  under  the  grey,  delicate  eu- 
calyptus around  the  grey  weatherworn 
church  of  S.  Mary: 

— Os  marneiros  de  Noya 
Cantan  y  poden  cantar, 
T&ien  os  remos  n-a  lancha 
para  poder  traballer. 



— Ouh,  campadre,  a  lancha  e*  mina: 

c'os  remos  atrevasados 

temos  d'ir  a  romeria 

c'os  nosos  cestos  colgados. I0 

Padr6n  was  a  place  of  obligation,  because 
the  original  landing  of  S.  James  was  there, 
by  tradition;  aad  historically,  the  shrine 
can  be  traced  back  as  far  as  Santiago. 
Says  a  refrdn,  enforcing  the  duty: 

Quien  va  A  Santiago  e*  non  va  al  Padr6n 
O  faz  romeria  6  non! 

So,  wishing  the  pilgrimage  to  count,  I 
went.  From  Master  Matthew's  bridge,  just 
helow,  the  walking  is  easy,  various  enough: 
the  approach,  where  hills  rise  on  the  left 
and  roads  fork  at  a  double  cross,  is  pictur- 
esque. Iria  lies  beyond  the  town  qa  the 
other  side,  and  keeps  nothing  ancient  but  a 
few  stones  and  a  pointed  doorway,  in  the 
tympanum  an  Epiphany  entirely  Gallegan. 
Where  one  meets  lovely  kindness,  it  seems 
ingratitude  to  say  there  is  no  beauty. 
Walking  back  into  the  town,  I  met  a  woman 
going  home  from  work,  and  we  talked  as 





The    mov- 
ing   waters 
at  their 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

we  tramped  through  the  dust,  she  ques- 
tioning, I  trying  to  convey  some  image  of 
the  journey  that  took  doce  dlas  en  el  mar. 
At  last  she  asked,  with  no  intent  to  blame 
or  to  mortify:  "Hadn't  you  even  a  servant 
that  you  could  bring  with  you?" 

All  this  Gallegan  shore  is  fair  with  blue 
waters,  serene  and  tidal  water-ways  em- 
braced by  the  gigantic  earth.  There  is  a 
cqncidn  which  says,  borrowing  perhaps  from 
an  early  and  lovely  Romance: 

Camarinas,  Camarinas, 
o  rei  te  quixo  vender; 
o  que  compre  a  Camarinas 
moito  dinero  ha  de  ter.11 

The  church  at  Moraime  is  very  curious, 
set  into  a  hillside  above  the  sea,  so  that 
you  go  down  steps  into  the  porch  and 
more  into  the  church,  and  what  was  a 
squat  chapel  without,  is  seen  a  fair  and 
lofty  sanctuary.  The  walls  outside  have 
the  huge  arches  that  appear  at  Puerto 
Marin,  and  also  in  two  churches  near 
Orense  with  which  S.  Julian  has  more 



affinity,  Aguas  Santas  and  La  Junquera. 
But,  though  hidden  by  accretions  and 
disguised  otherwise  at  times,  they  also 
appear  on  the  cathedrals  of  Santiago  and 
Orense,  the  French  trait  being  pretty 
nearly  naturalized,  and  likely  to  be  second 
or  third-hand  here.  If  the  church  is  of 
the  twelfth  century,  the  portal  cannot  be 
earlier  than  the  thirteenth,  but  that  sort 
of  abortion  is  ageless,  like  deep-sea  jellies. 
The  three  shafts  in  the  jambs,  on  each 
side,  carry  each  two  figures,  or  once  did; 
the  intention  here  being  not  to  set  figures 
in  the  recesses  as  at  Noya  but  to  put  them 
on  the  shaft,  as  at  Villaviciosa  in  Asturias, 
and  in  some  measure  on  the  north  door  at 
Orense.  The  intention  goes  back  to  Char- 
tres — to  the  west  door  and  not  the  transept 
porches.  In  the  archivolts  are  three  rows 
of  figures,  laid  over  a  torus,  except  the 
outmost  row,  which  contains  half-lengths 
in  clouds.  It  would  seem  that  the  carver 
could  not  even  count,  for  the  figures  run 
in  fourteens;  thirteen  and  the  Saviour 
in  one  row,  the  others  indeterminable. 
In  the  tympanum  are  six  figures  and  a 



The  Portal 




A  Dove: 

S.  Basilisa? 

(or  indeed 
Cape  Cod) 


bishop  blessing,  under  arches.  On  the 
eighteenth-century  retable,  within,  S.  Ju- 
lian figures,  with  a  dove  on  his  shoulder, 
in  wig  and  steenkirk,  wide  skirts  and  huge 
cuffs,  like  a  gentleman  out  of  The  Spectator. 
The  only  imitation  of  Santiago,  apart  from 
the  portal,  is  a  bit  of  arcading  attempted 
in  the  north  wall  of  the  north  aisle,  two 
pointed  arches  under  a  round  one,  like  the 
pattern  of  a  triforium. x  2  Both  Corcubion 
and  Finisterre  have  good  churches,  of  the 
square-apse,  towered  type,  but  they  owe 
nothing  to  Santiago. 

On  the  Cape  —  the  folk  there  speak  of 
El  Cabo  as  we  of  the  North  Cape  and  that 
of  Good  Hope  —  I  found  grey  rock,  and 
drenched  heather,  and  a  choking  fog. 
"Mas  alia  no  hay  mas  que  las  aguas  del 
mar,  cuyo  t6rmino  nadie  mas  que  Dios 
conoce."  We  could  not  see  the  headland 
even  that  we  stood  upon,  nor  hear  the 
call  of  the  Atlantic:  the  green  underfoot 
went  up  into  the  blinding  white;  the  grey 
overside  came  invisibly  out  of  the  creeping 
white.  At  the  extreme  end  of  Europe,  as 
we  leaned  and  strained,  we  could  see  one 



wave  that  lap-lapped  on  the  rocks  below, 
but  not  the  ones  behind,  that  always  urged 
it.  It  was  rather  like  magic  to  have  gone 
to  the  end  of  the  world  and  found  nothing 
there:  one  had  always  known  it,  without 
admitting.  A  tag  of  Gaelic,  picked  up 
somewhere,  went  lap-lapping  in  my  brain: 

Mar  a  bha         as  it  was 

mar  a  tha        as  it  is 

mar  a  bhitheas        as  it  shall  be 

gu  brath        ever  more 

ri  trdg  adh        with  the  ebb 

*s  ri  horiath        with  the  flow 

The  noble  Slav  found  there  a  history13 
that  still  calls  to  one  out  of  the  mist,  like 
the  sound  ot  people  talking  when  in  the 
fog  a  fishing  boat  slips  by : 

It  is  written  in  the  annals  of  history, 
the  tale  begins,  that  a  King  of  Portugal 
,  had  three  ships  built,  provisioned  with 
all  needful,  including  twelve  scriveners 
in  each  with  writing  material  to  last  them 
four  years,  to  the  end  that  they  should 
sail  so  far  as  they  might  in  that  time,  and 
every  ship's  scriveners  were  to  write  all 



At  the  end 
of  the 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

As  Bran 
and  Bren- 
den  sailed 

the  regions  they  reached  and  all  that 
befell  them  in  the  sea.  After  they  had 
sailed  two  years  they  came  to  a  great 
mist  that  took  two  weeks  to  cross,  and 
when  they  emerged  they  came  to  an 
island.  They  went  on  shore,  and  found 
subterranean  houses  full  of  gold  and 
silver,  but  they  touched  nothing.  Above 
the  houses  were  gardens  and  vines.  They 
sailed  on,  and  saw  waves  mountain  high, 
that  went  up  to  the  clouds,  and  they  were 
sore  afraid,  as  if  the  Judgement  Day  had 
come.  They  discussed,  and  agreed  that 
two  ships  should  go  on,  and  the  third 
one  wait  a  fortnight:  this  ship  waited 
sixteen  days  but  none  came  back.  Then 
full  of  terror  they  turned  back  toward 
Lisbon:  when  they  entered  the  port  the 
townsfolk  came  and  asked  them  who 
they  were;  when  they  said  "We  are  those 
whom  the  king  sent  to  explore  the  con- 
fines of  the  sea,  that  we  should  write  the 
marvels  we  saw,"  the  others  answered: 
"We  know  those  men,  and  they  were  not 
such  as  you,  not  worn,  not  hoary,  but 
youngsters  of  twenty-six  years."  Indeed 
their  own  kin  did  not  know  them,  for 
they  were  white  as  trees  in  hoar  frost. 





The  stars  are  threshed, 
and  the  souls  are  threshed 
from  their  husks.  —  Blake. 

The  Dark  Star,  a  phrase  applied  more 
than  once  by  mediaeval  travellers  to  the 
granite  land  that  lies  at  the  End  of  the 
World,  it  is  usual  to  treat  as  a  mere  corrup- 
tion of  the  name  of  Finisterre,  due  to  the 
stupidity  of  German  tourists.  But  Gabriel 
Tetzel,  who  accompanied  the  Knight  of 
Rozmital,  is  perfectly  explicit,  they  found 
the  name  and  did  not  invent  it.  "Vor 
Sant  Jacob,"  he  writes  in  his  barbarous 
dialect,  "ritt  wir  an  den  Finstern  Stern, 
als  es  dann  die  Bauren  nennen  es  heisst  aber 
Finis  terrae."1  Nothing  could  be  more 
exact.  Nicholas  of  Poppelau  quotes  a 
phrase  rather  like  Wagner's  in   Tristan, 



The  Dark 




that  makes  it  the  shadowy  land. 2  A  son  of 
the  land,  the  husband  of  a  folk-poetess,  Sr. 
Murguia,  to  whose  intimate  knowledge  and 
faithful  record  not  this  book  only  but 
many  another  more  learned  owes  so  much, 
takes  the  name  as  familiar  and  explains  it 
partly  by  reference  to  the  land  of  the  dead, 
partly  "porque  brillaba  en  occidente,  ver- 
tiendo  sus  palidos  resplandores  sobre  las 
aguas  misteriosas  en  que  concluia  el  mundo, 
y  de  donde  las  barcas  que  abandonan  las 
tenebrosas  orillas,  jamas  tornaban  a  la 

There,  far  in  the  west,  the  most  ancient 
people,  the  most  ancient  faiths,  retreating 
slowly,  lingered:  and  thither  came,  carried 
by  the  pilgrims,  all  that  the  rest  of  the 
world  had  come  to  think  and  feel. 

The  degree  to  which,  in  the  centuries 
past,  the  land  of  Galicia  was  saturated  with 
what  the  eighteenth  century  classed  all 
together  in  one  lump  as  superstition,  may 
be  measured,  though  inadequately,  by  the 
quantity  which  has  survived.  It  is  not  in 
Galicia  alone  that  survivals  are  met:  we 
found  the  baskets  for  bread  and  candles  on 




the  church  floor,  at  Monreal,  and  the 
hacker  as  which  these  explain,  throughout 
Leon;  we  found  the  Gardens  of  Adonis 
withering  at  Corull6n.  About  the  Cape  of 
Pinisterre  the  souls  still  flutter  and  cry  like 

On  the  authority  of  Sr.  Murguia,  the 
Condesa  Pardo  Bazan,  and  the  Gallegan 
Folk-lore  Society,  we  may  consider  as  still 
active  two  or  three  very  ancient  elements: 
in  the  first  place,  the  relations  still  main- 
tained with  the  spirits  of  vegetation,  and 
the  natural  magic  intended  to  control  the' 
principle  of  fertility;  secondly,  some  prac- 
tices connected  with  death,  the  intercourse 
with  ghosts  and  revenants  and  with  other 
spirits;  lastly,  such  vestiges  as  may  be 
traced  of  very  ancient  beliefs  that  touch 
the  whence  and  whither;  and  thereafter 
may  perceive  the  part  which  these  ele- 
ments had  in  the  cult  of  the  Son  of  Thunder. 

The  night  of  the  29th  of  April  is  May- 
eve,  the  "Vispora  do  mes  d'os  Mayos." 
Then  on  the  hills  about  Master  Matthew's 
bridge,  above  Padron,  fires  are  kindled,  and 
the  peasants  run  about  waving  lighted 



1.  Fertility 


a.  Ghosts 

3.  The  land 

of   the 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

brands,  and  singing  an  old  spell  which 
shall  make  "the  ears  of  the  green  corn  fill  " : 

Alumea,  pay, 

Cada  grao,  seu  toledan! 

Alumea,  fillo, 

Cada  espiga,  seu  pan  trigo! 

Alumea  6  lino 

Cada  freba,  seu  cerrino!3 

On  that  same  night,  at  S.  Maria  de  Roo, 
near  Noya,  a  great  bonfire  is  built  and 
kindled  in  silence,  but  when  it  blazes  high, 
the  whole  people  join  hands  and  dance 
around  it,  all  night  long,  women,  children, 
men,  without  an  instant  of  intermission  till 
dawn  whitens.    This  is  their  song: 

Lume,  lume! 

Ve*  6  pan 

Dios  che  de* 

Moito  gran. 

Cada  gran,  com*'  un  bogallo, 

Cada  p6,  com*  un  carballo.4 

These  two,  Sr.  Murguia  published  in  his 
volume  EspaOa  sus  monumentos  y  artes. 
The  Spanish  Folk-lore  Society  publishes 



amongst  other  odd  spells,  one  to  secure  the 
safe  delivery  by  a  cow  of  her  first  calf:  give 
her  to  eat  ears  of  Indian  corn  with  baby 
ears  around,  that  is  to  say,  little  ears  around 
the  principal  one. s  What  was  manifestly 
a  spell  to  secure  a  good  crop,  the  present 
writer  saw,  near  Padr6n  in  1915,  at  the 
end  of  July,  when  corn  was  in  tassel.  On 
a  wayside  crucifix  hung  a  yellowed  ear  of 
ripe  corn,  half  husked,  not  weather-worn 
but  rich  and  full.  The  maize  which  is,  with 
tall  cabbage,  the  staple  of  Galicia,  is  pre- 
served in  corncribs  on  stone  legs,  well  built, 
well  roofed;  and  at  one  gable  end  rises  a 
stone  cross,  at  the  other,  the  phallic  symbol 
in  pyramid  or  console  form. 

Through  the  streets  of  Santiago  and 
Corunna  still  goes  the  figure  of  May, 
dressed  in  young  boughs  like  a  Jack-in-the- 
Green,  crowned  with  flowers,  surrounded 
by  young  children  who  dance  and  beg  for 
offerings,  while  May  contents  himself  with 
bowing  low  in  time  to  the  cadence : 

Cantaran  o  Mayo 
e  mais  ben  cantado. 



Phallic  em- 



La  Se flora 


WAY     OF    S.   JAMES 

Then  the  children  begin: 

Angueles  somos, 
del  cielo  venimos 
bulsa  traemos 
dinero  pedimos. 

Deano-las  mayas 

Senora  Maria; 

deano-las  mayas 

qu'estan  bailando  n-a  criba.6 

After  this  the  song  breaks  into  comedy, 
rehearsing  the  streets  through  which  the 
procession  passes,  and  enumerating  the 
gifts  of  nun  and  soldier,  lady  and  caballero. 
Mila  y  Fontanals  publishes,  from  the  re- 
cital of  a  Gallegan  lady,  a  version  which 
plainly  puts  the  Virgin  in  her  right  place, 
not  only  as  the  Lady  of  all  good  gifts,  but 
as  the  Good  Lady  of  Tyrolean  folk-lore, 
she  who  keeps  the  little  unborn  souls  in  her 
care,  playing  about  her,  as  when  a  Tyrolese 
peasant  saw  the  Good  Lady  pass  once,  with 
a  flock  of  unchristened  babes,  and  at  Altar, 
again,  in  the  valley  of  the  Saal,  a  ferryman 
took  the  party  across. 7 




"Este*  6  o  Mayo 
Est6  e*  o  Mayo 
O  noso  Maya, 
Da  de  comer 
Velay  o  Mayo 
Velay  o  Mayo 

Angueles  sotnos 

que  Mahino  6> 
que  anda  d'o  pe\ 
anque  pequenino, 
a  Virxen  d'o  Camiiio, 
cargado  de  rosas. 
que  las  trae  mas  her- 

del  cielo  venimos. 
Si  nos  dais  licencia      a  la  Reina  le  pedi- 

Angueles  sotnos        dei  cielo  bajamos. 
Si  nos  dais  licencia    a  la  Reina  la  canta- 


Coming  back  to  the  figure  of  May,  "all 
bedashed  with  herbs,  mosses,  and  flowers," 
the  reader  will  remember  that  it  was  thus, 
most  likely,  that  Sir  Meliagrance  disguised 
himself  and  his  knight  to  entrap  the  Queen 
in  an  ambush,  what  time  when  "the  Month 
of  May  was  come,  when  every  lusty  heart 
beginneth  to  blossom,"  Queen  Guenever 
rode  a-Maying  into  woods  and  fields  around 
Winchester,  and  was  carried  off,  into  the 
land  whence  none  returns. 9 

S.  James  himself,  it  is  possible  to  per- 
ceive, was  once  a  vegetation  god,  or  at  any 



con  estrellas 
su     camino 





WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

rate  has  taken  over  the  functions  and  signs 
of  one.  It  is  indeed  one  of  the  aspects  of 
Sol  Sanctissimus,  that  he  is  giver  of  good 
harvests.  In  a  Life  and  Translation  of  S. 
James  Major,  that  M.  Paul  Meyer  has 
published  from  an  unique  MS.,10  we  have 
the  prose  version  of  a  thirteenth-century 
French  poem  derived,  he  believes,  directly 
from  The  Book  of  S.  James,  As  was  said 
already,  we  know  that  pilgrims  waited  in 
turn  to  read  that  and  make  extracts,  like 
Arnaut  of  Ripoll  in  1173,  and  whatever 
in  the  poem  was  not  in  the  Book,  is  likely 
to  be  pilgrims'  talk.  Well,  S.  James 
preached  in  Spain  and  converted  "la  gent 
Sarrasine,"  the  Moors.  The  folk  were  so 
evil  before  S.  James  came  thither,  when 
God  had  given  all  the  goods  that  the  earth 
could  yield  of  sustenance,  that  over  all  the 
land  were  nettles  and  briars,  so  that  nought 
good  could  grow  between  them.  ...  To 
his  seven  disciples  the  saint  ordained  that 
they  should  go  plucking  out  the  nettles 
and  the  sharp  thorns  and  the  bad  roots  of 
evil  plants  from  the  evil  ground,  and  then 
put  good  seed  into  the  ground  that  the 



seed  should  not  fail,  for  tempest  nor 
thunder,  to  come  to  good. x  x  The  poet  at 
this  point  feels  that  there  is  something  odd 
about  the  agricultural  interest,  and  ex- 
plains that  all  this  is  to  be  taken  as  an 
allegory,  but  he  resumes  later  on,  after  the 
sepulchre  of  S.  James  is  made  in  Galicia, 
and  the  church  consecrated,  and  the  people 
baptized:  "Now  the  land  was  changed  in 
nature.  Where  the  holy  Apostle  was 
buried,  the  land  became  so  full  of  wheat,  of 
fruit,  and  of  all  foods  that  profit  man's 
body,  that  in  all  the  land  the  people  were 
filled,  that  aforetime  swelled  up  and  died 
of  the  great  famine  that  was  in  the  land." x  a 
This  is  good  matter  for  The  Golden 
Bough:  it  is  confirmed  by  the  form  of  the 
voto  de  Santiago  y  which  was  certainly  at  the 
outset  paid  in  kind  and  was  calculated  on 
the  basis  of  tilth,  of  arable  land  recovered 
from  the  Moors.  Turpin  says  that  when 
Charlemagne  established  it,  the  dues  in- 
cluded a  measure  of  wheat  and  a  measure  of 
wine.  It  was  levied,  in  the  earliest  docu- 
ment we  have,  on  each  yoke  of  oxen.13 
S.  James's  oxen,  which  are  also  the  oxen  of 



The  Tribal 



WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

5.  Isidro  Labrador,  as  has  been  said,  appear 
in  a  Gallegan  spell  or  formula  recited 
against  S.  Anthony's  fire: 

Pico  Sagro,  Pico  Sagro, 

Que  te  consagrou  o  bendito  Santiago 

Con  setts  boys  e  con  seu  carro, 

Libranos  d'este  fogo  airado; 

Por  la  intercesion  de  la  Virgen  Maria, 

Un  padre  nuestro  y  un  Ave  Maria!14 

At  Saragossa,  the  Apostle  took  care  of 
the  kindly  fruits  of  the  earth.  That  city 
figures  chiefly  in  his  legend  as  what  is  called 
the  Happy  Other  World,  where  fruit  will 
not  rot,  nor  wheat  must,  nor  anything 
spoil;  but  this  is  a  part  of  his  character  as 
a  chthonian  power.  Now  the  chthonian 
deities  were  likewise  powers  of  fertility,  as 
every  one  knows. x  s 

The  Spanish  church  keeps  the  feast  of  S. 
James  Minor  on  May-Day:  now  S.  James 
Minor,  as  his  name  implies,  is  only  a  pale 
doublet  of  the  Son  of  Zebedee.  We  found 
the  two  confused  on  the  north  portal  at 
Leon;  and  because  S.  James  the  Great,  as 



inheriting  the  form  and  the  function  ot  Sol 
Sanctissimus,  kept  his  feasts  at  midsummer 
and  midwinter,  the  other  is  put  in  to  fill 
another  place  of  his,  the  May-Day  feast. 
The  Slavonian  pilgrims,  wrote  Ojea  in 
1600,  time  their  arrival  for  the  latter  end  of 
April,  and  on  the  third  year  of  pilgrimage 
put  garlands  on  their  heads,  and  thus  go  in 
solemn  procession  about  the  church x  6:  this 
too  must  be  a  fertility-charm.  The  feast 
of  the  consecration  of  the  cathedral  of  San- 
tiago, is  also  kept  on  May-Day.17  To 
the  same  class  of  attributes  as  the  oxen 
and  the  garlands  belongs  the  olive  tree  of 
S.  Torquato  in  Guadix,  that  was  always  in 
trait  for  the  Spring  feast,18  and  Guadix 
was  the  first  site  of  the  legend  of  S.  James's 
preaching  in  Spain.  Another  curious  paral- 
lel to  the  French  story,  is  found  in  that 
half-remembered  tale  of  the  Senators  at 
Rome  tearing  Romulus  to  bits  and  every 
one  carrying  off  a  bit  in  his  robe  to  bury  in 
his  "field.  So  this  scrap  of  folk-tradition, 
precariously  preserved,19  marks  with  un- 
expected force  an  aspect  we  might  have 
failed  to  recognize,  how  the  great  S.  James 



herbs  of 



So  the  Wife 
of  Usher's 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

is  more  than  the  Tribal  Hero  giving  food 
to  his  people,  more  than  Sol  Sanctissimus, 
Lord  and  Life-Giver,  though  he  is  still 
before  all  the  Lord  of  the  Dead,  the  Leader 
of  the  wandering  souls. 

Natural  piety  wears  two  aspects;  the 
hope  of  new  life,  the  unforgetfulness  of 
death.  Among  ancient  and  long-remember- 
ing peoples,  the  two  keep  company.  In 
Asturias  and  Galicia,  the  ancestral  ghosts 
are  made  welcome  year  by  year.  A  place 
is  laid  and  a  chair  set  on  the  last  night  of 
the  year  and,  on  All  Souls'  Night  in  Proaza, 
the  bed  is  left  for  them,  the  hearth  fire 
is  fed  with  good  logs,  the  light  is  left  burn- 
ing on  the  table,  and  before  the  living  with- 
draw to  sleep,  they  eat  magostos,  chestnuts 
and  new  wine,  in  a  kind  ot  commemorative 
banquet.20  So  the  second  Council  of 
Braga  denounced  a  practice  already  hoary: 
"It  is  not  lawful  for  Christians  to  carry 
food  to  graves,  and  to  offer  to  God  sacri- 
fices of  the  dead,"  and  it  ruled  also  that 
it  was  unfitting  for  ignorant  and  pre- 
sumptuous clergy  to  carry  the  Mysteries 
[the   Eucharist]  out   ot  doors   to  grave- 




stones,  and  distribute  the  sacraments  there, 
but  they  must  do  it  in  the  church  or 
basilica  in  which  were  deposited  the  relics 
of  the  Martyrs  {i.  e.  only  those  of  the  dead 
officially  accredited)  and  offer  there  for  the 
defunct.31  Petitorios,  real  funeral  baked 
meats,  were  forbidden  by  the  synodals  of 
Mondonedo  in  the  sixteenth  century22 
notwithstanding  the  Canon  Lopez  Ferreiro 
publishes  extracts  "notable  for  the  elegance 
and  purity  of  the  language"  from  the  will 
of  Cardinal  Gomez  Fernandez  de  Vivere, 
a  familiar  of  the  Archbishop  Alvaro  de 
Isorna,  which  provides  that  his  grave  shall 
be  made  in  the  old  chapter-room,  by  the 
door  of  the  chapel  where  Archbishop 
Isorno  lies,  and  continues,  in  choice  Galle- 
gan:  "  Item  mando  que  o  primeiro  dia  de 
mifia  sepoltura  leven  co  o  meu  corpo  ofertas 
de  cera,  pan,  vino  e  carne  o  pescado  segund 
uso  e  costume  da  cibdade":  and  this  was 
in  1484. 2$  A  last  curious  vestige  of  this 
survived  in  the  habit  of  up-country  child- 
ren, and  not  only  the  poor,  who  begged 
food  from  door  to  door,  singing,  it  would 
seem,  as  at  Yule  and  Twelfth  Night;  then 



Custom  in 






WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

went  off  by  themselves  to  eat  the  collec- 
tion, in  child's  play  now,  and  not  neces- 
sarily in  the  churchyard.  In  the  eighteenth 
century  an  Ochogavia  of  Orense  directed 
in  his  will:  "Item,  I  bid  ...  to  place 
upon  my  grave  four  great  candles,  four 
tapers,  bread,  wine,  and  baeta,  for  a  year 
and  a  day."24 

In  Tuscany  I  have  seen  the  lamps  kindled 
on  every  grave  and  flowers  strewn,  for  All- 
Souls'  Eve,  and  the  fires  lighted  on  every 
threshing-floor  on  the  eve  of  the  eighth  of 
September.  In  Mexico  they  beg :  "  Un  co- 
brecito  senorito  para  mi  tumbita."  In 
France  I  have  seen  even  rich  folk,  of  Paris, 
visiting  their  dead  in  November,  and  others 
lighting  fires  on  the  Savoy  shore  in  August; 
and  in  Galicia  I  have  a  faint  remembrance, 
that  I  cannot  localize,  of  the  fires  of  S.  John. 
A  stranger  in  Spain  must  depend  largely  on 
others1  testimony,  for  the  Spanish  peasant 
is  mistrustful  as  a  cat:  I  repeat  therefore 
at  second  hand.  Along  with  the  Beltane 
fire,  Celtic  in  practice  as  in  name,  should 
be  recorded  the  Yule  log,  which  under  the 
name  of  Tizdn  de  Navidad  was  prohibited 



by  the  Synodals  of  Mondofiedo  as  late 
as  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
Sr.  Murguia  will  have  it  that  the  log  was 
fetched  and  kept  burning  for  the  sake  of  the 
returning  ghosts,  to  welcome  and  warm 
las  dnimas:  and  records  that  in  Tuy  just 
such  a  log  is  still  kindled  on  All-Souls'  day. 
But  not  alone  in  the  long  nights  of  Mid- 
winter, or  in  November  at  the  close  of  the 
natural  year,  are  the  souls  abroad — they  are 
about,  everywhere,  all  the  time.  InCorunna 
the  beggars  beg  in  the  name  of  the  souls: 

"Para  misas  y  bien  de  las  benditas  ani- 
mas,  quien  pudiere  por  el  amor  de  Dios." a  5 
The  twilight  hour  belongs  to  the  family 
ghosts,  and  dim  little  churches  are  mur- 
murous with  the  rosaries  and  musical  with 
the  litanies,  of  widows  and  childless  mothers 
in  their  close-drawn  black  veils.  In  San- 
tiago the  unco*  gude  go  begging,  from  shop 
to  shop,  at  nightfall,  for  the  same  end.26 
In  return,  in  the  region  of  Corunna,  those 
who  want  to  wake  at  a  certain  hour  have 
only  to  say  three  Our  Fathers  to  the  dnimas 
benditas  and  these  will  see  to  the  waking. 2  7 
Poor  souls  called  blessed,  a  little  as  the 



Yule  log 


A  dust- 
whirl  in  the 


WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

Eumenides  were  so  called!  Some  lie  yet  in 
purgatorial  fire,  some  go  on  pilgrimage, 
some  wander  in  sad  throngs,  like  flocks  of 
migrant  birds.  The  spectral  Company,  or 
Estadea,  known  also  in  parts  of  France,  is 
made  up  of  such  souls:  of  them,  as  under- 
stood in  the  province  of  Orense,  Sr.  Mur- 
guia  writes: 

By  night  the  dead  rise  from  their 
graves  and  meet  inside  the  church:  they 
start  out  together  from  the  west  door  at 
the  stroke  of  twelve.  A  living  person 
leads  the  procession,  man  if  the  church 
is  dedicated  to  a  male  saint,  woman  if  to 
a  female.  The  living  carries  the  cross 
and  the  holy  water  pail  with  the  aspergil 
of  hyssop;  he  cannot  turn  nor  observe 
what  goes  on  behind  him,  he  gets  his 
orders,  he  knows  not  how.  Each  ghost 
carries  a  candle,  but  is  invisible;  you 
know  their  passage  by  the  wind  of  their 
going  and  the  smell  of  burning  wax.  The 
living  cannot  lay  down  his  charge  and 
he  who  goes  with  the  dead,  as  the  phrase 
is,  may  be  recognized  by  pallor,  weakness 
and  sickness:  he  cannot  tell  what  he  has 



seen,  nor  where  he  went,  indeed;  he  can- 
not give  up  his  equipage  until  be  meets 
upon  the  way  another  person  in  whose 
hands  he  places  the  cross  and  the  pail: 
then  that  one  must  succeed  him.  The 
only  escape  would  be  as  the  Company 
goes  by  to  draw  a  circle  and  stand  inside 
it,  or  else  drop  face  down  on  the  ground 
and  let  the  spirits  trample  over  and  on. 
The  procession  goes  to  announce  some- 
one's death,  a  year  ahead.28 

In  other  parts,  the  souls  go  about  other 
business,  perhaps.  A  woman  spinning  late 
at  her  window,  saw  vagrant  lights  flitting 
about  the  meadows,  drawing  together, 
proceeding  towards  her  cottage.  The 
legend  as  told  in  Asturias  has  some  grisly 
elements,  the  point  of  it  for  us  lies  in  what 
her  priest  told  her  the  next  morning:  viz. 
that  what  went  down  the  road  were  souls 
in  pain,  to  whom  God  has  appointed  this 
world  as  a  place  of  penitence,  for  not  all 
such  souls  are  in  Purgatory.29 

The  reader  recalls  here,  realizing  how  all 
the  land  must  be  full  of  wandering  ghosts, 
that  Priscillianism,  of  which  Galicia  was 



Wills  o' 
the  Wisp 



WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

the  very  source  and  stronghold ,  is  thought 
to  have  been  much  concerned  with  the 
transmigration  of  souls;  no  wonder,  since 
the  adepts  must  have  been  cognizant  of 
them  on  every  side,  with  every  breath;  and 
recalls  as  well,  wondering  if  the  good 
Cura's  word  was  a  last  reflection  of  it,  the 
theory  of  Origen  that  the  souls  of  men  in 
the  world  are  only  a  rebirth,  another 
chance,  granted  to  the  unhappy  angels, — 

quel  cattivo  coro 
degli  angeli  che  non  furon  ribelli 
ne  fur  fideli  a  Dio,  ma  per  se  fero.30 

Porphyry  has  said  that  souls  come  down 
from  the  moon  to  the  earth  under  the  form 
of  bees,  and  a  Gallegan  proverb  seems  to 
sustain  this: 

O  que  mata  un  abellon 
Ten  cen  anos  de  perdon, 
O  que  mata  un-ha  abella 
Ten  cen  anos  de  pena.31 

One  curious  Gallegan  use  connects  the 
bees  with  the  dead,  when  the  mourners 



circle  around  the  bier  with  a  humming 
noise,  called  el  Abellon.  When  the  dead 
are  carried  to  the  burial,  in  Vilancosta,33 
there  must  be  none  asleep  in  the  house, 
lest  the  soul  of  the  sleeper  should  escape 
and  accompany  the  departed. 

In  Indian  symbolism  the  bee  is  the  soul, 
the  hive  is  the  body,  the  honey  is  sweet  life. 
In  Greek,  the  bees  are  associated  with 
Zeus,  and  with  fertility,  much  as  when 
they  are  born  from  the  buried  ox  in  Virgil; 
but  they  are  souls  also,  and  when  Hermes 
evokes  a  little  dead  figure  from  a  burial  jar, 
the  soul  hovers  above  in  the  form  of  a 
bee.  Here,  simply,  the  winged  and  fragile 
creatures  are  the  family  souls  in  some  other 
than  earthly  durance.  Therefore,  in  New 
England,  within  the  memory  of  those  now 
living,  the  bees  must  be  told  of  any  death 
in  the  family.  To  the  shrine  of  S.  Juan  de 
Ortega,  as  already  said,  went  childless 
women,  to  pray  not  vainly,  and  the  white 
bees  that  lived  in  the  Saint's  tomb  were 
the  souls  waiting  to  be  born  that  they 
carried  home  in  their  bosoms.  This  is  a 
better  way  to  manage  the  process  than 



are  souls 







that  of  drinking  down  the  person  who  is  to 
be  reborn,  like  Cuchullain's  race. 

Dante  knew  something  about  these  white 
bees,  though,  according  to  his  practice,  he 
made  his  own  use  of  old  lore,  when  he  de- 
scribed, about  the  Candida  rosa,  the  swarm 
of  bees,  che  volando  vede  e  canta : 

Le  facce  tutte  avean  di  fiamma  viva, 
e  Tali  d'oro,  e  Taltro  tanto  bianco 
che  nulla  neve  a  quel  termine  arriva.33 

A  story  which  seems  to  belong  here,  as 
involving  a  bee,  is  that  of  a  local  saint. 
There  is  an  early  saint  recorded  by  La 
Fuente,  who,  like  a  kind  of  northern  and 
colder  Dionysus,  came  from  eastward  and 
introduced  his  people  to  cider  and  taught 
them  to  plant  orchards.34  Once,  when 
Christ  went  about  in  the  world  with 
S.  Peter,  he  was  thirsty  and  plucking  and 
opening  an  apple  to  eat  of  it,  out  came 
S.  Andres  de  Teijido.  It  is  possible  that 
this  astonishing  adventure  may  be  asso- 
ciated, on  the  other  hand,  with  the  fruits 
of  Paradise,  for  while  the  apple  was  es- 



peciaUy  sacred  among  the  Celtic  peoples, 3  5 
his  shrine,  in  the  extreme  north  near  Cape 
Ortegal,  is  much  sought  in  pilgrimage:  a 
proverb  says,  "A  S.  Andres  de  Teijido  o 
que  non  vai  de  morto  vai  de  vivo,"  and  a 
pretty  cancidn,  one  of  many,  is  this: 

Fun  o  Santo  San  Andres 
al6  n'o  cabo  d'o  mundo, 
i  solo  por  te  ver  meu  santo 
tres  dias  hai  que  non  durmo!36 

The  souls  go  likewise  on  pilgrimage  to 
Santiago,  in  such  multitudes  that  they 
lighten  all  the  sky,  for  in  Galicia  the  star 
dust  of  the  Milky  Way,  that  to  Shelley  was 
a  swarm  of  golden  bees,  is  held  for  the  in- 
numerable souls  that  have  to  make  that 
journey.  Sr.  Aribau  preserves  a  notion  cur- 
rent in  Asturias,  that  S.  James  was  lonely 
in  his  grave,  that  lay  in  the  far  and  out 
of  the  way,  and  God  said  to  him:  "  Don't 
mind,  for  all  men  born  have  to  come  and 
visit  you,  and  those  who  do  not  come  while 
they  are  alive,  will  come  after  death." 
In  Castile,  a  shooting  star  is  recognized 



S.  James 

At  the  end 
of  the 


The  elder 




hacker  as 
are  lighted 

and  candles 


WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

as  a  departed  soul,  bound  on  its  long  jour- 
ney, and  lest  it  go  astray  the  poor  wander- 
ing soul  is  sped  with  a  prayer,  "Dios  te 
guia  y  la  Magdalena."37 

I  have  quoted  already  the  Asturian 
romance  of  the  Alma  en  pena.  The  soul, 
it  will  be  remembered,  crossed  the  running 
water  on  rays  from  such  a  consecrated  taper 
as  those  that  send  their  light  to  them  that 
sit  in  darkness  and  in  the  shadow  of  death. 

It  seems  that  the  unbaptized  babes,  and 
those  that  died  unborn,  see  light  on  Candle- 
mas Day.  The  cigar-makers  of  Corunna, 
on  that  day,  set  their  lights  on  a  sprig  of 
rosemary — that's  for  remembrance  —  and 
all  the  sacred  day  the  little  souls  are  not 
in  darkness.  In  Compostella  those  that 
should  have  been  Godparents,38  strew  the 
church  with  fragrant  herbs  and  flowers:  the 
lights  avail  only  for  the  hours  of  Mass  time, 
when,  also,  a  dove  is  loosed  above  the  altar, 
in  allusion  nominally  to  the  Feast  of  the 
Purification,  but  with  a  further  reference, 
in  the  dim  backward  and  abysm  of  time,  to 
the  souls  that  live  as  singing  birds  in  the 
tree  of  life.    The  Good  Lady,  Our  Lady,  is 



one  with  Venus  of  the  doves,  the  Mountain 
Mother,  and  she  is  the  mother  of  the 
motherless  in  Limbo,  as  indeed  of  all  living. 
This  is  S.  Bride,  Christ's  fostermother, 
who  passes  through  the  Highland  in  Feb- 
ruary and  shepherds  hear  the  crying  of 
lambs  and  no  bleating  of  ewes.39  I  have 
referred  already  to  South-German  and 
Austrian  legends  of  Frau  Holde,  4°  and  the 
baby  souls  she  keeps,  like  S.  Juan  de  Ortega, 
in  a  great  chest,  and  that  flutter  before  her 
and  about  her  as  she  walks,  like  those  little 
beings  with  angel  faces,  and  wings  changing 
like  pigeon's  breasts,  that  flutter  in  a  crowd 
around  Mantegna's  Mater  Dei  in  the  Milan 
versions.  S.  Ursula,  who  habitually  shel- 
ters 1 1 ,000  little  souls  under  her  cloak,  in 
Carpaccio's  Glorification  at  Venice  stands 
in  the  Tree  of  Life,  and  the  little  souls  are 
clustered  around  at  the  springing  of  the 
leaves,  like  the  fruit  of  the  date  palm. 

In  the  end,  however,  the  poor  wee  babies 
shall  be  delivered  from  their  long  night 
time,  and  coming  back  to  this  earth  after 
the  Day  of  Judgement,  grow  up  to  the  age 
of  thirty-three  years,  three  months,  and 



S.  Bride 

S.  Ursula 






WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

five  days.  There,  at  the  blessed  age 'of 
Our  Lord,  they  shall  stay,  content,  forever, 
and  the  earth  shall  be  like  Paradise  before 
Adam  fell, 4  x  till  at  last,  after  a  greater  or  a 
lesser  expectation,  they  shall  come  to  see 
the  face  of  God.  This  is  the  end  of  a  story 
that  was  told  in  Galicia  by  a  very  old  man, 
about  forty  years  ago. 

It  was  in  Spain  that  Sortorius  heard  of 
that  land  which  lay  beyond,  out  in  the 
strange  Hesperian  seas,  beyond  the  straits 
of  Hercules  ooer  the  visionary  sea: 

...  an  ancient  lawn 
Far  hidden  down  the  solemn  West: 
A  gracious  pleasaunce  of  calm  things.  .  . 
And  Captains  of  the  older  time, 
Touched  with  mild  light,  or  gently  sleep, 
Or  in  the  orchard  shadows  keep 
Old  friendships  of  the  golden  prime  .  .  .42 



The  Long  Way 

Deh,  peregrini,  che  pensosi 

forse  di  cosa  che  non  v'e 

venite  voi  da   si  lontana 

gente?.  .  .  . 

—  Dante. 

The  pilgrims,  perhaps  from  the  very  first, 
had  a  vague  notion  how  long  was  the  way 
to  go.  In  the  portico  of  Santiago,  to  ex- 
plain one  sculptural  motive,  I  invoked  the 
Vision  of  Tundall.  Now  the  author  of  that 
was  one  Brother  Marcus,  an  Irish  monk 
who  wrote  it  in  Ratisbon  about  1 148.  The 
date  gives  time  for  pilgrims  to  bring  the 
book  to  Santiago,  for  the  Irish  convent  of 
S.  James  in  Ratisbon  was  a  great  one 
and,  as  the  Schottenkirche,  is  known  to 
tourists  still,  if  even  we  do  not  suppose 
that  the  story  came  straight  from  Ire- 
land by  the  way  of  commerce.  But 
Spanish  and  Irish  authorities  lay  some 
stress  on  the  relation  between  these  re- 
gions; the  Knight  of  Rozmital  believed 
that  on  a  fine  day,  he  had  seen  Ireland 
from  the  coast  of  Spain.    What  he  did  see 






the  stormy 

WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

was  Atlantis,  for  it  lay  about  where  he 

The  grey-eyed  girls,  the  dirty,  pretty, 
saucy  children,  the  pigs  that  live  in  inti- 
macy with  their  owners:  —  a  Gallegan 
proverb  says,  "la  lady,  you  a  lady,  who 
will  drive  the  pig  outdoors?  "  —  all  these 
have  suggested  to  casual  travellers  a 
possible  kinship,  if  not  colonization,  be- 
tween the  west  of  Spain  and  the  west  of 
Ireland.  The  drift  of  folk-lore,  of  tale  and 
use,  however,  set  elsewhere;  on  the  conti- 
nent, towards  Armorica,  and  in  the  islands 
toward  the  isles  of  the  north.  Striking 
correspondence  may  be  found,  notwith- 
standing, between  the  lore  of  Asturias  and 
Galicia,  and  that  of  the  Hebrides  and  the 
Highlands,  between  Finisterre  and  Ultima 
Thule.  The  strangest  figures  of  the  so- 
called  Fiona  Macleod,  the  Sin-Eater,  and 
the  Washers  of  the  Ford,  are  familiar  in 
Spain  under  the  protection  of  Senora  Pardo 
Bazdn  and  D.  Jose*  Menendez  Pidal. 

"I  doubt  if  any  now  living,"  writes  the 
Gaelic  poetess,  "either  in  the  Hebrides  or 
in  Ireland  has  heard  even  a  fragmentary 



legend  of  the  Washer  of  the  Ford.  The 
name  survives,  with  its  atmosphere  of  a 
remote  past,  its  dim  ancestral  memory  of  a 
shadowy  figure  of  awe  haunting  a  shadowy 
stream  in  a  shadowy  land."  But  in  the 
Biblioteca  del  Folk-lore  among  notes  taken 
down  from  the  talk  of  a  girl  of  Proaza  ir 
Asturias,  is  the  following: 

In  all  Asturias  there  are  Xanas, 
who  are  kings'  daughters  and  live  en- 
chanted in  the  springs.  On  Midsummer 
night  before  dawn,  they  wash  their 
clothes  and  spread  them  in  the  dew. 
Those  who  get  up  early  enough  can  see 
them  lying  on  the  grass.  They  are  thin 
as  though  no  hand  had  touched  them, 
and  white  like  snow. x 

As  in  dreams  one  is  always  coming  some- 
where and  never  arrives,  one  gets  to  the 
next-but-one  corner,  one  hears  the  voices 
and  smells  the  flowers,  and  then  one  is  out 
of  reach  again,  so  in  following  these  "  clues  " 
of  folk-tale,  one  is  always  coming  in  sight  of 
the  place  where  Galicia  shall  be  named 
roundly  as  the  land  of  the  dead,  or  the 


— n : 



of  the  Ford 


The  green 
and  grassy 

The  pil- 
grimage of 
the  soul 

WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

western  Paradise,  or  the  Paradise  of  Souls, 
and  then,  instead,  all  is  away  again.  The 
GaUegan's  notion  of  earth,  his  earth,  be- 
come another  Eden;  Aymery  Picaud's 
insistence  on  a  fair  Paradise,  fountain- 
watered,  beside  the  bourne,  though  his  own 
wits  testified  to  a  paved  square  and  sellers 
of  trinkets  and  notions;  ThurkiU's  im- 
pression that  the  resting  place  of  the  blessed 
dead  was  upon  the  Calzada  and  within  the 
Basilica;  that  carving  of  souls  in  a  green 
Paradise,  above  the  north-western  door, 
all  may  stand  as  evidence,  fragmentary, 
indeed,  but  indubitable,  that  the  pilgrim- 
age of  the  centuries  was  the  pilgrimage  of 
the  soul.  Stella  obscura  rules  the  ascendant, 
the  long  journey  of  the  soul  is  known,  and 
is  prepared  for.  On  the  estuaries  and 
among  the  Atlantic  rocks  of  the  extreme 
North-west,  the  dead  is  dressed  decently  for 
his  journey,  all  the  village  if  necessary  con- 
tributing, and  the  clothes  are  washed  and 
ironed  and  mended,  though  they  must  have 
neither  pins  nor  hooks  to  catch  and  hold 
the  soul  at  setting  out. 2 
That  from  very  early  times  S.  James  was 




a  chthonian  power,  there  is  another  bit  of 
evidence,  likewise  fragmentary  but  suffi- 
cient. Already  Aymery  Picaud  stated,  it 
will  be  remembered,  in  his  guide  book  for 
pilgrims,  how  on  the  southern  front  of  the 
great  church  the  Apostle  stood  on  the  right 
hand  of  Christ  between  two  cypress  trees. 
Now  the  cypress  belongs  to  the  dead  and 
appears  in  an  Orphic  guide  book  for  the 
pilgrimage  of  the  Soul  after  death.  On  the 
leaves  ot  gold  inscribed  with  direction  to 
the  Alma  peregrine,  that  have  been  found 
in  southern  Italy,  a  white  cypress  stands 
beside  the  House  of  the  Lord  of  the  Dead : 

Thou  shalt  find  to  the  left  of  the  House 

of  Hades  a  Well-spring, 
And  by  the  side  thereof  standing  a 

white  cypress. 
To    this    Well-spring    approach    not 


And  the  tablets  from  Crete  tell  the  same 

I  am  parched  with  thirst  and  I  perish. — 
Nay,  drink  of  Me, 



Ul  cupres- 
sus  in 






The  Well-spring  flowing  forever  on  the 
right,  where  the  Cypress  is. 

The  cypress  trees  are  wound  about  with 
the  vine,  by  reason  of  a  passage  in  the 
Apocryphal  Acts  of  S.  Matthew: — 4 

For  behold,  I  shall  plant  this  rod  in 
this  place,  and  it  shall  be  a  sign  to  your 
generations,  and  it  shall  become  a  tree, 
great  and  lofty  and  flourishing, — and  its 
fruit  beautiful  to  the  view  and  good  to 
the  sight;  and  the  fragrance  of  perfumes 
shall  come  forth  from  it,  and  there  shall 
be  a  vine  twining  round  it,  full  of  clusters, 
and  from  the  top  of  it  honey  coming 
down,  and  every  flying  creature  shall 
find  covert  in  its  branches ;  and  a  fountain 
of  water  shall  come  forth  from  the  roots 
of  it,  having  swimming  and  creeping 
things,  giving  drink  to  all  the  country 
round  about. 

This  was  in  the  City  of  the  Man-eaters, 
where  SS.  Matthew  and  Andrew  had  been 
before:  but  the  tree  is  the  Tree  of  Life, 
much  as  it  appears  in  the  Zend  Avesta  and 



the  Edda.  To  this  day  in  Sicily  the  cypress 
is  the  tree  of  immortality,  and  Pitre*  re- 
cords,5 that  at  Salaparyta  on  All  Souls' 
Day,  children  play  with  cypress  cones  and 
with  branches  of  cypress  and  rosemary,  and 
then  return  home  joyfully,  and  this  signifies 
the  life  of  the  Blessed  souls.  The  tree 
was  brought  back  from  Syria,  probably, 
into  Spain,  by  Templars  or  other  Crusaders, 
for  on  a  tympanum  at  Castrelo,  above  the 
Mifio,  where  Templars  built,  the  Tree  and 
the  Cross  alternate.6  At  S.  Salvador  de 
Sarria  the  figure  of  the  Saviour  is  flanked 
by  two  cypresses  on  the  Mount  of  Trans- 
figuration, but  as  the  present  church  was 
built  so  late  there,  this  seems  likely  to  be  a 
back-wash  from  Compostella  with  the 
symbolism  misunderstood,  as  Aymery  in 
the  twelfth  century  preserves  another  mis- 
interpretation for  our  warning.  The  west- 
ern tympanum  at  Santiago  had  long  been 
destroyed,  with  its  scene  of  the  Transfigura- 
tion, and  the  Last  Judgement  on  the  south 
face  was  as  likely  to  be  misread  by  a  clerk 
in  the  thirteenth  century  as  by  a  Canon 
in  the  twentieth.    The  cypresses  of  the 








Serapis  and 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Puerto,  de  las  Platerias  are  the  attributes  of 
S.  James  and  so,  on  the  transept  portal  of 
S.  Sernin  at  Toulouse,  where  the  figure  is 
present,  there  are  the  trees. 

Nor  may  it  be  forgotten  that  in  some 
versions  of  the  Legend  of  S.  Viril  of  Leyre, 
he  was  Abbot  of  Samos  in  Galicia  (being 
sent  thither,  say  the  Navarrese  chroniclers, 
to  reform  that  abbey)  and  it  was  there  that 
he  listened  to  the  little  brown  bird  that 
sang  on  a  low-hung  bough,  and  heard  the 
music  of  Paradise. 7  Samos  had  many  rela- 
tions with  Santiago,  some  of  very  ancient 
date,  and  the  figures  of  SS.  Julian  and 
Basilisa,  there  revered,  are  among  the 
elder  lords  of  the  land. 

It  is,  in  a  way,  confirmation  of  this,  to 
which  indeed  all  of  this  study  has  been 
leading  up,  that  about  Saragossa,  the  only 
other  place  in  Spain  which  properly  belongs 
to  the  Apostle  and  was  the  scene  of  an 
Epiphany,  clung  also  rumours  that  belong 
to  the  land  of  the  dead.  An  Arab  geogra- 
pher of  Almeria  reports8  that  a  light  shines 
over  the  city  always,  above  a  tomb:  Mus- 
lims say  that  of  one  of  the  Companions  of 



the  Prophet,— Christians  for  "the  Prophet" 
would  read  "the  Lord.  "  There  nothing 
wastes  nor  spoils,  neither  moth  nor  rust 
doth  corrupt.  Fruits  will  not  decay,  nor 
wheat  must,  as  who  should  say : 

There  everlasting  spring  abides   and 
never-fading  flowers. 

It  is  only  in  Paradise  that  such  things  are 
found,  or  in  the  tales  of  such  strange 
travellers  as  Irish  legend  loved. 

The  Singing  Souls. 

.  .  Sino  yo  triste,  cuytado, 
que  vivo  en  esta  prision, 
que  ni  si  quando  es  de  dia 
ni  quando  las  noches  son, 
sino  por  una  avecilla 

que  me  cantaba  al  albor 

— Romance. 

From  Tundall  the  full  text  has  not  yet 
been  quoted: 

Anon  he  came  and  saw  a  tree 
That  wonderlymickel  was  and  high.  .  .  . 
With  all  kind  fruit  that  savoured  well, 
Of  divers  kind  and  several  hue, 



O  happy 
harbour . 


like  bees 



Some  white,  some  red,  some  yellow,  some 

And  all  manner  herbs  of  virtue.  .  .  . 
Many  fowls  of  diverse  colours 
Sat  among  the  fruit  and  the  flowers, 
On  the  branches  singing  so  merrily 
And  made  divers  melody, 
Ilk  of  them  in  his  best  mannere 
That  song  was  joyful  for  to  here. 
Tundale  listened  fast  and  laughed 
And  thought  that  was  joy  enough. 
He  saw  under  that  ilk  tree, 
Wonning  in  cells,  great  plenty 
Of  men  and  women  shining  bright 
As  gold,  with  all  riches  dight  .  .  . 
Each  one  had  on  his  head  a  crown 
Of  gold  that  was  of  seemly  fashion  .  .  . 
And  sceptres  in  their  hand  they  had, 
With  gold  they  were  full  richly  clad 
With  bright  clothes  of  rich  hue, 
As  they  were  kings  crowned  new. 
So  richly  as  they  were  dight 
Was  never  earthly  man  of  might. 
"Then  spake  the  angel.  .  .  . 
And    said:    This    tree    [signifies    Holy 


On  the  doorway  the  souls  sit  up  among 
the  leaves,  the  saints  and  prophets  stand 



below,  against  the  jambs,  and  all  is  blazing 
with  yellow,  red  and  blue,  green  and  gold. 
Nothing  else  gives  quite  so  sharp  a  vision 
of  what  such  work  looked  like  when  it  was 
still  new. 

These  singing  souls  appear  elsewhere 
twice  and  may  here  be  dealt  with:  one  is 
in  the  fifteenth-century  rendering  ot  S. 
Peter  Damian's  Ad  Perennis  Vitae  Fontem, 
but  the  Elizabethan  is  responsible  for  their 
manifestation.  The  hymn  begins  "Hieru- 
salem,  my  happy  home  "  and  is  signed 
P.  B.  D.,  and  the  passage  is  this: 

Quite  through  the  streets  with  silver 

The  flood  of  life  doth  flow, 
Upon  whose  banks  on  every  side 

The  wood  of  life  doth  grow. 

Those  trees  forevermore  bear  fruit 

And  evermore  do  spring; 
There  evermore  the  angels  sit, 

And  evermore  do  sing.2 

That  there  can  be  no  question  that  the 
singers  in  the  trees,  in  spite  of  Dante  and 
P.  B.  D.,  are  souls  and  not  angels,  is  shown 



S.  Peter 





WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

by  a.  set  of  episodes  in  the  famous  Irish 

In  the  Vision  of  Adamnan,  which  may  be 
of  the  ninth  century,  occurs  the  following: 
"This,  then,  is  the  preaching  which  Elijah 
is  wont  to  make  to  the  souls  of  the  righteous 
under  the  Tree  of  Life  in  Paradise.  Now 
when  Elijah  opens  the  book  for  the  preach- 
ing, then  come  the  souls  of  the  righteous 
in  the  shape  of  bright  white  birds,  to  him 
from  every  point."3  The  same  birds, 
beating  their  wings  till  blood-drops  fall, 
come  again  in  the  Voyage  of  Snegdus, 
where  in  an  island  was  a  great  tree  with 
beautiful  birds  on  its  branches:  melodious 
was  the  music  of  these  birds  a-singing 
psalms  and  canticles.4  In  the  Voyage 
of  Bran,  the  birds  sing  the  Hours: 

An  ancient  tree  is  there  with  blossoms 
On  which  birds  call  to  the  Hours. 
'Tis  in  harmony  it  is  their  wont 
To  call  together  every  Hour.5 .. 

In  the  Voyage  of  Maelduin  it  is  told:  "As 
they  went  from  that  place  they  heard  in 
the  north-east  a  great  cry  and  chaunt,  as  it 



were  a  singing  of  psalms.  That  night  and 
the  next  day  till  Nones  they  were  rowing 
that  they  might  know  that  cry  or  chaunt 
they  heard.  They  beheld  a  high  mountain- 
ous island,  full  of  birds,  black  and  dim  and 
speckled,  shouting  and  speaking  loudly. 
The  next  island  contained  many  trees  and 
birds  and  a  man  whose  clothing  was  his 
hair.  He  said:  "The  birds  whom  thou  be- 
holdest  in  the  trees  are  the  souls  of  my 
children  and  my  kindred,  both  men  and 
women,  who  are  yonder  awaiting  Dooms- 
day. The  next  island  had  a  golden  ram- 
part about  it  .  .  .  there  was  also  a  mar- 
vellous fountain,  which  on  Wednesdays 
and  Fridays  yields  water,  on  Sundays  milk, 
but  on  feast  days  wine.  .  .  ."6 

In  the  Voyage  of  S.  Brendan,  the  party 
comes  to  the  Paradise  of  birds  and  the 
leader  "flies  down,  his  wings  sounding  like 
bells,  and  perches  on  the  prow  of  Brendan's 
ship,  and  tells  him  they  are  angels  who  fell 
with  Lucifer,  but  who  refused  to  join  with 
him  in  distinct  rebellion.  ...  He  re- 
joins the  other  birds,  and  as  the  Hours  go 
by,  they  chant  all  the  service." 7 



S.  Brendan 


shells and 

The  land 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Now  the  Voyages  of  Maelduin  and  S. 
Brendan  are  reckoned  to  come  somewhere 
between  the  ninth  and  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury, and  Kuno  Meyer  will  have  that  of 
Bran  as  early  as  the  seventh.8  There  was 
every  chance  for  pilgrims  to  have  heard 
about  them,  and  to  tell  of  them,  one  to 
another,  while  they  waited  for  mass  in  the 
church,  or  for  food-time  at  the  convent 
door,  or  for  sleep  in  the  crowded  hospice. 
The  pilgrim  is  your  great  disseminator  of 
lore,  as  birds  are  carriers  of  seeds.  By  the 
time  he  gets  home  and  tells  the  marvels  he 
has  seen,  and  the  marvels  he  has  heard,  to 
those  in  his  own  land,  who  can  tell  the  one 
from  the  other?  There  inside  the  fair  wall 
of  the  church,  there  close  beside  the  mar- 
vellous fountain,  angelic  voices  sing  the 
Hours,  and  up  in  the  green  and  gold  of  the 
carved  leafage  above  the  entrance  door, 
sit  little  souls  that  sing  as  well.  Critics 
are  agreed  that  the  Voyages  belong  some- 
how with  that  last  long  voyage  that  lies 
before  all  of  us,  to  the  land  whence  none 
returns,  to  the  world  of  souls,  and  the  voy- 
age, and  the  Western  Isle,  and  the  Hollow 



Land,  and  the  road  that  goes  to  Hell,  are 
confused  in  men's  minds  as  the  recollec- 
tions of  a  tired  child  at  nightfall. 

The  Bridge  of  Dread. 

.  .  .   Ytenla 
Un  tan  estrecho  puente, 
Que  era  una  linea  no  mdst 
Y  ella  tan  delgada  y  debit, 
Que  a  mi  no  me  parecio 
Que  sin  quebrantarla,  pudiese 

— Calder6n. 

To  explain  the  singing  souls  among  the 
leaves,  it  was  necessary  to  invoke  one  of  the 
most  famous  instances  in  mediaeval  litera- 
ture of  those  Visions  of  Heaven  and  Hell 
that  beset  men's  minds.  The  jocular 
friar  in  the  square  getting  ready  to  send 
around  the  bag,  and  the  terrible  monk  in 
the  darkening  church  thundering  of  the 
Doom,  alike  rehearsed  them  till  the  stages 
of  that  awful  journey  were  as  well  known, 
the  geography  of  that  sad  place  as  fixed, 
as  the  route  of  the  Jerusalem  pilgrims,  or 
of  those  of  Rome  or  Compostella. 



lypses and 
P  Merino  ges 



caminos  y 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

"I  knew,"  so  the  preacher  would  intro- 
duce the  passage,  "of  a  presumptuous 
monk  who  went  to  purify  a  church:  he 
fasted  three  days,  then  fell  asleep,  and  his 
soul  was  taken  up  by  angels  through  the 
roof  of  the  church."  By  the  way,  the 
beginning  of  the  vision  was  that  "he  saw 
the  church  in  which  he  was,  all  alight,  and 
yet  there  was  still  a  part  of  the  night "  un- 
spent: with  which  may  be  compared  a 
similar  experience  not  infrequent  in  San- 

.  .  .  Thereupon  he  is  let  down  north- 
ward into  a  great  glen.  It  seemed 
as  long  to  him  as  if  he  saw  from  the 
rising  of  the  sun  to  its  setting.  He  sees  a 
great  pit,  as  it  were  the  mouth  of  a  cave 
between  two  mountains,  which  they 
entered  above.  For  a  long  time  they 
went  along  the  cave,  till  they  came  to  a 
great  high  black  mountain  before  them 
at  the  mouth  of  Hell,  and  a  large  glen 
in  the  upper  part  of  the  mountain.  This 
was  the  nature  of  that  glen:  it  was  broad 
below,  narrow  above.  That  cave  was 
the  door  of  Hell,  and  its  porch.   And  he 




saw  the  folk  of  the  Island,  whomsoever 
of  them  were,  when  in  the  body,  under 
the  displeasure  of  God.  They  were  in  the 
middle  of  the  glen,  wailing.  .  .  .  There- 
upon the  man's  soul  went  into  Hell  itself, 
even  a  sea  of  fire  with  an  unspeakable 
storm  and  unspeakable  waves  upon  it. 
And  he  saw  the  souls  aflame  in  that  sea, 
and  their  heads  all  above  it,  and  they 
wailing  and  lamenting,  crying  woe  with- 
out ceasing,  through  the  ages.  .  .  . x 

That  is  pretty  fine,  even  read  in  transla- 
tion, and  when  a  grand  voice  rolled  it  out 
in  the  bitter  November  dusk,  or  through 
the  howling  of  March  winds  outside,  it 
would  not  be  forgotten,  even  when  Advent 
resolutions  and  Lenten  repentances  were 
mouldered  with  the  dead  leaves  of  youth. 
The  mountain  looms  at  the  end  of  a  road 
that  begins  in  fair  country,  with  raspberry 
bushes  along  the  way  to  pick  from  as  you 
walk.  Suddenly,  as  when  Childe  Roland 
comes  to  the  dark  tower,  there  is  the  glen: 

From  thence  a  deep  dale  shalt  thou  have 
Up  unto  the  Mount.  .  .  . 



de  perpetua 



High  hills,  and  of  the  Spains  see  a  cry: 
The  noise  is  full  grievous,  pardie!2 

Ask  the  man  what  that  noise  is,  he  looks 

foolish.     He  does  not  know  what  he  is 

talking  about..  Ask  other  pilgrims,  then: 

The  sea 
and  the 
waves  roar- 
ing .  .  . 

Quand  nous  fumes  au  Mont-Etuve 

Avions  grand  froid, 
Ressentimes  si  grand  froidure 

Quej'entremblais.  .  .  . 
Quand  nous  fumes  au  Pont-qui-tremble 

Bien  etonnes 
De  nous  voir  entre  deux  montagnes 

Si  oppresses, 
D'ouir  les  ondes  de  la  mer 

En  grande  tourmente: 
Compagnons,  nous  faut  cheminer 

Sails'  faire  demeuranoe.3 

Owain  Miles  had  felt  that  cold: 


Le  pais  fut  orrible  et  grand, — 
le  vent  fut  dur  et  anguissant; 
oncques  sa  vie  n'eut  si  grand  froid,4 

He  had  gone  down  "par  une  mult  gran 
vallee,"  and  there  had  heard  "pleurs  et 



Master  Matthew  s  Porch 


pleintes  crians  merci, . . .  les  pleints  et  les 
piteux  cris."  There  the  land  was  "noir  et 
obscur,"  and  the  wind  that  blows  between 
the  worlds  pierced  and  tortured  him. 

Aqui  el  viento  que  coma 
Penetraba  sutilmente 
Los  miembros,  aguda  espada 
Era  el  suspiro  mas  de*bil,s 

writes  Calderon,  in  his  mannered,  courtly 
style  adapted  to  destroy  conviction  even 
when  a  good  image  is  offered:  not  so  the 
homely  pilgrims : 

Quand  nous  fumes  au  Mont  Etuve 
Qui  est  si  f  roid  et  si  rude 
Et  fait  plusieurs  coeurs  dolents.  .  .  . 
Quand  nous  fumes  au  Pont-qui-tremble 
Nous  6tions  bien  vingt  ou  trente, 
Tant  Frangais  comme  Allemans; 
Nous  nous  disions  Tun  a  l'autre, 
Compagne,  marche  devant.6 

The  Purgatory  of  S.  Patrick  which  Sir 
Owain  thus  visited,  was  well  known  in 
Spain:  Alfonso  X  made  a  Romance  of  it, 
and  Calderon  a  play,  though  in  truth  the 



.  .  .  Men's 
hearts  fail- 
ing them 
for  fear 



Para  los 

todos  son 



WAY    OF     S.  JAMES 

play  evades  the  subject  until  the  last 
possible  moment  and  then  despatches  it  in 
a  single  set  speech. 

Owain  Miles  had  to  make  his  fearful 
journey  because  of  a  sin  he  had  committed, 
and  he  paid  for  it  on  the  way.  He  was,  in 
short,  in  the  same  case  with  those  souls  in 
Galicia  whose  accomplishment  after  death 
of  what  they  neglected  in  life,  is  set  for  a 
sign  across  the  night  sky.  He  crossed  the 
Bridge  of  Dread,  and  he  came  to  Paradise, 
in  the  end,  as  one  comes  to  a  church  door: 
in  the  high  wall  a  door  opened  a  little  and 
a  sweet  smell  blew  out,  and  then  came  a 
procession  of  ecclesiastics  richly  vested, 
bishops,  monks,  canons,  friars,  and  after 
them  the  laity.  They  bore  banners  and 
branches  of  golden  palm  trees.7  But  in- 
side that  wall  was  the  garden  of  Paradise, 
and  in  the  midst  the  Tree  of  Life. 8 

The  whole  of  the  Apocrypha  seems  to 
have  been  especially  familiar  to  Spaniards: 
the  early  church  in  the  west  suffered 
martyrdom  for  it.  A  frequent  source,  even 
if  not  the  first,  among  these  Visions,  was 
that  attributed  to  S.  Paul,  in  Greek  of  the 



fourth  century.  S.  Paul  after  being  up- 
lifted above  the  earth,  and  seeing,  as  in  the 
Porch  at  Moissac  and  the  capitals  at  Car- 
ri6n,  the  deathbeds  of  the  righteous  and 
the  unjust,  looks  upon  Heaven.  Outside 
the  gate  of  heaven  stands  a  fruitless  tree. 
He  goes  down  into  Hell,  and  after  that  he 
visits  the  Earthly  Paradise,  "sees  the 
World  tree  with  the  four  great  rivers  of 
Paradise  gushing  from  its  roots:  he  sees  the 
Tree  of  Knowledge  and  the  Tree  of  Life."9 
Only  in  a  later  redaction  does  the  Bridge  of 
Dread  figure.10 

About  594,  Gregory  the  Great  had  given 
the  first  Christian  testimony  to  a  bridge, 
but  the  theme  was  seized  upon;  Tundall 
had  had  to  take  two  bridges:  the  second 
was  spiked,  and  only  a  hand-breadth  wide, 
and  monsters  waited  in  the  lake  to  snap  up 
whosoever  should  fall: 

He  saw  none  that  brig  might  pass 
But  a  priest  that  a  palmer  was, 
A  palm  in  his  hand  he  had 
And  in  a  slavyn  he  was  clad 
Right  as  he  on  earth  had  gone.11 



of  Paul 



The  Bridge 
of  Dread 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

Scott  quotes,  from  a  MS.  in  the  Advo- 
cate's Library,  the  essay  of  Sir  Owain: 

This  the  Brigg  of  Paradise 

Thereover  thou  must  go.  .  .  . 
Owain  beheld  the  brigge  swert 
The  water  thereunder  black  and  swert. 

And  sore  him  gar  to  drede.  .  .  . 
The  brigge  was  as  high  as  a  tour, 
And  as  sharp  as  a  razour, 

And  narrow  it  was  also, 
And  the  water  that  there  ran  under 
Brennd  o'  lightning  and  of  thunder 

That  thought  him  mickel  woe." 

This  is  the  "Brig  o'  Dread,  na  braider 
than  a  thread,"  of  the  Lyke-Wake  Dirge13 
preserved  by  Aubrey  in  his  Remains1*  as 
he  had  heard  it  in  Yorkshire  in  the  seven- 
teenth century,  and  as  Scott  printed  it, 
substantially  the  same,  in  the  Minstrelsy. z  s 
By  the  same  bridge  the  brother  and  sister 
pass  into  hell  in  Andrew  Lang's  translation 
of  a  French  folk-song.    It  reads : 

They  danced  across  the  Bridge  of  Death 

Above  the  black  water, 
And  the  marriage  bell  was  tolled  in  hell 

For  the  souls  of  him  and  her.16 




In  the  former  poem,  as  in  Persian  and 
Arab  tale,  the  bridge,  though  it  must  be 
crossed,  does  not  lead  necessarily  to  hell. 
For  S.  Bona  it  led  to  Santiago.  For  Sir 
Lancelot  and  Sir  Gawain,  in  the  Conte  de 
la  Charette,  it  leads  to  the  land  whence  none 
returns,  where  Guenevere  must  be  sought. 
It  is  a  bare  sword's  edge, 1 7  for  the  one,  for 
the  other,  the  Pont-qui-trethble  of  Manier, 
more  than  half  submerged.  Finally  in  the 
Regtdae  Amoris  of  Andre*  le  Chapelain,  "il 
vacillait  et  etait  souvent  submerge*  par 
les  flots."18  In  this  tale  a  knight  who  is 
seeking  Arthur  to  learn  the  laws  of  love, 
goes  certainly  to  his  realm  after  death,  and 
finds  him  enthroned  much  like  Cormac  in 
Tundall's  vision,  but  better  off.  The  con- 
dition and  name  of  the  land  that  lies  be- 
yond, let  Gaston  Paris  pronounce,  for  he 
speaks  as  one  having  authority,  and  not  as 
the  scribe. 

Lancelot  crossed  the  Bridge  of  Dread,  to 
see*  Guenevere  in  the  land  of  the  dead. 
"The  land  of  the  dead  played  a  great  r61e 
in  ancient  Celtic  beliefs,  and  the  informa- 
tion about  the  Gauls  that  the  writers  of 



souls  were 
at  the 


Celts,  says 
Shelley,  for 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

antiquity  have  left,  testify  no  less  than  the 
most  authentic  documents  of  Irish  poetry." 
"The  Celts  represented  the  abode  of  the 
dead  as  an  island  situated  in  the  west 
which  was  at  the  same  time  the  abode  of 
the  blessed.  There,  under  a  sky  always 
mild,  heroes  grew  not  old.19  .  .  ."  Guene- 
vere's  Maying,  which  has  dropped  out  of 
the  story  of  Chretien,  is  a  Celtic  trait  and 
recalls  the  Slavonian  pilgrims,  who  for 
May  Day,  put  garlands  on  their  heads. 
This  provokes  on  the  one  hand,  a  reminis- 
cence of  Owain  Miles  who  saw  the  pro- 
cession of  bishops  that  came  out  smelling 
of  incense  and  "bearing  banners  and 
branches  of  golden  palm  trees."  But  it 
is  older  than  that,  for  these  green  branches 
grew  by  the  gates  of  Paradise.  When  to 
the  Wife  of  Usher's  Well  her  three  sons 

Their  hats  were  of  the  birk: 
It  neither  grew  in  syke  not  ditch 

Nor  yet  in  ony  sclough; 
But  at  the  Gates  of  Paradise 

That  birk  grew  fair  eneugh. 



Scott  quotes,  as  a  gloss  on  these  lines,  from 
the  Maase  Book,  the  case  of  a  returned 
ghost,  Jewish,  who  says:  "I  wear  the 
garland  to  the  end  that  the  wind  of  the 
world  may  not  have  power  over  me,  for  it 
consists  of  excellent  herbs  of  Paradise."30 
If  it  is,  on  the  other  hand,  like  all  Maying, 
a  spell  to  secure  fertility  for  their  far-off 
fields  and  gardens,  then,  like  the  ceremonies 
of  Candlemas,  it  seems  to  offer  more  than 
a  bare  vestige  of  earlier  worship  than  the 
Christian  of  S.  James,  in  the  city  of  the 
hollow  hill.  If  indeed  Frau  Holde  was  dis- 
possessed by  the  warrior  buried  there,  or 
was  merged-  in  the  Celtic  Proserpine,  yet 
she  has  out-lived,  everywhere  else  in  Spain, 
every  other  devotion. 

This  warrior's  grave,  whence  the  dead 
hero  comes  out,  in  time  of  need,  is  not  a 
Celtic  element,  but  Scandinavian;  so,  the 
lights  that  burn  above  the  barrow,  the 
wind  that  rushes  out  on  who  would  violate 
the  hero's  bed.  Of  souls  that  pass  across 
the  sky,  moreover,  I  can  recall  no  certain 
instance  in  Celtic  lore, * 1  but  there  Wotan 
leads  his  warriors  and  the  Wild  Huntsman 



the  world 

as  at 


Lay  of 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

his  train,  and  Helgi  returns  with  his  host  in 
that  wild  lay  that  chills  the  flesh  and  thrills 
the  blood: 

Is  it  a  mere  phantom  that .  I  think  I 
see,  or  is  the  Doom  of  the  Powers  come? 
Can  dead  men  ride?  Ye  are  pricking 
your  steeds  with  the  spur!  Or  have  ye 
been  granted  leave  to  come  home? 

It  is  no  mere  phantom  that  thou 
thinkest  thou  seest,  nor  is  it  the  end  of 
the  world,  though  we  prick  our  steeds 
with  the  spur,  but  we  have  been  granted 
leave  to  come  home.  Come  out,  O 
Sigrun  from  Sevafell,  if  thou  desirest  to 
see  thy  lord.  The  barrow  is  opened, 
Helgi  is  come.  The  sword  prints  are 
gory  on  him.  The  king  bids  thee  come 
to  stay  the  bleeding  of  his  wounds.  It  is 
time  for  me  to  ride  along  the  reddening 
roads,  to  let  my  fallow  steed  tread  the 
paths  of  air.  I  must  be  west  of  Wind- 
helm's  bridge  before  chantecler  awakes 
the  mighty  host.32 

In  this  aspect,  for  the  only  time,  San- 
tiago is  found  on  the  hither  side  of  the 



bridge,  where  quick  and  dead  must  part. 
An  old  rhyme  says: 

On  all  Souls'  night,  on  London  Bridge, 
The  quick  and  dead  together  walk, 
The  quick  and  dead  together  talk. 

This  matter  of  the  Bridge  of  Dread,  as  I 
see  it,  may  be  summed  up  in  ten  lines,  and 
affords  an  instance  of  the  way  folk-lore 
lives  on:  (i)  The  Bridge  of  Dread  enters 
formal  literature  under  ecclesiastical  sanc- 
tion, in  such  Visions  as  those  of  Paul,  Tun- 
dall,  Owain,  and  Thurkill.  The  last  has 
a  very  special  bearing  on  Santiago.  (2) 
They  owe  the  circumstance  to  a  body  of 
legendary  and  religious  doctrine,  half- 
myth,  half-dogma,  Persian,  Arab,  and 
Norse,  for  the  most  part.  (3)  It  haunts 
men's  minds,  and  (a)  appears  in  popular 
literature,  which  is  precisely  not  tnttier  de 
clergi,  like  "This  ae  night,"  Lang's  "Bridge 
of  Death,"  and  the  refrdn  about  London 
Bridge;  and  also  it  (b)  intrudes  in  conscious 
literature  sometimes  unaware,  sometimes 
half  aware,  sometimes  when  the  only  un- 



Out  of  the 


and  un- 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

awareness  is  that  it  was  not  wholly  voli- 
tional; for  instance  in  Dante,  Chrestien  de 
Troyes,  Andre*  le  Chapelain,  and  Bojardo. 
The  loveliest  work  of  d'Annunzio  and  of 
Maeterlinck  illustrates  what  was  said 
about  the  intrusion  of  folk-lore  where  the 
author  is  under  the  delusion  that  he  selected 
his  material.23  (4)  The  Bridge,  finally,  is 
discovered  on  the  Way  of  S.  James  in  the 
journeys  of  S.  Bona  and  Manier,  and  the 
Chansons  de  Pelerins. 

When  the  soul,  by  a  curious  variant  on 
the  motive  of  the  Bridge  of  Dread,  passes  a 
flowing  stream  on  rays  from  consecrated 
tapers,24  with  that  water  a  Celtic  element 
re-enters;  for  the  problem  is  that  which 
the  souls  meet  on  the  Breton  coast;  by 
waking  up  a  fisherman  to  ferry  them  over. 2  s 
This  exactly  corresponds  to  Manier's  de- 
scription of  the  Pont-qui-Trenible: 

Of  a  Sunday  we  came  to  the  little 
town  so  famous  as  the  site  of  the  quaking 
bridge  (pont-qui-tremble).  The  city  is  on 
the  seashore,  one  of  the  places  most 
perilous  and  anxious  in  all  the  Spains. 



The  passage  costs  two  cuartos,  that  is  a 
sol.  Ittakesahalf-hourtopass.  It  is  at 
least  half  a  quarter-league  across.  There 
must  be  at  least  fifty  persons,  and  they 
go  in  a  great  boat  built  for  the  purpose, 
which  is  rowed.  You  see  the  frightful 
waves  of  the  sea  dash  into  the  air,  one 
against  the  other,  that  seem  to  menace 
you  with  ruin,  besides  the  horrible  noise 
they  make.  They  shake  the  boat  you 
are  in,  they  drop  the  boat  down  between 
two  waves  as  if  it  were  falling  down  a 
precipice,  when  you  think  the  waves 
are  swallowing  you  up.  Then  another 
hastily  dashes  you  up  as  if  on  a  mountain. 
That  is  what  happens  through  all  the 
passage,  which  gives  you  hideous  terrors 
so  that  you  think  every  moment  will  be 
your  last.  That  is  why — because  of  the 
danger — that  this  passage  is  called  the 
quaking  bridge.26 

Procopius  tellsthesamestoryof  thefisher- 
man,  and  I  extract  the  account,  like  others 
before  me,  from  an  admirable  version: 

I  have  read,  [says  Scott's  figure, 
preluding  the  passage,]  in  the  volumes 
of  the  learned  Procopius,  that  the  people 



An  eight- 


•■  Going 


WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

separately  called  Normans  and  Angles 
are  in  truth  the  same  race,  and  that  Nor- 
mandy, sometimes  so  called,  is  in  fact  a 
part  of  a  district  of  Gaul.  Beyond,  and 
nearly  opposite,  but  separated  by  an  arm 
of  the  sea,  lies  a  ghastly  region,  on  which 
clouds  and  tempest  for  ever  rest,  and 
which  is  well  known  to  its  continental 
neighbours  as  the  abode  to  which  de- 
parted spirits  are  sent  after  this  life. 
On  one  side  of  the  strait  dwell  a  few 
fishermen,  men  possessed  of  a  strange 
charter,  and  enjoying  singular  privileges, 
in  consideration  of  their  being  the  living 
ferrymen  who,  performing  the  office  of 
the  heathen  Charon,  carry  the  spirits  of 
the  departed  to  the  island  which  is  their 
residence  after  death.  At  the  dead  of 
night,  these  fishermen  are,  in  rotation, 
summoned  to  perform  the  duty  by  which 
they  seem  to  hold  the  permission  to  re- 
side on  this  strange  coast.  A  knock  is 
heard  at  the  door  of  his  cottage  who  holds 
the  turn  of  this  singular  service,  sounded 
by  no  mortal  hand.  A  whispering,  as  of 
a  decaying  breeze,  summons  the  ferry- 
man to  his  duty.  He  hastens  to  his  bark 
on   the   seashore,   and   has   no   sooner 




launched  it  than  he  perceives  its  hull 
sink  sensibly  into  the  water,  so  as  to 
express  the  weight  of  the  dead  with  whom 
it  is  filled.  No  form  is  seen,  and  though 
voices  are  heard,  yet  the  accents  are  un- 
distinguishable,  as  of  one  who  speaks  in 
his  sleep.  Thus  he  traverses  the  strait 
between  the  continent  and  the  island, 
impressed  with  the  mysterious  awe 
which  affects  the  living  when  they  are 
conscious  of  the  presence  of  the  dead. 
They  arrive  upon  the  opposite  coast, 
where  the  cliffs  of  white  chalk  form  a 
strange  contrast  with  the  eternal  dark- 
ness of  the  atmosphere.  They  stop  at  a 
landing-place  appointed,  but  he  disem- 
barks not,  for  the  land  is  never  trodden  by 
earthly  feet.  Here  the  passage-boat  is 
gradually  lightened  of  its  unearthly  in- 
mates, who  wander  forth  in  the  way  ap- 
pointed to  them,  while  the  mariner 
slowly  returns  to  his  own  side  of  the 
strait  having  performed  for  the  time  this 
singular  service,  by  which  these  ferrymen 
hold  their  fishing-huts  and  their  posses- 
sions on  that  strange  coast. 27 

Sr.  Murguia  will  have  it  that  S.  James 
himself,  Apostolus  peregrinus,  was  involved 



Blind  as 
the  fool's 
heart  .  . 


A  House 
of  Dreams 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

in  an  adventure  rather  like  the  Voyages  of 
Bran  and  Maelduin,  and  cites  in  evidence 
a  relief  at  Caldas  de  Reyes,  where  the  bark 
of  S.  James  is  guided  by  a  figure  half -girl, 
half-swan.28  Caldas  de  Reyes  is  full  of 
Roman  remains  and  folk-lore;  it  figures 
also  in  the  Miracles  of  Our  Lady  collected 
by  el  Key  Sabio, 2  9  it  was,  in  short,  a  seat  of 
dreams.  Furthermore,  at  Mugia,  near 
Finisterre,  where  in  1446  was  shown  the 
bark  in  which  Christ  and  his  Mother  came 
over-sea,  you  have  the  real  Irish  sea-faring 

The  situation  stands,  then,  thus:  that 
there  was  an  actual  pilgrimage  made  by 
historical  figures  and  plain  people,  extend- 
ing over  many  centuries,  we  admit  freely. 
But  notwithstanding,  all  popular  (as  dis- 
tinguished from  courtly  or  scholarly) 
accounts  of  the  journey  which  have  sur- 
vived, are  made  out  of  well-known  elements 
of  literature  and  folk-lore:  the  Bridge  of 
Dread,  the  Passage  Perilous,  the  Pit  of 
Hell,  the  crowded  ferry,  the  Paradise  at 
the  journey's  end,  the  fresh  and  perennial 
fountain,  the  singing  at  the  Canonical 



Hours,  the  souls  in  trees,  the  voyage  over- 
sea. Nay  more,  the  present  writer,  if  the 
reader  will  recall,  rode  up  to  the  bridge 
and  could  not  cross  (for  it  was  broken 
down)  and  had  to  be  ferried  over,  as  Lance- 
lot very  nearly  came  to  be;  and  thereafter, 
the  next  day,  crossed  Whinny  Moor  in  that 
mist  which  is  the  souls  of  the  dead,  pressing 
close  about,  as  Breton  fishers  know.  3° 



Souls  in 
the  fog 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 



Magni  deindeftlii  tonitrui, 
Adepti  fulgent  prece  matris  indytae, 
Utrique  vitae  culminis  insignia: 
Regens  Joannes  dextra  solus  Asiam 
Ejusque  frater  potitus  Spaniam. 
—  Mozarabic  Office . 

The  Romans,  who  lived  always  on  good 
terms  with  their  dead,  have  left  inscrip- 
tions that  testify  to  the  presence,  before 
Christianity,  of  las  dnitnas.  The  Reverend 
F.  Fita  publishes1  a  stone  of  the  third  cen- 
tury which  commemorates  the  apparition 
and  good  counsel  of  a  dead  husband;  and 
Hubner  publishes  the  memorial  of  a  like 
apparition  among  the  Lusitanian  stones.2 
In  Roman  days  as  in  Catholic,  the  dead 
came  back  to  ask  for  prayers  and  sacrifices, 



for  rosaries  and  Masses.  An  altar  found  at 
Cordova  only  a  few  years  ago  is  dedicated 
to  the  Gates  of  Dream,  or  rather  to  the 
twin  gates, 3  and  on  the  sides  are  carved  the 
cup  and  platter  consecrated  to  the  Com- 
munion of  the  deified  dead.  A  lady,  Cal- 
purnia  Abana  Aeboso,  being  inspired  by  a 
dream,  vows  an  altar  to  the  nymphs  of  the 
waters  and  raises  it  duly, 4  in  the  western 
regions;  twenty-eight  such  dedications  are 
included  in  the  Corpus  and  in  the  same 
parts  was  found  the  mosaic  of  Hylas  and 
the  nymphs,  who  are  the  Xanas  of  Astu- 
rias, s  the  Washers  of  the  Fords. 

We  have  seen  already  what  good  soil  is 
this  land  of  S.  James  for  all  manner  of  vague 
inherited  beliefs,  dim  awareness  of  other 
than  human  presence,  natural  magic  in  the 
employment  of  spells  and  charms,  religious 
ritual  employed  in  precisely  the  same  way. 
Warde  Fowler  remarks  that  the  Romans 
associated  divinity  "with  force  and  activity 
which  could  be  brought  by  due  propitiation 
into  the  service  of  man.'16  To  acquire 
merit  by  rosaries  and  litanies,  fastings  and 
vigils,  gifts  for  las  dnimas,  is  to  have  that 



The  Gates 
of  Dream 

Hylas  and 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

merit  afterwards  at  hand,  like  electricity 
in  a  storage  battery.  The  logic  of  this 
position  is  impregnable  and  is  merciless. 
It  is  not  in  the  least  Celtic.  The  most 
striking  trait  common  to  all  Celtic  lore  is 
its  indifference  to  logic  and  to  what  we 
fondly  call  the  law  of  causation.  In  the 
Mabinogeon  anything  might  follow  as  easily 
as  anything  else;  in  the  Voyage  of  Bran  the 
various  islands  are  interchangeable;  in  the 
Lais  of  Marie  de  France,  moral  responsibil- 
ity has  evaporated.  The  Irish  stories  of 
rebirth  will  illustrate  this:  to  make  a  man 
his  own  grandson,  except  as  a  comic  motive, 
would  be  difficult  to  a  logical-minded 
people,7  to  a  Latin-minded  people. 

Celtic  elements  there  are  in  this  mass  of 
Gallegan  lore,  and  other  elements  which, 
if  they  were  not  installed  earlier  on  the  site 
than  the  Celtic,  or  imported  by  Roman 
legionaries  and  officials,  are  still  common  to 
other  European  stocks,  Germanic  or  Sla- 
vonic :  the  journey  of  the  soul,  the  Bridge  of 
Dread,  the  passage  among  the  stars— which, 
with  the  weighing,  are  all  Asiatic  at  one 
or  two  or  three  removes.8    But  it  seems 



possible  that  the  Romans  as  Latins  count 
for  more  than  hitherto  was  reckoned, 
throughout  the  spiritual  and  aesthetic  his- 
tory of  the  Spanish  people.  The  magnifi- 
cent development  of  the  State  portrait, 
in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  century, 
supplies  one  example  of  a  legacy,  possible 
and  far,  tempering  and  determining  the 
spirit  through  a  century  and  a  half  of  the 
Renaissance.  Another  is  that  devotion  to 
the  family  ghosts  which  has  been  shown  to 
exist  and  to  take  visible  form,  from  the 
bee-hive  in  the  back  garden  to  the  sepul- 
tados  at  Sahagun,  from  the  tomb  of  the 
Scipios  to  that  of  the  Escorial.  Consider 
the  pantheons  of  all  the  kings  of  all  the 
Spains,  and  Veremund  carrying  with  him, 
as  he  fell  back  before  Almanzor,  the  ashes 
of  his  house,  and  the  altars  of  his  race. 
Then  recall  the  similar  pantheons  that  the 
great  families  maintained,  Ponseca  at 
Coca,  Gomez  at  Carrion,  Carderera  at 
Poblet.  Consider  how  apt  is  a  phrase 
like  the  following,  to  express  the  Span- 
ish temper  in  the  greatest  ages:  —  "Of 
these  was  the  worship  of  the  family,  which 



busts  of 

The  ances- 
tral Ghosts 

of  the 



Sol  In- 


continued  to  express  in  some  degree  the 
inheritance  of  a  traditional  animism,  pass- 
ing at  one  or  two  points  into  something 
near  akin  to  what  we  call  divinity."9 
Yet  that  was  written  of  the  Romans  of 
Rome.  Lastly  the  figure  of  the  thauma- 
turge, of  Santiago  himself,  is  more  than  a 
little  Latin. 

The  figure  of  S.  James  is  doubtless  to  be 
identified  with  that  of  Sol  Sanctissimus, 
the  Sol  Invictus  of  Roman  state  worship. 
The  QueenElvira  called  him  invictissimus. 10 
His  feast  is  kept  as  near  as  could  be  man- 
aged to  the  solstitial  pause,  his  authentic 
legend  is  crammed  with  solar  machinery, 
from  the  oxen  of  the  Sun  to  the  wolf  who 
lent  an  epithet  in  Greek  to  Apollo,  \vkiqi , x  l 
and  who  stands  for  the  sun  in  the  Galle- 
gan  legend  that  God  condemned  the  moon 
to  wander  by  night  and  to  be  eaten  up  by  the 
wolf. 12  He  is  also  the  tribal  Hero,  the  great 
first  Lord,  and  Luke  of  Tuy's  story  is  as  old 
and  as  spirit-stirring  as  the  Lay  of  Helgi. 
Even  in  the  monkish  version  the  kingly  figure 
armed  at  all  points  like  a  warrior  does  more 
than  announce  the  victory,  he  is  on  his  way 




southward  to  win  it,  he  has  got  up  out  of  his 
grave  to  fight  for  Spain;  as  on  that  other 
night  in  Leon,  when  likewise  the  other  tribal 
heroes  awoke  and  arose,  and  the  Cid  and 
Fernan  Gonzalez  came  to  call  the  great 
Ferdinand  for  the  morrow's  battle. 

S.  James  on  his  huge  white  horse  at  the 
battle  of  Clavijo  is  a  figure  not  unfamiliar, 
not  unparalleled.  So  looked  the  champion 
in  Paul  the  Deacon's  story  how  — 

Ariulf ,  after  the  victory  at  Camerino, 
inquired  of  his  men  whom  that  man 
was  that  he  had  seen  fighting  so  vigor- 
ously in  the  war  he  had  waged,  and 
protecting  him  in  every  moment  of 
danger,  and  said,  "Surely  I  saw  another 
man  there  much  and  in  every  way  better 
than  I."  But  no  one  else  had  seen  him. 
Now  when  they  drew  near  to  Spoleto 
the  Duke  asked  whose  was  that  spacious 
abode  he  saw,  meaning  the  church  of 
the  blessed  martyr  S.  Savinus,  invoked 
by  those  who  went  to  war  against  their 
enemies:  and  when  men  told  him,  he,  yet 
being  a  heathen,  asked,  "How  can  a  dead 
man  help  the  living."    But  he  went  into 



The  White 




A  High 


the  church  with  the  rest  and  while  they 
were  at  prayer  he  stared  about  and  recog- 
nized in  the  figure  of  the  saint  his  pro- 
tector in  the  battle,  swearing  to  it  with 
an  oath.13 

So  looked,  likewise,  the  Twin  Brethren 
at  the  battle  of  the  Lake. 

The  Latin  heroes  of  the  Tuscan  land 
appear  and  vanish  away  again,  supplanted 
by  the  stable,  the  hieratic  figure  of  the 
Imperator,14  but  in  the  farthest  west  of 
the  Iberian  land  the  great  Knight  lives  on 
and  gathers  up  into  his  own  being,  at  need, 
all  the  tribal  devotions,  all  the  regional 
potencies  and  powers,  and  thence  goes 
forth  to  confute  the  outlander,  to  expel  the 
alien,  to  overthrow  the  invader.  /Santiago 
y  Cierra  Espanal  is  the  unforgotten  word. 
S.  James  is  Spain. 




The  Constant  Worship. 

Religions  change  but  the 
cult    remains    the    same. 

—  Goblet  d'Alviella. 


So  much,  every  traveller  in  Spain  might 
see:  but  the  matter  need  not  be  left  here. 
There  is  evidence  for  whoever  cares  to  seek 
it  out,  that  the  immemorial  worship  has 
never  changed  in  the  city  of  the  hollow 
hill,1  and  that  when  successive  religions 
overflowed  the  land,  and  ruled  therein, 
and  again  after  a  while  they  were  no  more, 
yet  the  same  lights  burned  on  unquenched 
above  the  same  shrine. 

Before  entering  upon  a  consideration, 
however  brief,  of  cults  in  Spain  that  pre- 
ceded the  Christian,  where  proof  is  intended 
and  evidence  is  obligatory,  a  word  must  be 
said  about  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  evi- 
dence. The  Spaniard,  isolated  in  his 
peninsula  at  the  world's  end,  ringed  about 
by  the  waves  of  the  sea  and  the  heights  of 
the  Pyrenees,  receiving  everything  and 
giving  up  nothing,'  has  been  in  the  eyes  of 
Europe   a  figure   picturesque   but   quite 








Spain  little 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

strange.  He  is  often  reproached  with  his 
aloofness  from  others:  their  neglect,  it 
might  be  fairer  to  call  it.  The  single 
volume  of  the  Corpus  devoted  to  Spanish 
inscriptions  makes  a  poor  showing,  yet 
Hubner  kept  up  his  Spanish  correspond- 
ence, and  few  scholars  so  much  as  he  have 
reckoned  with  Spain.  Cumont  in  Les 
Religions  Orientates,  as  in  the  Textes  ei 
Monuments,  shows  a  pleasant  and  friendly 
enthusiasm  in  his  attitude  to  Spain,  but 
little  knowledge  at  command:  Toutain, 
in  Les  Cultes  Paiens,  betrays  a  sulky  deter- 
mination to  belittle  and  explain  away  what- 
ever he  has  encountered.  In  truth,  while 
on  the  one  hand  he  abuses  of  set  purpose 
the  argument  from  silence,  and  for  his 
own  ends  prefers  to  admit  no  evidence  as 
to  the  antique  world  that  is  not  cut  on  a 
stone  and  printed  in  the  Corpus,  yet  on 
the  other  hand  his  knowledge  of  other 
sources  is  sadly  limited.  Gaul  he  knows, 
and  the  German  frontier,  because  he  is  a 
Frenchman,  and  Africa  because  he  was 
there  once,  and  a  little  about  Lusitanian 
cults  because  the  book  of  Leite  de  Vascon- 



cellos9  somehow  fell  into  his  hands  alter 
Cumont  had  taken  him  sharply  to  task 
for  his  limited  resources  and  restricted 
range.  But  for  the  rest,  he  feels  still  that 
what  is  not  in  the  Corpus  he  can  deny 
altogether,  and  what  is  found  there  he  can 
usually  explain  away,  and  the  upshot  for 
the  reader,  of  the  three  volumes  so  far 
published,  is  a  discouraged  sense  that 
nobody  of  importance  worshipped  any- 

Heiss,  in  Les  Monnaies  Antiques  de 
I'Espagne,  though  he  published  superb 
plates  of  coins  from  the  east  coast  and  the 
south,  stopped  there,  or  nearly.  Of  the 
Conventus  Asturum  he  says  that  Pliny 
names  22  peoples  with  a  population  of 
240,000  free  men,  and  he  shows  two  coins 
from  Lancia:  of  the  Conventus  Lucensis, 
though  it  had  16  peoples  and  166,000  free 
men,  though  therein  lay  Caldas  de  Reyes, 
Iria,  Corunna,  he  has  not  a  coin,  yet 
there  are  plenty  at  Lugo,  I  am  assured, 
and  Murguia  published,  to  prove  one  point, 
four  from  these  parts. 3  Of  the  Conventus 
BracorensiSj  Heiss  knew  of  24  cities  and 





In  the 
Ebro  basin 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Fine  ex- 
amples in 

175,000  free  men  in  Pliny's  day,  yet  not  a 
coin!4  Notwithstanding,  there  is  more  to 
be  learned  about  Roman  Spain  from  this 
book  than  any  other  European  .work  that 
I  have  encountered. 

Prom  it  a  few  generalizations  may  be 
drawn,  premising  that  other  types  than  those 
relevant  to  the  present  argument  are  rarely 
enumerated.  Throughout  the  Ebro  basin, 
we  find  the  horse  alone,  or  with  a  rider 
(sometimes  armed,  of  tener  in  a  light  native 
jerkin)  and  ridden  with  a  halter  and  not 
a  bit,  as  Spanish  countrymen  ride  today,  — 
excepting  in  the  south,  where  sometimes 
a  curb-bridle  and  two  reins  may  be  made 
out.  At  Lerida  and  elsewhere5  a  crescent 
or  a  star  often  hangs  over  it;  at  times 
the  jinete  rides  with  a  palm;  on  other 
coins  the  gaunt  wolf  appears,  or  a  wolf's 
head.  At  Jelsa,6  near  the  Roman  bridge 
of  Celsa,  are  found  the  horse,  the  horseman, 
the  bull,  and  the  ploughman  ploughing 
with  a  yoke  of  oxen,  who  certainly  in  this 
case  is  a  peasant  and  not  a  priest.  At 
Huesca, 7  the  horseman  has  a  lance  on  both 
Celtiberian  and  Roman  coins,  at  Cala- 



horra8  both  lance  and  palm  are  found,  and 
superb  bulls  or  bull's  heads.  At  Cascante, 9 
on  the  Celtiberian  coins,  while  the  reverse 
of  four  coins  shows  the  horseman  or  the 
horse,  on  the  obverse  may  be  seen,  beside 
the  head,  the  poor  crooked  plough.  .At 
Bilbilis,10  near  Calatayud,  the  horseman 
either  carries  a  levelled  lance,  like  one 
running  a  tilt,  or,  as  on  a  beautiful  Augustan 
type,  raises  the  weapon  to  spear  a  fallen 
enemy.  On  two,  thunderbolts  appear. 
From  Belsinum, x  *  mentioned  by  Ptolemy, 
which  is  near  Borja,  comes  a  set  of  types  in 
which  the  horseman  raises  his  arm  to 
brandish  a  short  sword,  curved  in  two 
instances.  Saragossa, z  a  being  the  Colony 
of  Caesar-Augusta,  has  the  ploughman  or 
priest  shaking  out  his  whip  over  the  yoked 
oxen,  and  a  very  fine  winged  thunderbolt 
as  reverse  to  a  Divus  Augustus  Pater. 
Temples  are  on  other  Saragossan  coins, 
and  legionary  ensigns,  and  a  grand  con- 
secrated bull.  Here,  then,  at  one  seat  of 
the  cult  of  Santiago,  and  in  particular 
Santiago  Matamoros,  all  his  particular 
attributes  and  cult  figures  preceded  him. 





the  bull 




S.  Isidor 
Labrador  a 
of  Santiago 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Her  pi 


I  include  of  course,  S.  Isidore  the  Plough- 
man, as  sufficiently  demonstrated,  I  hope, 
in  the  chapter  and  section  on  Doctor 

At  Corufia  del  Conde, x  3  in  Old  Castile, 
the- jinete  and  the  bull  are  found,  with  a 
boar,  and  from  that  same  region,  at  Salas 
de  los  Infantes,  came  the  fine  relief  of  the 
horseman  on  a  Roman  tombstone:14  on 
a  curious  coin  of  Agreda15  (in  the  north 
of  Soria,  close  to  the  frontier)  the  horse- 
man bears  a  sickle,  which  on  three  of 
Olbega  looks  more  like  the  herpt  of  Jupi- 
ter Dolichenus;  at  Sasamon  he  carries  a 
trident,  at  Lancia16  it  is  more  like  Sam- 
son's jawbone  of  an  ass.  In  a  type  at 
Arsa  again  the  weapon  might  be  a  corrup- 
tion of  the  Minoan  double-axe:  some- 
times, in  this  region  between  Castile  and 
Leon,  it  is  a  hammer,  again  corrupted  into 
what  Heiss  calls  a  missile  weapon  but  which 
in  all  its  variants  might  be  still  the  double- 
axe.  It  must  be  remembered  that  Spanish 
coin-types  of  the  south  are  often  marked  by 
Phoenician  traits  and  others  yet  earlier,  in- 
disputably Cretan:  with  Hercules,17  Ca- 



bii  i, x  8  and  the  homed  altar, z  9  they  show  a 
sphinx,30  the  labyrinth,  and  Europa"  on 
the  bull. a  3  All  influences  are  possible:  but 
in  these  parts  of  Old  Castile  there  are 
fewer  traces  of  what  we  are  concerned 
with.  On  coins  at  Tricio, 3  3  close  to  Najera, 
on  the  other  hand,  the  horseman  levels  the 
lance.  Many  of  the  coins  of  Acci,  which 
is  Guadix,*4  show  magnificent  legionary 
standards  and  the  eagle  perched  between, 
or  two  eagles;  now  Acci  was  named  Julia 
Gemella.  One  regrets  the  absence  of  the 
type  from  Legio  VII  Gemina,  for  the  sake 
of  comparison.  Were  the  twin-legions,  later, 
devoted  to  S.  James  because  he  was  a  twin? 
In  the  Conventus  Cartaginensis2$  there  are 
horsemen  with  palms,  and  others  with 
lances,  as  well  as  horses  riderless,  and  it  is 
at  Iliberi,20  near  Granada,  that  we  find 
the  rider  in  flying  cloak  and  round  targe, 
and  sometimes  two  horses.  The  types  of 
Menda*7  are  chiefly  trophies  of  arms,  or 
the  ploughman,  or  the  city  gate,  a  temple, 
or  an  altar  with  many  horns:  but  nothing 
so  fine  as  those  in  the  east.  Other  coin- 
types  of  the  south  glory  in  its  fruitfulness, 






The  bull 

The   « 



.  .  .  with 
him  there 
was  a 

was  his 
brother  " 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

with  the  wheat-ear,  or  the  plough,  or  grapes, 
or  the  bull  Apis  belike,  as  in  the  exquisite 
figure  resting  under  a  setting  moon. a8 

To  these  should  be  added  the  four 
coins  published  by  Murgufa  as  belonging 
to  Galicia,  two  of  which  show  the  bull  with 
a  sun,  and  a  third  the  horseman  with  a 
palm.  The  lack  of  other  coins  from  the 
north-west  makes  it  difficult  to  finish  out 
any  conclusive  argument:  but  that  is  the 
case  with  all  Spanish  studies. 

The  horseman,  however,  is  found  invari- 
ably, though  not  exclusively,  wherever  twin 
saints  are  worshipped,  at  Calahorra  and 
Sahagun,29  and  at  Guadix  in  the  south 
which  is  the  first  place  in  Spain  associated 
with  the  cult  of  S.  James.  The  superb 
bull  type  imposes  itself  on  the  imagination, 
but  it  is  not  universal:  it  is  found  by  the 
Ebro,  in  the  Conventus  Cluniensis,  at 
Merida,  and  in  the  south  with  a  difference. 
The  ploughman  is  the  sign  of  a  Roman 
colony,  but  at  Saragossa  and  Celsa  he  is  a 
peasant,  bare-headed,  in  a  short  smock. 

Spanish  scholarship  is  shy:  it  keeps  as 
haughtily  aloof  as  the  Castilian  in  his  cloak. 



The  Spanish  scholars  have  published 
mostly  in  periodicals  or  in  very  limited 
editions,  often  inaccessible  outside  of 
Spain:  the  European  scholars  often  cannot 
read  Spanish.  Salomon  Reinach,  for  in- 
stance, knows  far  less  about  what  lies  on 
the  south  side  of  the  Pyrenees  than  what 
lies  in  the  southern  hemisphere.  Research 
into  Comparative  Religion  would  be  diffi- 
cult, doubtless,  in  Spain;  Murguia  guards 
himself  scrupulously  with  a  comical  note, 
and  of  the  precautions  of  Father  Fita  I  have 
spoken  already.  Menendez  y  Pelayo  when 
he  rewrote  the  Historic  de  los  Heierodoxos 
was  an  old  man  and  rather  indifferent.  It 
is  only  possible,  at  this  time,  to  stake  out 
the  line  of  argument  and  fix  enough  solid 
evidence  to  sustain  something,  I  hope, 
more  solid  than  a  house  of  cards. 

What  material  exists  consists,  first,  of 
legendary  matter  and  folk-lore;  secondly,  of 
passages  in  early  writers;  thirdly,  of  monu- 
ments, coins,  dedications,  inscriptions.  With 
the  first  I  have  dealt,  in  the  last  chapter; 
the  second  for  our  ends  are  almost  negli- 
gible;   the    third    will    not    take    long. 



religion  in 



WAY     OF     S.   JAMES 

Lapidary  inscriptions  are  all  Romanizing, 
but  as  they  apply  they  will  be  mentioned. 
Of  figured  monuments,  I  know  none  in 
Galicia.  I  have  ventured  to  reconstruct 
hypothetical  Mithraic  reliefs  in  two  cases 
—  a  table-scene  like  the  one  on  the  Rhine, 
at  S.  Domingo  de  la  Calzada,  and  Mithras 
emerging  from  the  rock,  at  Padr6n:  these 
being  in  the  hypothesis  cannot  be  used  in 
the  proof.  The  conspicuous  cock  and  bull 
at  Leon,  with  the  Zodiacal  snakes  there, 
may  be  contributory,  but  they  carry  fatal 
associations  in  their  names.  There  remains 
the  Comparative  Method. 

S.  James  is  something  more  than  a  tribal 
Hero  and  a  vegetation-spirit,  he  is  more 
even  than  a  faded  sun-god:  he  is  a  High 
God  in  his  own  land,  and  with  the  mounting 
syncretism  of  the  later  empire  he  took  up 
into  himself  all  the  other  out-land  gods. 
This  happened  everywhere  in  the  time  of 
the  Roman  conquests,  it  was  the  price  of 

Of  the  primitive  Celtiberian  religion, 
as  of  that  of  the  north-west,  little  is  known: 
Macrobius  says  however  that  "the  Acci- 



tani  worship  very  devoutly  an  image  of 
Mars  with  rays  about  the  head,  and  call 
him  Neto,"30  a  war-god  who  is  sun-god 
also.  By  reason  of  the  early  legend  which 
associated  with  S.  James  the  seven  Spanish 
bishops  and  the  town  of  Acci  (Gaudix) 
we  are  permitted  to  infer  a  like  cult  in 
Galicia.  At  Tuy  there  is  a  dedication  to 
a  local  Mars,31  and  Neto  or  some  rela- 
tive of  his,  it  would  seem,  is  named  on  a 
stone  at  Padron.  Now  in  many  ways 
Tuy  is  a  kind  of  lesser  doublet  of  Compos- 
tella,  and  down  to  the  time  of  the  ruin  of 
Galicia,  which  is  to  say  until  the  Catholic 
Kings,  Tuy  and  Orense,  (Mondonedo  and 
Lugo  also  in  some  degree)  were  either 
virtually  or  strictly  suffragan  to  Santiago. 
It  is  all  the  land  of  Santiago. 

Endovelicus  was  a  mountain  god  in 
Portugal,  and  belongs  to  a  restricted  area; 3  2 
but  traces  of  the  goddess  Ataecina,  the 
Iberian  Proserpine,  have  been  found 
throughout  Lusitania  and  a  part  of  B£- 
tica.  "Saint  Proserpine"  says  a  stone 
that  Florez  published  long  and  long  ago. 33 
With  her  one  would  like  to  associate  dedi- 





S.  Proser- 
pine       • 

S.  Eulalia 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

cations  to  the  twilight  and  the  Shrine 
of  the  Morning-Star,34  Lux  Dubia,  and 
Luciferi  fanum,  found,  the  former  in  the 
very  same  parts,  and  the  other  on  the 
Andalusian  shore,  consecrated  both  where 
the  wind  falls  faint  as  it  blows  with  the 
fume  of  the  flowers  of  the  night: 

And  the  murmur  of  spirits  that  sleep 
in  the  shadow  of  Gods  from  afar 

Grows  dim  in  thine  ears  and  deep  as  the 
deep  dim  soul  of  a  star. 

In  the  sweet  low  light  of  thy  face,  under 
heavens  untrod  by  the  sun.  .  .  . 

At  Menda  she  was  worshipped,  and  in- 
voked by  formulae  analogous  to  some  found 
in  Cnidos,  at  the  shrine  of  Demeter,  Perse- 
phone, and  Hades. 3  5  Her  reincarnation  in 
S.  Eulalia,  the  sweet-spoken  lady  of  the 
doves, 3  6 1  cannot  stop  here  to  demonstrate, 
but  I  must  point  out  that  the  cathedral 
church  was  dedicated  to  the  latter  at  Iria, 
where  the  body  of  S.  James  was  landed, 
where  legends  of  his  presence  and  his  preach- 
ing abound,  and  where  there  are  traces, 



hardly  at  all  effaced,  of  an  attempt  to  estab- 
lish the  cult-centre.  AtHierapolistheLady 
of  the  Doves  shared  her  temple  with  a  bull 
god:  from  Padr6n  the  cult-image  set  out 
in  a  cart  drawn  by  bulls,  to  find  the  wayside 
shrine  of  Liberodunum.  Neto  the  sun- 
god  who  is  a  war-god,  had  then  probably 
for  a  companion  a  dove-goddess,  Ataecina, 
worshipped  chiefly  in  her  chthonian  aspect. 
On  Candlemas  Day,  her  doves  were  loosed 
in  the  sanctuary  at  Santiago,  at  the  Mass 
for  the  little  souls  in  Limbo.  But  S. 
James,  as  I  have  shown,  is  himself  a  chthon- 
ian power. 

With  Celtic  cults  we  must  take  into 
account  the  possibility  of  some  figure  in 
Galicia  like  the  Gallo-Roman  Dis  Pater, 
the  ancestor  of  the  Gauls,  who  holds  a 
bowl  in  one  hand  and  rests  the  other  on  a 
long-handled  mallet,  wearing  in  many  cases 
a  wolf -skin  hood.37  The  coins  of  the 
Verones, j8  in  Old  Castile,  show  a  hammer 
in  the  hand  of  the  rider.  This  identifica- 
tion would  explain  the  shrine  at  Com- 
pdstella  sub  Lobio,  the  bourdon  on  which 
S.  James  leans,  and  his  death  or  that  of  his 



the  Lady 
of  the 

The  Horse 
of  the  God 



graphy and 



WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

double,  S.  James  the  Less,  by  a  fuller's 
mallet.  It  would  also  explain  the  Tau-staff 
carried  by  his  effigy  in  the  Gloria,  on  the 
church  door  at  Noya,  and  in  a  miniature 
of  1328,  in  the  manuscript  known  as 
Tumbo  By  where  the  Apostle  is  vested 
and  seated  on  his  altar,  among  nine  stars, 
holding  the  same  hammer-headed  star!. 3  9 
The  wolf -skin  belongs  also  to  the  Etruscan 
Hades,  whose  aspect  in  the  tomb-paintings 
discovered  at  Orvieto  and  Corneto,  is  very 
like  S.  James;  it  is  an  attribute  of  the 
underworld,  of  Aidoneus,  a  Zeus  over- 
shadowed and  graver. 

In  the  Renaissance  a  pair  of  twin  columns 
was  unearthed  at  Seville,40  and  set  up 
again,  with  an  effect  not  unlike,  I  suppose, 
to  that  at  Edessa.  The  cult  of  the  Dios- 
curi was  established  early  in  Spain:  Tou- 
tain  admits  two  inscriptions  to  Pollux  in 
B£tica,41  and  to  these  must  be  added  the 
mention  of  the  two  Castors  at  Caldas  de 

M61ida  affirms  that  the  Iberian  horse- 
man, the  jinete  of  the  Celtiberian  coin- 
type  carried  over  into  Roman  times,  should 



be  identified  with  Castor  the  horse-tamer, 
considered  apart  from  the  other  of  the 
Dioscuri,  Pollux  the  boxer.  Those  speci- 
mens struck  near  Granada,  on  which  a 
galloping  rider  is  controlling  another  horse 
besides,  should  confirm  this.  Calahorra 
worshipped  twin  saints,  or  at  any  rate  a 
pair  of  young  soldierly  brothers,  Demetrius 
and  Celadonius,  Sahagun  worshipped  a 
like  couple,  Facundus  and  Primitivus;  I 
have  pointed  out  how  the  Sign  of  the 
Twins,  at  Leon,  presents  just  such  a 
pair  holding  the  ark  or  casket  in  which 
their  relics  were  revered.  Orense,  closely 
related  to  Santiago,  claimed  for  herself 
Facundus  and  Primitivus;  and  Tuy,  even 
more  nearly  related,  the  source  of  S.  Elmo's 
fire  in  the  body  of  S.  Gonzalez  Telmo, 
(ob.  1300).  S.  Elmo's  fire  has  belonged  to 
Castor  and  Pollux  ever  since  the  first 
Greek  mariners  observed  it.  Moreover, 
the  Twins  have  a  kind  of  special  care  for 
travellers,  and  the  sea-faring  Miracles  of 
S.  James,  vu,  vm,  xi  and  x,  are  entirely 
within  their  province. 
A  curious  mediaeval  relief  found  at  Cal- 




S.  Elmo's 



and  white 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

das  de  Reyes/3  shows  the  body  of  the 
saint  in  a  boat  drawn  by  a  swan-maiden, 
something  like  a  siren  but  winged  and 
web-footed,  very  like  Lohengrin's.  Work 
of  the  fourteenth  century,  it  includes  a 
monk  playing  on  a  harp:  this  is  entirely 
plausible  and  affords  a  perfect  instance 
of  the  adaptation  to  older  motives  of  the 
new  grotesque  monster-style  in  Gothic. 
Here  falls  pat  an  observation  of  Goblet 
d'Alviella  about  the  degree  to  which  certain 
pictures  have  taken  such  possession  of  the 
eye  and  the  imagination  that  they  become 
commonplaces  of  figured  language,  and  the 
artist's  hand  cannot  escape  their  influence 
in  the  production  of  new  symbols;  so  also 
the  copyist  approximates  a  strange  model 
to  some  thing  known.43  There  is  no 
question  that  this  figure  is  in  some  sense  a 
swan:  now,  as  Reinach  points  out,44  the 
Dioscuri  have  swan-horses  and  were  once 
swans  themselves;  so,  indeed,  was  Apollo. 
To  the  swan-nature  may  be  attributed  the 
dazzling  whiteness  which  distinguishes  the 
apparitions  of  Santiago  Matamoros,  for 
instance,  in  the  lines  of  Gonzalo  de  Berceo 



where  the  twin  saints  swoop  down  from  the 
upper  air  like  great  birds,  whiter  by  far 
than  recent  snow,  on  horses  whiter  than 
crystal.  This  is  not  the  principal  aspect  of 
the  Compostellan  cult,  but  belongs  rather 
to  the  Ebro  basin,  where  at  Tricio,  close  to 
N4jera,  by  the  very  field  of  Clavijo,  the 
coin-type  of  the  jitute  was  struck.  But, 
indeed,  Apollo  was  himself  a  twin,  and  the 
bearded  sun-god  at  Heliopolis,  as  Mac- 
robius  saw  him,  would  pass  anywhere  for 
S.  James  of  Compostella. 

Of  the  twin  brethren,  Pollux  only  was 
immortal  and  was  taken  up  into  heaven. 
Castor  died  and  went  to  the  underworld, 
and  we  have  seen  that  S.  James  corresponds 
to  Castor.  Who  was,  in  his  case,  the 
divine  twin,  will  appear  presently.  Mean- 
while, it  should  be  said  that  the  river  Limia, 
mentioned  in  a  score  or  a  hundred  of  dona- 
tions to  Santiago  or  to  Tuy,  was  called 
flunun  oblivionis,  and  identified  with 
Lethe.45  To  the  Romans  as  to  the  Celts, 
the  Tierra  de  Santiago  was  the  Land  of 
the  Dead.  4    • 

This  matter  of  Twins,  so  important  in 



Apollo  at 

The  Mortal 

The  under, 



saints  in 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

savage  Africa  as  Rendel  Harris  and  his 
friends  the  missionaries  have  shown,  beset 
the  Spanish  imagination  as  well.  S.  Zoyl 
of  Carri6n  enshrines  some  sort  of  tale  of 
twins,  of  which  the  misadventure  and  mi- 
raculous protection  of  the  Countess  Teresa 
is  only  the  last-revised  version,  and  Carri6n 
claimed  for  long  to  possess  a  head  of  S. 
James.  It  was  S.  James  Major's  so  long 
as  possible,  then  it  was  S.  James  Minor's: 
lastly  Santiago  de  Compostella  showed 
them  both;  all  that  matters  here  is  that  a 
S.  James  should  once  have  been  harboured 
in  the  abbey  and  on  the  altar.  The 
Infants  of  Lara,  in  the  earliest  legend,46 
were  born  seven  at  one  birth,  in  Old  Castile, 
and  down  on  the  confines  of  Galicia  a  like 
story  exists,  of  girl-children  now,  born  to  a 
prostitute  and  in  horror  thrown  into  a 
pond  or  exposed  by  the  side  of  it:  someone 
riding  by  stirred  up  with  the  butt-end  of 
his  lance  the  litter  of  wretched  babies*  and 
one  pluckily  closed  tiny  hands  on  the  wood, 
and  clung  and  was  saved.  Of  these,  in  a 
variant,  S.  Liberata  was  one,  S.  Marina 
another,  others   SS.  Euphemia,  Victoria, 



Eumelia,  Germana,  Gemma,  Ginevera, 
Quitera, — nine  in  all.47  Now  Libera  is 
an  epithet  of  Dea  Ataceina,  and  Marina,  as 
I  noted  at  Puerto  Marin,  is  only  the  Syrian 
word  My  Lord,  a  cult-epithet  here  of  S. 
James's  though  associated  in  the  east  with 
Jupiter  Dolichenus.48  Of  S.  Marina  in 
Spain  the  hagiographers  could  make  noth- 
ing: the  hymnographers  identify  her  with 
Margarita  and  call  her  the  Sea-Born. 
The  Golden  Legend  recites  an  eastern  legend 
like  that  of  S.  Restituta  which  may  be 
encountered  in  Spanish  calendars. 4  9  Hera 
Sancta  was  enthroned  beside  Jupiter 
Dolichenus,  and  Saint  Proserpine,  perhaps, 
beside  Neto  once:  at  any  rate  Cumont 
seems  to  say50  that  sanctus  like  dyun 
implies  a  Semitic  influence,  in  our  case  a 
Syrian,  perhaps.  Malakbel,  he  adds,  comes 
out  as  Sol  Sanctissimus.  The  significance 
of  the  nine  children,  and  the  nine  stars 
about  S.  James  in  Tumbo  B,  I  do  not  yet 
fully  understand. 

Another  saint  who  appears  unexpectedly 
at  Compostella  is  S.  Susanna,  whose  church 
D.  Diego  Gelmirez  built  on  the  hill  where 



with  her 
lord  in 

S.  Marina 

S.  Susanna 





WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

the  cattle  market  is  held,  and  carried  off 
relics  of  her  from  Portugal. 5Z  The  shrine 
had  previously  been  a  Holy  Sepulchre, 
say  the  his  torians.  The  only  thing  notable 
about  S.  Susanna52  is  that  she  had  twin 
trees,  the  place  of  her  martyrdom  was  ad 
duos  law os.  If  the  hilltop  cavern  which 
belonged  to  the  chthonian  twin,  had 
struck  D.  Diego  as  unseemly,  scandalous, 
and  possibly  a  seat  of  Pagan  survivals,  he 
could  not  have  done  better  in  changing 
the  dedication. 

He  built  and  rebuilt  also  at  Cacabelos — 
a  place  oddly  named,  with  nothing  Spanish 
in  the  sound.  But  the  cacubelussi  em- 
ployed in  the  cult  ot  Augustus,  must  have 
sounded  not  "unlike  those  wheels  of  bells 
that  Spaniards  love  to  ring  in  the  Mass- 
time,  and  that  Street  so  fancied  and 
sketched  for  his  book. 

Before  coming,  however,  to  the  imperial 
cults,  I  should  point  out  that  an  Orphic 
reminiscence  tinges  the  story  of  Calahorra, 
where  the  heads  of  the  comely  young 
martyrs  were  carried 

Down  the  swift  Hebrus  to  the  Lesbian  shore, 


Christ  as  Pilgrim — Prom  Silos 




or  more  correctly  to  the  Cantabrian, 
for  they  were  thrown  into  the  Ebro  and 
washed  about  until  they  turned  up  at 
Bilbao  on  the  Bay  of  Biscay.  The  Orphic 
Guide  for  souls  has  been  quoted  earlier  in 
interpretation  of  S.  James's  two  cypress 
trees:  it  is  necessary  to  add  that  Mithras 
seems  to  have  fallen  heir  to  the  cypress 
trees  along  with  the  mysteries,  and  on  the 
relief  of  Heddernheim54  has  enough  for  a 
respectable  grove.  The  cypress  in  Baby- 
lonia was  the  property  of  the  thunder-god 
Adad,  before  it  was  that  of  Atargatis 
the  Syrian  Goddess:  Zeus  takes  it  over 
on  a  coin  of  Ephesus.55  By  the  law  of 
syncretism  all  these  instances  converge 
upon  S.  James;  the  tree-and-vine  pas- 
sage in  the  Acts  of  Andrew  and  Matthias 
would  only  serve  as  confirmation:56  he 
inherits  all  these  claims.  To  the  syn- 
cretic mind  there  are.  no  rival  claims. 
There  is  an  apposite  phrase  which  I  recall 
hearing  from  a  good  lady  of  theosophical 
tendency,  disposed,  like  others  of  her 
kind  from  Julia  Domna  down,  to  merge 
likeness  in  identity  and  ignore  unlikeness: 



yielding  it 
in  the  Re- 
to  Mary 


S.  Saviour 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

"It  is  all  a  part  of  one  and  the  same  great 

For  centuries  the  Spaniards  reckoned 
time  from  the  Era  of  Augustus;  his  head  is 
set  on  some  of  their  most  beautiful  coins, 
and  his  temple  at  Tarragona  was  the 
scene  of  a  prodigy  and  the  occasion  of  an 
epigram.  Long  before  the  imperial  religion 
was  established,  the  central  and  universal 
worship  of  Sol  Sanctissimus,  in  Egypt 
statues  were  dedicated  to  the  emperor  as 
Soter,57  though  the  epithet  belongs  pecu- 
liarly to  Serapis:  by  one  way  or  the  other  it 
came  into  Spain,  and  the  earliest  churches, 
the  earliest  Christian  dedications  that 
we  know,  are  oftenest  the  Saviour's;  at 
Oviedo  and  Saragossa  the  cathedral,  at 
Leon  and  Santiago  the  central  altar  of  a 
triad.  I  have  quoted  already  the  curious 
phrasing  from  Fulbert's  Mass,  Sother  tkeos 
athanqtos,  applied  nominally  to  the  First 
Person  of  the  Trinity. 

The  worship  of  Serapis  was  well  estab- 
lished in  Spain  and  the  cult  of  Isis  was 
marked  by  splendour.  Toutain  reckons 
nine  dedications  in  Spain  and  the  Nar- 



bonnais,  which  was  a  part  of  Spain  in 
imperial  times  as  it  was  in  the  Middle 
Age.  At  Guadix  Isis  had,  as  Cumont 
says  with  truth,58  as  many  jewels  as  any 
Spanish  Madonna.  There  she  was  wor- 
shipped as  the  protectress  of  young  girls: 5* 
it  is  possible  that  the  beautiful  couchant 
bull,  under  a  setting  moon,  on  a  coin  of 
Orippo,  was  dedicated  to  her;  it  came  from 
the  town  called  Las  Dos  Hermanas.60 
Colleges  and  Confraternities  were  estab- 
lished in  her  honour  at  Valencia  on  the 
Mediterranean  and  at  Igabrum  in  Bltica, 6 1 
where  the  fat  Cordovan  land  swells  up 
to  the  hills. 

Serapis  is  Jupiter,  Sol,  and  also  Pluto,  as 
in  Julian/ '  Zeus,Hades,  Helios,  Serapis,  three 
gods  in  one  god-head,"6j  and  when  the 
wave  of  new  devotion  sweeping  across  the 
peninsula  reached  Compostella,  the  identi- 
fication with  the  local  god  was,  so  to  speak, 
already  made.  That  prayer  which  Con- 
stantine  composed  for  Sunday  morning, 
which  might  be  recited  by  worshippers  of 
Mithras,  Serapis,  Sol,  and  Jesus, 6  3  had  been 
breathed  for  three  centuries  at  least.    Ser- 


Las  dos 
Casas,  Vol. 



Lord  of  the 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

apis  had  a  temple  at  Emporiae;  a  stone  in 
Portugal  is  dedicated  to  Serapis  Pantheos, 6  4 
and  another  Greek  inscription  was  found 
less  than  fifty  years  ago  three  leagues  out 
of  Astorga,  with  an  inscription  Etc  Zeuc 
Sepaxts,  and  the  semblance  of  a  temple 
within  which  was  seen  an  open  hand 
pointing  upward.65  On  the  worship  of 
Mithras  and  Serapis  at  Menda,  a  good  deal 
had  been  published  by  Melida66  just  before 
the  beginning  of  the  war.  He  was,  says 
Reville, 6  7 "  the  god  of  life  in  this  world  and 
before  all  in  the  world  of  the  dead." 

If  it  is  not  the  cap  of  the  Dioscuri  but 
the  calathos  of  Serapis  in  which  we  must 
seek  the  original  of  S.  James's  broad- 
brimmed  hat  turned  up  in  front,  with  a 
shell  and  with  the  crossed  lines  of  staves 
flanking  that,  which  may  be  substituted 
for  the  crossed  withes  of  a  basket,  then  the 
early  appearance  and  stubborn  persistence 
of  that  attribute  may  be  explained.  Serapis 
fixed  the  type  of  the  Apostle  in  personal 
traits,  the  beard,  the  brow,  the  quiet  eyes, 
the  grave  dignity,  the  solemn  yet  recollected 
character  of  the  great  images. 




For  many,  he  came  to  be  the  sole  god  in 
the  universe:  but  that  was  a  process  to 
which  all  the  surviving  gods  tended,  in  the 
syncretism  of  the  third  century  and  there- 

They  were  still  distinguished  [says 
Reville], 69  and  yet  they  were  confounded. 
Each  had  his  tradition,  his  history,  his 
proper  origin,  his  cult,  his  priests,  his 
temples;  and  nevertheless  they  were  so 
easily  interchanged  in  the  minds  of 
worshippers  that  they  seemed  to  be  no 
more  than  diverse  masks  under  which 
the  same  single  divinity  was  hidden. 
.  .  .  The  divers  clergy  of  the  oriental 
deities  being  exclusively  consecrated 
in  each  case  to  the  service  of  a  particular 
god,  they  took  a  personal  interest. 
Each  of  the  particular  divinities,  Serapis, 
Isis,  Attis,  Mithras,  comes  to  be  con- 
sidered all-powerful  and  universal,  be- 
cause he  has  absorbed  all  the  divine 
functions.  The  necessary  outcome  is 
confusion  and  combination  among  the 
gods  themselves. 

What  Reville  says  of  the  Roman  women 
might  have  been  written  of  the  Spanish,  with 



Simul  odor, 
antur  et 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

The  Syrian 

all  their  Virgins,  invoked  diversely  for  differ- 
ent intentions,  or  interchanged  from  petu- 
lance or  for  want  of  novelty.  The  solemn 
business  of  changing  from  la  Macarena, 
the  V it  gen  dela  Esperanza  to  another,  and 
the  discomfort  of  poor  Dona  Carmen  in 
Madrid  when  she  finds  herself  with  the  un- 
familiar Virgen  de  la  Paloma,  are  typical 
episodes  in  Sangre  y  Arena.     In  Rome — 

When  the  devout  went  to  the  temple 
of  the  Syrian  Goddess  to  take  part  in 
the  spring  festival,  some  were  paying 
homage  to  Derceto,  others  were  dealing 
with  Rhea,  others  again,  with  Juno. 
They  were  no  less  united  in  one  same 
cult,  because  they  found  there  the  reli- 
gious emotion  that  they  sought,  and  be- 
cause they  had  the  vague  sentiment  that 
these  diverse  goddesses  held  amongst 
themselves  the  closest  possible  relation.  7° 

Pagan  syncretism  by  the  third  century 
had  formed  the  habit  of  identifying  all  the 
gods.  Christian  polity  was  to  be  driven 
into  the  same  practise,  in  self-defense. 
When  Ambrose  at  a  critical  moment  dis- 




covered  the  bodies  of  Gervase  and  Protase, 
he  knew  that  the  Milanese  were  devoted 
to  the  Dioscuri,  and  he  meant  to  give 
them  something  fit  to  worship.71  What 
Dussaud  calls  somewhere  the  exasperated 
syncretism  of  the  later  empire,  is  a  process 
which  may  be  a  measure  of  expediency,  or 
of  edification ;  it  may  ease  a  conversion,  or  it 
may  lift  the  spirit  on  a  wave  of  cosmical 
emotion.  Like  the  Emperor  Julian,  Swin- 
burne and  Alexander  Severus  both  found 
in  it  the  appointed  means  to  the  religious 

To  the  likeness  of  one  God  their  dreams 

enthralled  thee, 
Who  wast  greater  than  all  Gods  that 

waned  and  grew ; 
Son  of  God,  the  shining  son  of  Time 

they  called  thee, 
Who  wast  older,  O  our  Father,  than  they 





perish  but 
thou  shalt 



Madre  de 
A  ngustias, 
men  say  in 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

The  Star-led  Wizards. 

Grefy  without  the  autumn  air 

But  pale  candles  here  prepare, . . . 

Let  the  choir  with  mourning  descant 

Cry,  In  Pace  requiescant  I 

For  they  loved  the  things  of  God. 

Now,  where  solemn  feet  have  trod 

Sleep  they  well,  and  wait  the  end. 

The  oriental  religions  strictly  so-called, 
the  Asiatic,  remain  to  be  considered.  The 
earliest  of  these  is  that  of  the  Phrygian 
Goddess,  the  Great  Mother.  To  Magna 
Mater  Idaea  four  Lusitanian  inscriptions 
are  addressed:  two  at  Lisbon,  one  at 
Medelli  n,  and  one  at  Ventas  de  Caparra  in 
the  province  of  Caceres:  at  Port  Mahon  in 
Minorca  there  was  a  temple  of  Athys.1 
For  this  the  Celtic  worship  of  the  Mothers 
had  prepared,  to  which  testify  five  in- 
scriptions, one  at  Cortina  del  Conde  being 
a  dedication  to  the  Gallegan  Mothers. a 

Now  it  is  a  curious  fact  about  the  wor- 
ship at  Compostella,  that  though  S.  James 
has  nothing  about  him  in  the  least  like  the 
wanton  languid  young  Asiatic,   the  son 



and  the  leman  of  the  goddess  alternately, 
whose  decentest  action  is  to  die,  and  whose 
chief  ritual  is  what  Ezekiel  saw  of  women 
weeping  for  Thammuz;  yet  the  only  re- 
lation you  find  there  is  that  of  mother 
and  son.  In  the  church,  below  the  high 
altar,  Mary  Salome  sits  on  the  north-east 
pier,  where  James  Minor  occupies  the 
corresponding  place  on  the  other  side:  and 
the  Tree  of  Jesse  in  the  Portico  is  crowned 
with  the  same  figure.  S.  Mary  Salome 
has  a  church  of  her  own,  and  the  street 
behind  it  is  called  Tras  de  SalomS,  and  of 
the  little  church  of  the  Corticela,  included 
now  in  the  cathedral,  behind  the  north 
transept,  who  shall  say  to  what  Mary  it 
was  dedicated  once?  A  mysterious  episode 
in  the  early  history  of  the  cathedral  car- 
ries with  it  some  implication  of  the  cult  of 

Before  the  time  of  the  Catholic  Kings, 
perhaps,  certainly  before  the  close  of  the 
fourteenth  century,  Galicia  had  very  little 
to  do  with  Roman  Christianity,  and  in 
the  earlier  ages,  for  long  stretches  of  time, 
it  had  lapses  from  Christianity  altogether. 



tent Chris- 



Friends  of 



WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

A  Visigothic  king  set  up  his  capital  at  Tuy, 
and  no  word  is  bad  enough  for  him  in 
the  ecclesiastical  histories.  To  the  sect  of 
Priscillian,  or,  more  truly,  to  his  way  of 
thinking  and  reform,  belonged  the  whole 
north-west  in  the  fifth  century.  There  is 
an  odd  phrase  of  Mgr.  Duchesne's3  which 
seems  to  suggest  that  on  the  worship  of 
S.  James  and  his  seven  disciples  the  pas- 
sionate devotion  to  Priscillian  and  the 
seven  martyrs  of  Priscillianism  had  some 
bearing.  At  the  Council  of  Toledo  in  400 
the  bishop  of  Astorga  never  gave  him  up, 4 
the  Gallegans  went  on  mostly  living  in 
schism,  dissociated  from  the  rest  of  Christi- 
anity, as  later  they  were  to  be  adherents 
of  Peter  of  Luna  and  other  Anti-Popes. 
Anon  came  the  heathen  Suevi,  and  the 
bishops  for  a  while  did  the  best  they  could, 
but  the  very  names  of  them  are  lost. 
Kings  of  Leon  came  in  and  cleared  up  the 
country;  then,  when  the  Moors  arrived, 
what  bishops  were  left  settled  in  Oviedo, 
but  the  sheep  were  scattered.  Under  the 
Norman  invasions  they  withdrew,  or  died, 
again:  now  all  these  interregna  of  official 




Christianity  gave  the  chance  for  lapses 
into  ancient  paganism.  At  the  end  of 
the  ninth  century  there  was  a  bishop  in 
Compostella  called  Ataulf ;  I  have  spoken 
of  him  before.  The  same  ugly  charge  was 
laid  against  him  as  commonly  against  the 
priests  of  Cybele,  and  his  purification  had 
something  to  do  with  the  killing  of  a  bull. s 
It  is  possible  that  Ataulf  simply  clung  to  old 
ways  of  the  land,  and  was  ruined  to  vacate 
his  place  for  a  new-comer  and  king's  favour- 
ite, Sisnandus,  as  later  Diego  Pelaez  the 
Spaniard  of  Spain  was  ousted  by  a  creature 
of  Cluny  and  of  Raymond  of  Burgundy, 
Diego  Gelmirez.  It  is  possible,  however,  on 
the  other  hand,  that  the  elder  worships  were 
not  utterly  forgotten,  and  that  this  was  a 

Moreover  at  Iria,  where  the  church, 
though  once  the  See,  was  throughout  the 
Middle  Age  only  a  pale  reflex  of  Santiago, 
and  thereafter  nought,  a  pine  tree  grew  in 
the  fore-court,  as  a  popular  song  says: 6 

Nosa  Sefiora  d'Adina 
Ten  un  pifLeiro  no  adro 






The  pine 
of  Cybele 

in  Spain 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Vota  pinas  en  octubre 
Cereixas  no  mes  de  mayo. 

There  may  have  been  such  another  at 
Compostella,  for  the  chronicle  speaks  of 
"Monasterium  quod  de  ante  altaria  nun- 
cupatur,  et  Piniarium,  ubi  monasterium 
S.  Martini  ad  honorem  Dei  constructum 

The  Compostellana,  describing  the  ordeal 
of  Bishop  Ataulf,  says  that  he  caught 
the  bull  by  the*  horns,  and  I  have  recog- 
nized earlier  that  this  may  be  derived 
from  a  Mithraic  relief  of  the  familiar  type, 
where  Mithras  slays  the  bull:  as  the  rock 
with  S.  James's  head  and  shoulders  emerg- 
ing, seen  at  Padron  in  the  fifteenth  century, 
may  be  another,  especially  as  there  was  a 
Mithraic  dedication  there.  The  base  of  a 
statue  was  found  at  M£rida  long  ago,  and 
in  excavating  for  a  new  bull-ring  more 
than  twenty  statues  and  fragments  were 
discovered.  Cumont  knew  only  thirteen 
Spanish  inscriptions  that  are  Mithraic, 8  in 
all;  Toutain  added  a  little  more  rather 
sullenly;9  Melida  has  shown  that  Merida 



had  a  community  and  a  sanctuary. x  °  The 
dedication  to  Dominus  Invictus  at  Malaga 
might  be  out  of  Luke  of  Tuy.  I  have  in- 
dicated the  possible  cult  survival  at  Leon 
in  the  acceptance  of  oaths  taken  on  the 
shrine  of  S.  Isidore  as  inviolable  and  legally 
unimpeachable,  and  the  strongly  zodiacal 
character  of  the  sculpture  and  the  first 
saints,  father,  mother  and  twelve  children, 
while  aware  that  there  were  other  star- 
worshippers  than  those  from  Persia. 

Mithras,  however,  was  psychopompos, 
and  along  the  Camino  de  Santiago,  the 
souls  were  guided.  Where  once  S.  Michael 
had  taken  over  this  office  along  the  Way, 
and  led  the  souls  and  weighed  them  at 
Sanguesa  and  Estella  and  at  the  great 
cathedrals,  and  at  Santiago  in  ThurkilTs 
Vision,  these  £.v  James  assumed  the  rdle, 
and  at  ComposteUa  it  is  his  toain  business. 
Helios  too  in  the  East  is  psychopompos, 
as  Dussaud  note^jand  is  a  rider, x  x  such 
another  as  that ,  in  the.  fourth  Miracle  of 
S.  James.  The  Celtic  Mercury,  the  pro- 
tector of  wayfarers  and  merchants,  as  Me- 
nendez  y  Pelayo  observes  with  truth,  is 



Who  leads 
the  souls 



The  Celtic 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

less  often  to  be  found  in  Spain:  he  can 
only  be  identified  with  certainty  twice, 
both  times  in  the  south,  on  the  coins  of 
Carmona  that  show  the  caduceus  or  a  head 
with  the  petasus, z  2  and  on  an  inscription 
at  Cartagena  where  fishermen  and  fish- 
mongers consecrate  a  statue  to  Mercury. 
I  think,  however,  the  winged  helmet,  asso- 
ciated with  the  caduceus  on  coins  of 
Sagunto  and  Valencia,  is  a  sign  of  the 
Celtic  Esus-Mercury  who  comes  very  close 
to  Mars,  and  who  carries  also  a  scrip  or 
wallet  as  his  attribute.13  The  petasus, 
at  any  rate,  is  bound  to  evoke  again  the 
recollection  of  S.  James's  wide-leafed  hat 
which  is,  along  with  the  wallet  or  scrip,  his 
most  conspicuous  badge  and  suggests  an 
identification,  and  indeed  the  high  god  of 
Baalbek  is  associated  with  Mercury  not 
only  in  his  temple  but  his  character,  a 
text  calling  him  Jupiter  Optimus  Maximus 
Angelus  Heliopolitanus. x  4 

As  Salambo,  his  mate  the  Syrian  goddess, 
was  worshipped  in  Seville,  and  the  story  of 
SS.  Justa  and  Rufina  reads  like  a  Passion- 
week  with  the  pasos  going  through  the 



streets.15  The  complete  correspondence 
of  the  worship  of  Atargatis  with  the 
Spanish  Virgin's,  in  aspect,  in  cult-images, 
in  attitudes,  in  emotion,  would  take  as 
long  to  show  as  this  other  case  of  S.  James; 
it  must  be  said  however  that  her  only 
image  at  Santiago  is  that  of  the  Virgen 
de  las  Angustias,  which  matches  pretty 
exactly  the  simulacrum  of  Mount  Lebanon 
that  Macrobius  described. 1 6 

For  once  a  vague  and  convenient  term 
like  that  of  "the  Syrian  Baals"  must  be 
allowed  for  the  divers  births  of  godheads 
all  more  or  less  interchangeable.  While 
there  are  parallels  certainly  between 
Santiago  Matamoros  and  Jupiter  Doliche- 
nus,  who  supplied  the  name  to  Galicia,  as 
it  appears,  of  Marina,  for  first  his  priests 
and  then  after  a  while  a  bishop  of  Doliche 
are  found  bearing  the  name;17  yet  the 
main  business  of  this  investigation  will  be 
with  the  high  god  of  Heliopolis.  He  is 
associated  at  the  shrine  with  Venus  and 
Mercury;  he  has  himself  the  eagle  and 
the  caduceus  both  for  attributes,  bulls 
for    his    throne,    the    thunderbolt,    the 


SeMora  de 
la  Paloma 


The  high 
god  of 


A  Syrian 

WAY     OF     S.  JAMES 

wheat-ear,  and  the  whip.     He  is  Adad  the 

There  are  traces  of  an  early  triad  once 
installed  in  the  land  of  Santiago,  after  the 
manner  of  the  Syrian  triads.  The  Gal- 
legan  Chronicle  of  Iria  says: 

Desfizo  una  eigrejo  mui  pobrecina,  que 
estaba  ende  feita  na  ribeira  de  Sar,  enda 
poseron  o  corpo  de  Sanctiago,  cando 
o  deceran  da  nave;  e  por  honra  de  tan 
grande  h6spede  con  grande  uidustria 
repar6u  e*  fize  una  mui  boa  eigreje  con 
tres  cabezas  e  tres  alt  ares:  o  medio  a 
honra  de  Ap6stol  Sanctiago,  porque 
cando  o  dec£ron  da  nave,  ende  fora 
recebudo  o  suo  corpo;  un  a  honra  de 
sancta  Maria  Salome;  y  outro  de  S.  Joan 
ap6stol  y  evangelista.  Y  a  dita  eigreja 
assi  feita,  poso  nela  candieiros  e  orna- 
mentos  competentes  ao  culto  ecresiasti- 



That  is  to  say,  where  the  disciples  had 
landed  at  Padr6n  with  S.  James's  body, 
there  was  a  little  shrine  where  the  image 
of  the  son  of  Thunder  could  be  seen  be- 


THE     BOU  RN  E 

tween  a  goddess  and  a  beardless  young 
god.  D.  Diego  Gelmirez  destroyed  this, 
like  a  good  many  other  old  things:  the 
Compostellana  says: 

"Ecclesiolam  sancti  Jacobi  de  Patrono 
ab  uno  templi  sabulo  usque  ad  summa 

tecti  f  astigia,  cum  quodam  bonae  memoriae 
Pelagio  presbytro  aedificando  construxit."  * 9 
It  has  been  shown  already  how  D.  Diego 
seems  to  have  done  away  with  a  chthonian 

sanctuary  at  Compostella  and  installed  a 
new  saint  there:  on  the  whole,  considering 
the  efforts  he  expended  in  making  a  clean 
sweep  of  all  the  old  disreputable  vestiges 
of  heathen  cults,  I  think  we  are  fortunate 
to  trace  so  much  still. 

The  emigrant  Syrians  who  worshipped 
Adad,  found  him  already  in  Spain  in- 
digenous. That  the  bull  was  a  Spanish 
totem,  especially  among  the  tribes  of  the 
south,  it  would  be  hard  not  to  believe,  for 
even  to  this  day  he  is  so  treated: — adored, 
protected,  pampered,  and  then  at  certain 
times  ritualry  killed.  How  solemn,  or- 
dained, fixed,  and  recognized  is  the  ritual 
of  the  toreador,  let  others  more  learned, 



Paint  ves- 
tiges of 


The  Bull 
as  Totem 


expound,  but  the  fact  is  matter  of  common 
knowledge.  The  great  house  of  the  Dukes 
of  Osuna,  in  whose  domain  the  finest  bulls 
are  bred,  claims  for  mythical  ancestor 
either  a  bull,  or  the  herdsman  Hercules 
when  he  was  tending  the  flocks  of  Geryon. 
Doubtless  that  of  the  bull-ancestor  is  the 
earlier  version.20  Of  the  magnificent 
bulls  of  the  coins  enough  cannot  be  said; 
before  them  came  the  bronzes  of  Costig21 
and  Cerro  de  los  Santos.22  It  should  be 
observed  that  the  most  complete  and 
rapturous  account  which  we  have  of  a 
taurobolium,  exists  in  the  poetry  of  Pruden- 
tius,  a  Spaniard.23  Menendez  y  Pelayo 
affirms  that  bull-worship  may  be  recog- 
nized in  Spain  from  the  remotest  age.24 
So  when  thunder-gods  and  bull-gods  come 
from  the  east,  they  find  that  already  the 
land  belongs  to  them  and  is  their  appointed 
rest  and  their  native  country  and  their  own 
natural  home,  which  they  enter  unan- 
nounced as  lords  that  are  certainly  ex- 
pected and  yet  there  is  a  silent  joy  at  their 
The  influx  of  Syrians  into  the  western 



world,  described  by  Cumont,  has  been 
resented  but  not  disproved.  In  a  fine 
and  famous  passage,  from  which  I  can 
quote  only  bits,  he  says: 

The  ever  increasing  traffic  with  the 
Levant  induced  merchants  to  establish 
themselves  in  Italy,  in  Gaul,  in  the 
Danubian  countries  and  in  Spain;  in 
some  cities  they  formed  real  colonies. 
The  Syrian  emigrants  were  especially 
numerous.  Compliant,  quick  and  dili- 
gent, they  went  wherever  they  expected 
profit,  and  their  colonies,  scattered  as 
far  as  the  north  of  Gaul,  were  centres  for 
the  religious  propagation  of  Paganism 
just  as  the  Jewish  colonies  of  the  Dia- 
spora were  for  Christian  preaching.  .  .  . 
At  the  same  time  the  necessities  of  war 
removed  officers  and  men  from  the  Eu- 
phrates to  the  Rhine  or  to  the  outskirts 
of  the  Sahara,  and  everywhere  they 
remained  faithful  to  the  gods  of  their 
native  country.  The  requirements  of 
the  government  transferred  functionaries 
and  their  clerks,  the  latter  frequently 
of  servile  birth,  into  the  most  distant 
provinces.    Finally,  the  ease  of  com- 






from  the 
East .  .  . 


.  .  one 

across  the 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

munication,  due  to  the  good  roads,  in- 
creased the  frequency  and  extent  of 
travel.  Thus  the  exchange  of  products, 
men  and  ideas  necessarily  increased, 
and  it  might  be  maintained  that  .  .  . 
the  gods  of  the  Orient  followed  the  great 
commercial  and  social  currents.25  .  .  . 

Br^hier,  taking  up  the  same  phenomenon 
at  a  later  date,  adds  more  of  the  same 
sort,  and  the  whole  passage  is  of  value  for 
the  present  argument: 

From  the  fourth  to  the  seventh  cen- 
tury you  can  follow  the  traces  of  their 
establishments  ...  at  Rome,  Ravenna, 
Treves,  Lyons,  Bordeaux,  Narbonne, 
etc.  .  .  .  Far  from  assimilating  with 
the  native  population,  they  exercised 
involuntarily  upon  it  a  fruitful  action. 
They  introduced  new  conceptions  into 
the  west  and  under  their  influence 
religious  architecture,  the  decorative 
arts,  religious  iconography,  and  also 
religious  ideas  penetrated  from  the  east 
into  Gaul  and  Italy.  .  .  .26 

Like  the  rest,  he  knowfe  not  Spain,  and 
so  that  name  is  missing  from  his  enumera- 



tions,  but  Lamperez  has  insisted  on  the 
signs  of  the  passage  of  a  Syrian  architect 
in  the  twelfth  century  at  Irache  and  at 
Zamora.  Thus  a  way  is  prepared  and  a 
path  made  straight  between  the  Lords  of 
the  east  and  the  west,  the  high  gods  of 
Heliopolis  and  Compostella. 

The  figure  at  Santiago  was  worshipped 
as  a  god  of  fertility,  especially  at  Saragossa, 
as  I  have  shown,  and  as  a  god  of  thunder, 
especially  at  Compostella,  as  folk-lore  still 
testifies.37  Arriaga  mentioned  in  the  sev- 
enteenth century  that  Spanish  children 
thought  the  thunder  was  the  galloping 
of  Santiago,38  and  indeed  in  the  Indian 
folk-lore  of  America  it  is  the  thunder-bird 
who  returns  followed  by  all  the  ghosts.*9 
This  seems  reliable  primitive  stuff.  Arriaga 
says  that  when  the  Peruvian  Indians  were 
converted,  they  called  after  S.  James,  one 
child  of  a  pair  of  twins  whom  they  had  for- 
merly called  the  Son  of  the  Lightning.30 
For  He  is  the  Son  of  Thunder,  as  the  litur- 
gies reiterate,  quod  est,  filius  tonitrui. 

Adad  is  the  elder  Babylonian  storm-god, 
worshipped  at  Baalbek  as  Jupiter  Optimus 



to  this 





his  cypress 

and  bulls 

WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

Maximus:  he  brandished  in  his  raised 
right  hand  a  whip,  in  his  left  he  car- 
ried wheat-ear  and  thunderbolt. 3  x  Certain 
coins  show  a  cypress  tree  in  the  temple 
doorway,  where  others  show  the  wheat- 
ear,  and  on  other  types  a  cypress  tree,  or 
possibly  three  cypresses,  figure  in  the 
field.32  In  an  ancient  Babylonian  ritual, 
where  the  purifier  puts  on  dark  garments 
as  for  underworld  deities,  and  all  the 
implements  have  a  symbolic  value,  the 
cypress  is  associated  with  Adad.33  The 
cult-image  of  Jupiter  Heliopolitanus, 
swathed  in  a  long  strange  strait-waist- 
coat, and  flanked  by  a  pair  of  bulls,34 
might  well  give  occasion  to  the  effigy — as 
iconography  misunderstood  brings  forth 
hagiography— of  the  mummy  of  S.  James 
in  the  ox-cart. 

Furthermore,  it  corresponds  exactly,  of 
course,  to  the  statue  of  S.  Isidore  the 
Ploughman  with  his  insignificant  oxen  by 
his  side,  as  we  saw  that  at  Cacabelos.  I 
hope  I  have  proved  satisfactorily  that 
S.  Isidore  the  Ploughman  is  only  one 
aspect  of  Doctor  Egregius,  cut  off  like  a 



gardener's  slip  and  set  to  grow  alone; 
and  that  the  greater  Isidore  is  still  only 
a  surrogate  of  S.  James. 

Just  why  S.  James  at  Compostella  aban- 
doned the  bulls  it  is  hard  to  see,  unless  that 
they  seemed  too  pagan  and  but  little 
scriptural:  the  lions  that  flank  his  chair 
in  the  Gloria  belong  by  rights  to  Atargatis 
the  companion-goddess.  There  was  how- 
ever a  lion-god,  Gennaios,  at  Heliopolis,  a 
solar  power,  the  djinn.3S  For  long  he  abode 
there  unforgotten,  for  Benjamin  of  Tudela 
in  the  twelfth  century  repeated  what  he 
heard,  that  when  Solomon  built  that  House, 
to  move  the  huge  stones  he  called  in  the 
djinns. 36  It  is  far  from  unlikely  that  the 
actual  cult-images  should  have  penetrated 
into  Galicia,  and  not  merely  the  tale  of 
them,  for  at  Nimes  a  cippus  and  at  Avi- 
gnon a  statue  may  be  seen,37  and  the 
relation  between  Provence  and  Spain  was 
close  and  constant. 

So  indeed  was  the  relation  between  Europe 
and  the  coast  of  Palestine.  Now  a  famous 
pilgrimage-place,  Tortosa,  may  have  had  a 
shrine  dedicated  to  the  Heliopolitan  triad, 



The  Djinn 




Tortosa  in 

So  Bur- 
chard  of 



for  the  pilgrim  Burchard  of  Mount  Sion, 
who  is  entirely  trustworthy,  describes 
ruins  where  he  saw  the  same  sort  of  im- 
mense stones  as  amaze  travellers  still  at 
Baalbek,  and  two  beautiful  bronze  cult- 
images  of  Adad  have  lately  been  found 
there. 3  8  The  old  Dominican  wrote  in  1 280 : 

Beneath  the  Castle  of  Arachas  and 
the  town  of  Synochim  is  a  great  plain, 
exceeding  beauteous  and  fertile,  reaching 
as  far  as  the  Castle  of  Krach,  which 
once  belonged  to  the  Knights  Hospi- 
tallers of  S.  John,  and  as  far  as  Antara- 
dus,  now  called  Tortosa,  being  about 
eleven  leagues  long  and  six  leagues 
broad.  .  .  .  Four  out  of  these  eleven 
sons  of  Canaan,  to  wit  Sidon  his  first 
born  who  built  Sidon,  and  Aracheus 
who  founded  Arachas,  and  Sineus  who 
founded  Synochion,  and  Aradius  who 
founded  Aradium  as  aforesaid,  —  these 
four,  I  say,  remained  in  the  land  of 
Lebanon  as  hath  been  told.  .  .  .  The 
monuments  and  sepulchres  of  the  first 
four  are  shown  at  this  day  one  league 
before  one  comes  to  Antaradus,  and 
they  are  exceeding  rich  and  of  wondrous 



size.  I  have  seen  stones  therein  —  for  I 
measured  the  stone — four  and  twenty 
feet  long,  and  as  wide  and  deep  as  the 
height  of  a  tall  man,  so  that  it  is  a  marvel 
to  behold  them.  How  they  can  have 
been  raised  up  and  used  for  building, 
altogether  passes  man's  understanding. 
.  .  .  S.  Peter  preached  for  a  long  time 
at  Antaradus  when  he  was  on  his  way 
to  Antioch,  as  we  read  in  S.  Clement's 
Itinerary.  Here  Clement  found  his 
mother.  Here  also  S.  Peter  built  the 
first  church  in  honour  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin,  which  church  exists  at  this  day. 
I  have  celebrated  Mass  therein,  for  I 
abode  there  for  six  days. 3  9 

Now  the  god  between  bulls  who  had 
the  herpi,  whose  figure  is  found  every- 
where in  Palestine,  was  also  at  Acre 
perhaps,  certainly  crusaders  and  pilgrims 
had  a  chance  to  see  the  image  and  identify 
it  after  their  manner.  The  crusaders  had 
raided  Baalbek  in  1176. 

At  Byblus  [says  Benjamin  of  Tudela], 
when  the  Genoese  took  the  town,  in 
1 109,  they  found  the  place  where  was 



The  first 
church  of 
Our  Lady 





idol  in  1 1 09 





WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

once  the  temple  of  the  children  of  Am- 
nion. There  also  was  their  abomination, 
which  is  to  say  their  idol,  sitting  on  a 
throne  made  of  stone  but  covered  with 
gold.  There  were  two  seated  women, 
one  at  his  right  hand  and  one  at  his  left, 
and  one  altar  opposite  where  perfume 
was  offered.40 

The  two  earliest  crusaders'  churches  in 
Palestine,  says  Phene*  Spiers,  were  Byblus 
and  Beyrout  (n  20-1 130),  with  which  was 
contemporary  that  of  Tortosa.41  It  was 
a  famous  pilgrimage  place.    Says  Joinville : 

Je  demande*  au  roy  qu'il  me  laissast 
aller  en  pelerinage  a  Notre-Dame  de  Tor- 
touza  la  ou  il  avoit  moult  grant  pelerin- 
age, pour  ce  que  c'est  le  premier  autel  qui 
onques  fust  fait  en  Tonneur  de  la  Mere- 
Dieu  sur  terre,  et  y  fesoit  Nostre-Dame 
moult  grant  miracle. 

There  is  small  doubt  that  the  shrine 
of  Our  Lady  was  older  than  Mary  the 
Mother  of  Jesus.  Justinian  built  a  church 
to  Our  Lady  in  the  middle  of  a  cypress  grove 
at  Byzantium,  and  we  can  guess  Whose  the 



grove  had  been  before:  so  possibly  here. 
The  church  at  Beyrout,  by  the  way  it  was 
built  in  the  twelfth  century,  is  standing  yet, 
and  is  of  a  noble  Romanesque  architecture. 
Furthermore,  S.  Philip  lived  here  with  his 
daughters,  unless  that  was  at  Caesarea, 
and  there  according  to  the  Cite*  de  Jkcru- 
salem  they  were  buried:  Burchard  says  S. 
Philip  and  his  two  daughters  had  a  man- 
sion at  Caesarea42;  "at  Caesarea,  in  a 
church  there,  was  the  chapel  of  S.  Cornelius 
whom  S.  Peter  baptized,  and  who  was, 
after  Monseigneur  S.  Peter,  Archbishop; 
in  this  chapel  lie  the  two  daughters  of 
Monseigneur  S.  Philip."43  But  Luke  of 
Tuy  says  that  S.  Philip  and  his  two  daugh- 
ters are  buried  in  Hierapolis  of  Asia, 44  and, 
indeed,  it  is  the  beardless  Adad  of  the  Syrian 
sanctuaries  who  fixes  the  type  of  S. 
Philip  in  Byzantine  and  western  painting. 
Mgr.  Duchesne  speaks  of  a  double  tradi- 
tion in  the  Byzantine  Catalogues,  which 
sometimes  bury  S.  James  in  Judea,  some- 
times in  Caesarea  of  Palestine.45  It  be- 
gins to  look  as  if  S.  Philip  and  S.  James 
were  confused. 



graphy of 
S.  Philip 


of  the 

WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

The  Mortal  Twin. 

Meat  for  my  black  cock 
And  meat  for  my  red  .  .  . 
—  George  Peele. 

At  this  point  it  becomes  necessary  to 
consider  those  apocryphal  Acts  of  the 
Apostles  which  brought  Pricillian  to  mar- 
tyrdom,1 and  with  them,  the  general  con- 
fusion of  mind,  in  the  early  centuries 
of  the  church,  about  the  name  and  charac- 
ter of  certain  of  the  Apostles.  There  was 
a  time  when  these  pious  romances  supplied 
reading  to  the  devout.  S.  Toribio,  whom 
we  have  met  on  the  Pass  of  Rabanal, 
as  he  came  back  from  the  Holy  Land  with 
relics  some  time  before  440, 2  was  very 
active  against  the  Priscillianists  and 
denounced  them  as  reading  the  Acts  of  S. 
Thomas,  S.  Andrew,  and  S.  John,  and 
with  these  the  Memorials  of  Apostles, 
which  are  not  otherwise  known.  Yet  S. 
Silva  of  Aquitaine,  on  her  journey  sixty 
years  before,  3had  read  the  A cts  ofS.  Thomas 
at  Edessa,  and  elsewhere  those  of  S.  Tecla, 
as  a  matter  of  course  and  with  edification, 



precisely  like  those  sentimental  travellers 
who  read  Le  Jardin  de  Berenice  at  Aigues- 
Mortes  and  the  Chanson  de  Roland  at 

About  certain  of  the  twelve  Apostles, 
and  disciples,  equally,  the  situation  is  not 
very  clear:  even  the  lists  in  the  canonical 
Gospels  do  not  agree.  Some,  like  SS. 
Peter  and  Paul,  John  and  Barnabas,  are 
plain,  their  names,  their  burial  places: 
but  again,  as  Michael  the  Syrian  says4 
rather  dolefully,  there  are  only  three  names 
for  six  Apostles,  which  is  hard.  Some  of 
them  are  brothers,  some  of  them  are 
commemorated  in  couples.  James  was 
the  brother  of  the  Lord,  but  which  James? 
"Thy  Mother  and  Thy  brethren  are  with- 
out " — which  are  brethren?  The  genealogy 
which  the  Golden  Legend  offers,  it  will  be 
remembered,  is  this:5 

(i)  Anna  married  (a)  Joachim,  (b)  Cleo- 
phas,  (c)  Salomas,  and  had  three  daughters 
all  called  Mary:  (2)  Mary  Virgin  married 
Joseph  and  Jesus  was^her  son:  (3)  Mary 
Cleophas  married  Alphaeus  and  her  chil- 
dren were  James  Minor,  Simon,  Jude  called 



A  Jacobite 









WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

Thaddaeus  (called  also  Addai,  be  it  noted), 
and  Joseph  Justus  called  Barsabas  (whom 
I  know  only  as  a  name) :  (4)  Mary  Salome 
married  Zebedee  and  her  children  were 
James  and  John  called  the  Sons  of  Thunder, 
Boanerges.  But  the  situation  was  not 
so  clear  in  earlier  centuries  nor  in  the  east. 
Michael  the  Syrian  (1166-1100)  says,6  for 
instance,  that  James  Zebedee  was  per- 
secuted at  Jerusalem  and  martyred  by  a 
fuller's  mallet:  with  James  Alphaeus  he 
brackets  Simon  the  Canaanite  called 
Zelotes  and  also  Nathaniel,  who  preached 
in  Syria  at  Aleppo  and  Mabog  (Bombyce, 
which  is  Hierapolis)  and  was  martyred  at 
Cyrrhus  where  his  church  is.  But  Theo- 
dosius  in  his  treatise  On  the  Topography 
of  the  Holy  Land7  says  that  "Cosmas  and 
Damian  he  there  at  Cyrrhus,  not  the 
famous  physicians  however."  The  point  is 
apparently  that  twins  lie  there  and  Simon 
is  a  twin. 

The  next  Apostle  whom  Michael  the 
Syrian  names  is  that  Thaddaeus  whose 
surname  was  Lebbaeus,  who  is  Jude  the 
son  of  James.    He  was  sawn  asunder  at 



Berenice,  which  is  Berytus,  says  Chabot; 
now  Berytus,  or  Beyrut  is  the  sea-port  of 
Heliopolis.  After  the  list  of  Apostles  he 
proceeds  with  the  seventy  disciples,  of 
whom  the  first  is  Addai  that  preached  in 
Edessa  and  baptized  King  Abgar,  died  ang 
was  buried  there.  Fifteenth  comes  Jude 
the  brother  of  James;  twenty-sixth  Simon 
the  son  of  Cleophas;  twenty-eighth  James 
who  was  killed  with  his  brother;  Mark 
and  Luke  figure  as  forty-third  and  forty- 
fourth;  fiftieth,  John  who  was  thrown  to 
beasts  in  the  theatre  of  Baalbek!  The  son 
of  Narses  king  of  Persia  who  was  born 
during  a  flight  and  was  brought  up  in 
Membig  which  is  Hierapolis,  was  sent  to 
Edessa  on  an  errand  and  saw  the  church 
built  by  Addai.8  Prom  this  sample  the 
confusion  may  be  judged. 

In  Jerusalem  the  two  Apostles  called 
James  were  for  a  long  time  confounded. 
Theodosius  (c.  530)  who  makes  Cleophas 
one  of  the  pilgrims  of  Emmaus,  says9: 

S.  James  whom  the  Lord  ordained  bi- 
shop with  his  own  hand,  after  the  Lord's 



.  .  .  Qui  tt 


S.  James  in 


A  good 

WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

ascension  was  cast  down  from  the 
pinnacle  of  the  Temple  and  suffered 
no  hurt,  but  a  fuller  slew  him  with  a 
pole  on  which  he  used  to  carry  his  things 
and  he  was  buried  on  Mount  Olivet. 
S.  James,  S.  Zacharias,  and  S.  Simeon 
m  were  buried  in  one  tomb  which  S.  James 
had  built,  he  buried  the  others  there  and 
left  directions  that  he  should  also  be  laid 

Two  things  are  notable  here:  one  that 
the  fuller's  mallet  belongs  to  S.  James  as 
the  instrument  of  his  martyrdom,  but  it 
was  already  the  axe  of  Adad;  and  the 
other  that  the  sepulchre  with  three  bodies 
found  at  Santiago  in  the  ninth  century, 
existed  at  Jerusalem  in  the  sixth. 

Antoninus  Martyr,  who  was  such  another 
as  Aymery  Picaud,  writing  about  560-570, 
mentions  the  great  earthquake  at  Berytus 
in  which,  the  Bishop  told  him,  30,000 
persons  perished  there;  this  will  be  what 
shook  down  the  sanctuary  at  Heliopolis. 
He  testifies:  "On  the  Mount  of  Olives 
rests  James  the  Son  of  Zebedee,  and 
Cleophas  and  many  bodies  of  saints."10 



And  he  is  trustworthy  as  Aymery,  and 
like  him  took  his  notes  on  the  spot. 

John  of  Wurtzburg  (1160-1170)  saw 
the  church  of  S.  James  in  the  hands  of 
Armenians,  as  it  is  still  presumably:  "He 
was  beheaded  by  Herod  and  his  body  was 
placed  by  his  disciples  on  board  a  ship  at 
Joppa  and  carried  to  Galicia  but  his  head 
remained  in  Palestine  and  is  still  shown  to 
pilgrims"11.  .  .  .  An  anonymous  pilgrim 
who  was  in  Jerusalem  before  1 187  saw  "the 
Lord's  temple  where  He  was  presented  and 
whence  He  cast  out  those  who  bought  and 
sold  and  from  whence  James  the  Lord's 
brother  was  cast  down."12  The  Citez  de 
Jherusalem,  composed  after  that  date,  says 
that  there  is  the  church  of  S.  James  of 
Galicia  who  was  the  brother  of  S.  John  the 
Evangelist;  that  at  Joppa  under  a  castle  in 
the  church  of  S.  Peter  is  found  the  cloak 
of  S.  James  of  Galicia  on  which  he  crossed 
the  sea;  that  on  a  mountain  above  Acre 
stands  the  church  of  SS.  James  and  John 
where  they  were  born. x  3  The  buen  seyni  de 
Galise  is  fairly  well-defined  by  the  end  of 
the  twelfth  century. 



■      •      •     £X 

without  a 
head..  ." 

S.  James 
the  Less 


but  open  to 
the  iky  — 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Burchard  of  Mount  Sion  went  thither  in 
1 232,  and  saw  the  place  where  S.  James  was 
beheaded  by  Herod  Agrippa. x  4  But  there- 
after he  is  almost  forgotten  in  the  east: 
and  James  the  Less  usurps  his  place. 
Marino  Sanuto  (13  21)  who  borrows  freely 
from  Burchard,  has  not  a  word  to  tell  of  the 
Son  of  Zebedee,  but  he  relates  that  near 
the  Virgin's  Tomb  is  the  Sepulchre  of 
James  the  Less,  for  the  Christian  buried 
him  here  after  the  Jews  had  cast  him  down 

from  the  Temple;  and  elsewhere,  that  in 
the  Chamber  of  the  Last  Supper,  S.  Mat- 
thias was  elected,  the  Holy  Ghost  de- 
scended, the  seven  deacons  were  chosen 
and  S.  James  the  Less  was  ordained  Bishop 
of  Jerusalem. xs  Leopold  von  Suchem, 
thirty  years  later,  thought  that  James 
Minor,  the  Lord's  brother,  was  martyred 
by  the  Jews  casting  him  down  from  the 
Temple.16  After  this  it  seems  no  more 
than  compensation,  if  Luke  of  Tuy  makes 
S.  James  Major  the  protomartyr. 

His  confused  account  of  the  Apostles 
represents  the  state  of  Spanish  knowledge 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  which  was  no 



better  than  the  Syrian.    It  amounts  about 
to  this: 

Trajan  [he  says]  built  the  bridge  of 
Alcantara  and  allowed  the  Christians 
to  be  persecuted,  and  Simon  Cleophas 
Bishop  of  Jerusalem  was  crucified.  S. 
John  died  in  Ephesus  at  ninety-nine, 
when  Galen  of  Pergamo  the  great  doctor 
flourished.  [Then  he  starts  a  new 

Peter  and  Paul  are  buried  at  Rome; 
Andrew  at  Patras,  a  city  of  Achaia; 
James  Zebedee  in  a  marble  ark  and  then 
carried  to  the  farthest  province  of 
Spain,  Galkia;  John  at  Ephesus,  Philip 
and  his  daughters  at  Hierapolis  of  Asia; 
Thomas  at  Calamia  a' city  of  India; 
Matthew  in  the  Parthian  mountains; 
Martial,  a  disciple  of  the  Apostles,  at 
Limoges;  Luke  in  Bithynia  and  Mark  at 
Alexandria;  James  Alphaeus  beside  the 
temple  at  Jerusalem;  Thaddaeus,  that 
is  Jude,  in  Beyrout  of  the  Edessenes. 
Simon  Cleophas  who  is  Jude  (qui  et 
Judas)  bishop  after  James,  was  crucified 
at  the  age  of  a  hundred  and  twenty 
years  in  Jerusalem  and  buried  there; 
Titus  in  Crete;  Crescens  the  eunuch  of 



S.  Luke 
of  Tuy 

But  com- 
pare Abn- 
page  ao3 


A  vegeta- 
tion spirit 



Candace  the  queen  of  Arabia  Felix,  in 

It  is  worth  noting,  perhaps,  as  an  instance 
of  how  these  confusions  come,  that  the 
Jerusalem  pilgrims  went  to  see  the  place 
where  Philip  baptized  the  eunuch;  now 
Mgr.  Duchesne  says18  that  the  Latin 
texts  of  the  Apostolic  Catalogues  give 
Macedonia  to  S.  Matthew,  Gaul  to  S. 
Philip,  and  Spain  to  S.  James,  a  few  sending 
S.  Matthew  to  Ethiopia.  Philip  having 
been  placed  in  Gaul  and  then  withdrawn, 
the  eunuch  becomes  his  substitute.  Two 
more  notes  of  Mgr.  Duchesne's  must  be 
remembered:  the  first,  that  Mozarabic 
calendars  place  the  Feast  of  Santiago 
on  May-Day19;  now  Tamayo  de  Salazar 
extracts  from  the  Chronicle  of  Julian  PeYez 
the  Arch-priest  of  S.  Justa,  a  statement 
that  S.  James  the  Less  was  commissioned 
by  S.  Peter,  acting  under  orders  from  the 
Blessed  Virgin,  to  attend  to  the  interests 
of  the  Church  and  especially  of  Spain,  and 
his  feast  fixed  for  May  i.  The  other  is, 
that  he  accepts  as  authentic  the  Ifymn 



attributed  to  King  Mauregato  (783-788) 
which  declares  Jacobus  Hispaniam:  and 
adds  that  there  seems  to  be  no  distinction 
between  the  two  SS.  James. 2  ° 

In  the  Apocryphal  Acts  of  Andrew  and 
Matthias  in  the  City  of  the  Man-Eaters, 
James  and  Simon  are  called  the  brothers 
of  Jesus  the  son  of  Joseph  the  carpenter. 2  x 
The  Acts  of  Thaddaeus  relate  how  Thad- 
daeus  was  a  native  of  Edessa,  and  after 
Christ  had  sent  his  likeness  to  King  Abgar 
by  Ananias  the  courier,  then,  after  the 
Passion  and  the  Resurrection  and  Ascen- 
sion, Thaddaeus  went  to  Abgar  and  in- 
structed and  baptized  him,  as  S.  Thomas 
did  in  the  Acts  which  S.  Silva  of  Aquitaine 
read  there,  and  ultimately  died  and  was 
buried  at  Berytus,  a  city  of  Phoenicia  by 
the  sea.23 

Taking  for  a  moment  East  and  West 
together,  the  case  may  be  stated  about  as 

Thomas  was  a  twin,  Didymus;  but 
Thomas  =  Jude,  and  also  Thomas- 
Thaddaeus  (Addai) 

Simon  -f-  Jude  are  a  pair 



—  in  what 
sense  ? 

—  as  Ren- 
del  Harris 
shows  — 



S.  Philip 
of  S.  James 

Avatar  of 


James  is  brother  of  the  Lord;  but  there 

are  two  Jameses 
James  Major  =  James  Minor  and 

Philip  ■+■  James  are  a  pair 
These  all  are  twins  and  all  are  inter- 
Philip  =  Adad  at  Hierapolis,  but 
Philip  +  James  Minor  =  James  Major 
.*.  James  Major  =  Adad,  especially  at 

It  can  be  further  proved.  In  the  Acts 
of  Philip,  S.  Philip  is  called  the  Son  of 
Thunder;23  he  is  subject  to  fits  of  rage  like 
SS.  James  and  John  when  they  would  have 
called  down  fire  from  heaven;34  he  directs 
the  preparation  of  his  mummy  in  wrappings 
that  would  bring  it  to  the  shape  of  the 
cult-image. 2  s  But  he  bears  in  other  ways 
more  likeness  to  Dionysus,  he  is  accom- 
panied by  the  leopard  and  the  kid  of  the 
goats,26  and  by  wild  women,27  and  where 
his  blood  falls  a  vine  springs  up.28  Now 
the  minor  temple  at  Heliopolis,  as  we  know 
today,  was  dedicated  to  Dionysus.  His 
companion  and  sister  is  Mariamne,  who 
is  a  disciple  of  S.  James  in  other  legends, 



and  who,  by  the  way,  is  herself  a  twin!'9 
Rendel  Harris  has  expounded  delight- 
fully how  S.  Thomas  is  the  twin  of  Christ, 
and  looks  just  like  him,  so  that  Christ  on 
coming  into  a  room  is  taken  for  S.  Thomas 
who  has  just  gone  out. 3 °  "And  the  Lord 
said  to  him,  I  am  not  Judas  who  also  is 
Thomas;  I  am  his  brother."  In  the  Acts 
of  Philip,  when  S.  Philip  is  in  the  rdle  of 
S.  James,  Christ  appears  in  the  luceness 
of  S.  Philip. 3  x  Priscillian  knew  this  twin  of 
Christ's:  "Ait  Juda  apostolus  damans  ille 
didymus  domini". 3  2  As  one  of  the  Sons  of 
Thunder,  of  course  S.  James  was  a  twin,  and 
again  we  have  to  thank  Rendel  Harris  for 
all  the  instances  of  the  twin-child  that  is  the 
Lightning's  child:33  S.  John  was  the  twin 
brother  to  S.  James,  but  S.  John  was  other- 
wise disposed  of.  He  lived  to  be  very  old, 
his  place  was  Ephesus:  S.  John  in  Ephesus, 
5.  Peter  in  Rome,  S.  James  in  ComposteUa, 
was  an  idea  familiar  to  the  twelfth  century 
in  Galicia,  and  doubtless  elsewhere  and 
earlier:  so  the  world  was  distributed,  east 
and  west  and  in  Italy.  Therefore  S.  James 
must  have  another  twin:  and  was  he  not 



and  twin 
of  Christ 




One  goes 
to  the 



already,  in  Canonical  Scripture,  the  Brother 
of  the  Lord?  The  mortal  twin,  the  chthon- 
ian  power,  is  S.  James:  the  divine,  in 
heaven,  is  Jesus:  but  on  the  baldachin  at 
Compostella  S.  James  ruled. 

Eastern  Spain  was  peculiarly  liable  to 
influences  from  the  East,  and  Syrian  saints 
abound  at  Vich,  Tarrasa,  and  thereabouts, 
who  are  often  brethren,  like  SS.  Cosmo 
and  Darnian,  SS.  Abdon  and  Senen.  But 
in  Catalan  painting  of  the  fourteenth  and 
fifteenth  century,  the  twins  are  enforced, 
the  likeness  between  S.  James  Major  and 
his  Master  Christ  is  as  marked  as  in  the 
Gloria  of  Maestro  Mateo.  In  the  Last 
Supper  of  Solsona  S.  James  in  hat  and 
slaveyn  still  looks  like  Christ;  in  the  Serras' 
altar  piece  at  S.  Cugat  the  two  SS.  James 
are  identical,  except  for  attributes.  In 
Borassa's  retable  of  the  Poor  Clares  at  Vich, 
SS.  Simon  and  Jude  look  precisely  like  the 
Veronica  which  they  are  presenting  to  King 
Abgar;  so  in  the  predella,  only  SS.  Thomas 
and  Matthias  (=  Matthew),  so  S.  James 




The  High  God. 

I  stand  at  noon  upon  the  peak  of  Heaven, 
Then  with  unwilling  steps  I  wander  down 
Into  the  clouds  of  the  Atlantic  even. 

This  Adad  the  bull-god,  whose  emblem 
was  a  hammer,  was  Hittite,  the  Lord  of 
Storms.  He  was  a  sky-god  and  associated 
readily  with  a  sun-god.  He  was  Zeus,  he 
was  also  Helios.  He  was  lodged  at  Delos 
in  the  second  century  before  Christ,  when 
Achaios  son  of  Apollonius  dedicated  a 
temple  to  Adatis  and  Atargatis  the  gods 
of  his  fatherland  and  served  there  in  137- 
136  B.C. ;  two  other  priests  who  followed,  like 
himself  came  from  Hierapolis.  At  Rome 
has  been  found  a  dedication  to  Adad  of 
Lebanon  and  Adad  of  the  mountain-top. z 
The  great  Temple  of  the  Sun  at  Baalbek 
at  which  successive  travellers  have  mar- 
velled even  into  our  own  century,  was 
begun  by  Antoninus  Pius  (13  8- 161)  and 
continued  down  to  completion  under  Cara- 
calla  (21 1-2 1 7).  Macrobius  (c.  400)  de- 
scribes the  worship  of  the  sun  under  the 
name  of  Jupiter  Heliopolitanus:2 


Lord  of 


bolt and 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

That  this  divinity  is  at  once  Jupiter 
and  the  sun  is  manifest  both  from  the 
nature  of  its  ritual  and  from  its  outward 
appearance.  It  is  in  fact  a  golden 
statue  of  beardless  aspect,  standing  like  a 
charioteer  with  a  whip  in  its  raised  right 
hand,  a  thunderbolt  and  corn-ears  in  its 
left — attributes  which  all  indicate  the 
combined  power  of  Jupiter  and  the  sun. 
In  the  cult  attached  to  this  temple 
divination  is  a  strong  point.  .  .  .  ^The 
image  of  the  god  of  Heliopolis  is  carried 
on  a  litter  resembling  those  used  for  the 
images  of  the  gods  in  the  procession  of 
the  Circus  Games.  ...  To  prevent 
my  argument  from  ranging  through  a 
whole  list  of  divinities  I  will  explain 
what  the  Assyrians  believe  concerning 
the  power  of  the  sun.  They  have  given 
the  name  Adad  to  the  god  whom  they 
venerate  as  highest  and  greatest.  .  .  . 
Him  therefore  they  adore  as  a  god  mighty 
above  all  others.  But  with  him  they 
associate  a  goddess  called  Adargatis. 
To  these  two  they  ascribe  all  power  over 
the  universe,  understanding  them  to 
be  the  sun  and  the  earth.  They  do 
not  mark  the  subdivision  of  their  power 



Into  this,  that  and  the  other  sphere  by 
means  of  numerous  names,  but  prefer 
to  show  forth  the  manifold  glory  of  the 
double  deity  by  the  attributes  with 
which  they  are  adorned.  .  .  .  Beneath 
this  same  image  [of  Adargatis]  are  the 
forms  of  lions,  showing  that  it  stands 
for  the  earth;  just  as  the  Phrygians 
represent  the  Mother  of  the  gods,  that 
is  the  earth,  carried  by  lions. 

Here  the  Pagan  worship  died  hard.  In 
297  occurred  the  conversion  and  mar- 
tyrdom of  S.  Gin£s  the  player,3  revered 
at  Compostella  and  at  Aries,  as  Aymery 
mentions,  by  pilgrims  to  S.  James,  and 
further  up  the  Rhone  valley  as  well, 
for  I  have  seen  a  statue  of  him  in 
Burgundy.  He  saw  the  same  light  that 
flooded  the  crypt  at  Santiago,  for  when 
his  companions  threw  him  into  the  pool, 
he  cried:  "  I  saw  the  terrible  glory  in  the 
bath,  and  I  am  a  Christian!"4  Con- 
stantine,  according  to  Eusebius,5  de- 
stroyed the  temple  of  Venus  and  abolished 
the  ancient  Babylonian  custom  of  "prosti- 
tution" before  marriage,  which  obtained 




S.  Gines 
the  Player 



Faiths  and 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

there.  In  the  rioting  which  follows,  the 
outraged  populace  seems  to  have  seized 
the  Christian  girls  and  made  them  go 
through  it,  possibly  in  expiation  of  the 
affront  to  the  goddess  and  the  old  ways; 
the  story  of  what  happened  to  Cyril  the 
Deacon6  sounds  like  a  revival  of  Di- 
onysiac  orgies,  for  they  tore  him  up  and  got 
their  teeth  into  his  liver.  The  great  image 
lasted  at  least  till  nearly  the  end  of  the  sixth 
century.    Michael  the  Syrian  says: 

In  the  epoch  of  Justinian  II,  565-578, 
there  was  at  Baalbek  a  city  of  Phoenicia 
between  the  Lebanon  and  Sanir,  a  great 
and  famous  idol,  and  (it  was  said)  parts 
of  the  great  house  that  Solomon  had 
built.  It  was  a  hundred  and  fifty  cubits 
high  and  seventy-five  broad,  built  with 
stones  entirely  polished.  It  had  huge 
columns,  and  cedars  of  Lebanon  for 
timbers,  covered  with  lead  [which  I  take 
to  mean  roofed]  with  bronze  ram's 
heads  under  each  of  the  roof -beams.  All 
the  rest  of  the  work  was  admirable. 
The  pagans,  seduced  by  the  grandeur 
of  the  edifice,  offered  sacrifices  to  the 



demons  there,  and  nobody  could  destroy 
it.  God  for  their  confusion  struck  it  by 
lightning  which  devoured  it  and  con- 
sumed the  wood,  the  bronze,  the  lead, 
and  the  idols  therein.  A  great  sorrow 
fell  on  all  the  pagans;  Now,  they  said, 
paganism  is  ruined.1 

The  thunderbolt  was  the  fit  ending  for 
the  thunder-god's  shrine,  whereof  the  huge 
stones  had  lent  to  it  the  name  of  TrilUhon, 
but  through  the  narrative  of  the  twelfth 
century  echoed  the  message  of  the  fifth: — 

Tell  the  king,  on  earth  has  fallen  the 

glorious  dwelling 
And  the  water-springs  that  spake  are 

quenched  and  dead. 
Not  a  cell  is  left  the  God,  no  roof,  no 

cover.  .  .  . 

Theodosius  the  Great  built  a  church  in 
the  ruins,  says  Malalas.8  "Quid  vero 
Heliopoli  erat,  Trilithum  vocatum  ingens 
illud  et  celeberrimum  .  .  .  "  and  Theo- 
dosius was  a  Spaniard,  as  he  says;  a  Galle- 



like  wrecks 

of  a 



Temple  of 
the  Sua 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

gan,  apparently. 9  But  whether  that  church 
was  dedicated  to  S.  James,  we  have  no  way 
to  know.    It  is  not  impossible. 

Half  a  century  before,  Constantine  had 
established  there  a  bishop  with  his  pres- 
byters and  deacons;  the  names  of  two 
other  bishops,  from  the  fifth  century,  are 
preserved.  Maundrell  saw  one  still  legible, 
on  an  inscription,  in  his  day. x  °  According 
to  the  Germans  who  have  explored  the 
site, z  z  the  church  had  three  apses  at  the 
further  end,  which  were  all  pierced  with 
doorways  at  a  later  time  when  the  orienta- 
tion of  the  church  was  reversed  and  a  new 
apse  erected  at  the  east.  It  was  built 
between  the  pools,  around  and  about  the 
great  altar  of  the  temple  court,  somewhat  as 
Gelmirez's  at  Santiago  was  built  over  the 
tomb.  The  entrance  to  the  temple  was 
by  a  high  and  noble  stair,  the  same  down 
which  Mar  Rabbula  was  thrown  about 
400  a.d.  z  3  A  wide  colonnaded  propylaeum 
between  two  towers  made  the  background 
for  this,  and  opened  into  the  hexagonal 
court,  arcaded  round,  with  an  open  cloister 
like  that  of  Bunate.    Here  should  have 



stood  the  cypress  tree  which  is  to  be  seen  as 
plain  and  unmistakable  on  certain  coins, 
standing  in  the  central  intercolumniation 
of  the  propylaeum  as,  on  others,  is  a  wheat 

The  court  to  which  this  in  turn  admitted 
was  square,  surrounded  with  colonnades, 
except  on  the  side  of  the  temple. z  3  In  the 
porticoes  were  cxedrae,  two  on  each  side, 
that  contained  themselves  five  niches  or 
absidioles.  To  this  Syrian  arrangement, 
which  reappeared  in  the  south-west  of 
Prance,  at  Souillac  and  Perigeux,  reference 
was  made  in  the  discusssion  of  S.  Pedro  la 
Rua  of  Estella.  Two  pools  flanked  at 
first  the  central  altar  and  afterwards  the 
church  which  enclosed  this;  a  vaulted 
crypt  or  substructure  existed  below. 
From  the  court  steps  went  up  to  the 
temple.  It  was  encompassed  by  a  broad 
ambulatory  within  a  single  row  of  columns, 
and  the  foundation  was  built  of  the  gigantic 
monolithic  pieces  that  impressed  the 
imagination  of  every  traveller,  from  John 
of  Antioch  to  Bayard  Taylor. 

A  little  to  the    left,    with    the    same 









The  great 

On  the 
brink  of 
the  night 
and  the 
morning . . 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

orientation  and  a  parallel  axis,  stood  the 
temple  of  Dionysus,  about  which  Puchstein 
makes  the  same  observation  as  Lucian 
about  the  shrine  of  Hierapolis,  and  Thurkill 
about  that  of  Santiago,  that  those  who  stood 
outside  could  look  up  within  and  through, 
even  to  the  sanctuary.  That  was  not  true 
either  of  Greek  temples  or  of  Christian 
basilicas,  and  where  it  occurred,  it  was 
remarked.  The  vine  and  ivy  leaves  of  the 
door-frame  are  there  still,  as  they  caught 
on  the  imagination  and  flourished  in  the 
legend  of  the  Serpent-worshippers  and 
Philip  the  Apostle. 

The  cult-image  in  the  temple  of  Jupiter 
represented  Adad  the  god  of  storms  and 
fertility,  sky-god  and  bull-god,  with  cala- 
thos,  whip,  wheat-ears  and  thunder-bolt, 
long  sheath-like  garment  which  Dussaud 
is  right  in  understanding  as  a  cuirass,14 
and  a  pair  of  bulls.  His  mate,  Atargatis, 
Allat  or  Venus,  was  not  Astarte  nor  a 
moon-goddess,  according  to  MM.  Dussaud 
and  Cumont,15  but  the  star  Venus:  the 
lion  is  hers  and  the  group  of  crescent  and 
solar  disk  on  coins.  The  lion-god  called  Gen- 


I  and  2.    The  Bull  and  the  Ploughman:    From  Saragossa. 

3.  The  Iberian  Horseman:     From  Jelsa. 

4.  Isis'sBull:     From  "Las  dos  Hermanas." 
Sand  6.     Coins  of  Heliopolis  showing  the  Stair  and  the 



naios,  lodged  in  the  sanctuary,  is  figured 
on  coins  of  Berytus.16  She  was  approxi- 
mated to  Juno  and  to  Isis.  The  third 
member  of  the  trinity  was  a  son,  Hermes 
or  Simios,  sometimes  a  daughter  Simia. 
About  this  figure  Dr.  Frothingham  has 
made  some  investigation  of  great  value,17 
but  it  has  nothing  to  do  with  Santiago. 
The  western  devotion  in  its  patient  syn- 
cretism took  over  the  single  most  ancient 
figure  of  the  high  god,  leaving  the  rest. 
Even  that  early  dedication  by  Alfonso 
the  Chaste,  of  altars  to  S.  Saviour,  S.  Peter 
and  S.  John  will  not  lend  itself  here 
to  easy  accommodation,  though  I  have 
shown  the  tradition  of  another  triad  at  Pa- 
dr6n  which  corresponds  to  the  Syrian,  and 
though  I  yet  believe  that  the  dedication 
to  S.  Saviour  with  its  patronal  feast  of 
the  sixth  of  August,  the  Transfiguration, 
was  intended  to  glorify,  with  Rome  and 
Ephesus,  Compostella;  with  the  centre  of 
the  world,  the  east  and  the  west. 

For  Atargatis  and  the  cult  at  Hierapolis, 
we  haveLucian's  full  account, x  8  quite  trust- 
worthy as  to  what  he  saw,  very  dubious 



Not  of 
nor  even- 
ing is  thy 

at  Com- 



So,  Radix 
Jesse  qui 
stas  in 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

as  to  what  it  meant.  She  is  the  Syrian 
Hera,  she  sits,  girdled  with  sceptre  and 
distaff,  enthroned  between  lions,  her  mate  is 
Zeus  though  they  call  him  by  another  name, 
and  he  has  bulls  for  lions. 

Between  the  two  is  a  third  effigy  that  the 
Syrians  call  a  symbol,  it  possesses  no  parti- 
cular form  of  its  own  but  recalls  the  charac- 
teristics of  the  other  gods.  A  dove  broods 
above.  If  this  were  such  a  monstrous 
pair  of  entwined  serpents  as  appear  upon 
the  cup  of  Gudea,  it  would  go  far  to  explain 
why  in  the  romance  of  Philip  the  townsfolk 
are  called  serpent-worshippers,  but  Lucian 
would  have  recognized  a  caduceus  as  easily 
as  a  phallus:  —  he  saw  phalloi,  indeed, 
where  probably  there  were  none,  but  such 
twin  pillars  as  have  been  dug  up  at  Seville. 
He  could  not  have  said  that  the  snakes 
had  no  form  of  their  own. 

Dr.  Garstang  desires  to  elucidate19  the 
passage  by  reference  to  the  Hittites  and 
their  draped  pillars,  and  such  pillars  are 
known  to  Minoan  cults,  and  the  dressed 
Virgins  of  Spain  are  their  daughters.  In 
this  connexion  I  should  like  to  point  out 



that  the  figure  in  the  Gloria  which  I  have 
called  S.  James  Minor  and  which  is  usually 
interpreted  as  a  reduplication  of  the  Son 
of  Zebedee,  carries  as  his  attribute  a  Tau- 
staff  wrapped  around  with  cloths. 

At  Saragossa  there  was  moreover  a  very 
ancient  and  long-enduring  Pillar-cult,30 
existent  before  the  Moorish  invasion  and 
known  to  all  travellers  today.  The  evi- 
dence for  that  will  be  found  in  Appendix  I; 
and  the  facts  in  the  case,  so  far  as  we  can 
make  out  the  traces  of  them,  are  as  follows: 

Before  the  Moors  a  tomb  was  wor- 
shipped, a  light  shone  about  the  city. 
They  received  and  held  both  beliefs.  The 
Pillar  of  carved  marble  which  was  visible 
outside  the  mosque,  and  which  determined 
the  mihr&b,  in  which  it  was  incorporate, 
was  a  marvel,  a  wonder,  and  a  Holy  Thing. 
The  White  Town  was  not  so  called  because 
the  walls  were  whitened,  but  conversely; 
perhaps  because  every  several  gate  was  one 
pearl.  It  had  several  characteristics  that 
we  recognize  in  the  Happy  Other  World. 
The  Christian  church  in  Saragossa  survived 
throughout  the  Moorish  domination  and 



The  Pillar 







had  every  chance  to  preserve  its  traditions. 
The  Moors  associated  the  Tomb  there  with 
one  of  the  Companions  of  the  Lord  (no 
matter  which  Lord)  and  also  associated 
Saragossa  with  Tortosa. 

After  the  conquest  of  the  city  in  1 1 18  the 
sacredness  of  the  church  was  reaffirmed; 
the  image  may  have  been  brought  in  then 
from  the  other  side  of  the  Pyrenees,  but  the 
Pillar  was  there.  Conversely,  there  is  a 
trace  of  a  Pillar-cult  at  Santiago  de  Com- 
postella,  in  that  shaft  which  held  up  the 
original  altar  of  S.  James,  which  the  Dis- 
ciples, it  is  said,  brought  from  Jerusalem  but 
whichFather  Fita  shows  they  could  not  have 
brought:  it  was  made  over  to  the  Monks  of 
Antealtares  as  compensation  for  losing  the 
Sepulchre.  Sir  Arthur  Evans  reports  the 
existence  of  Pillar-cults  in  the  Balearic 
Isles,  and  publishes  Minoan  gems  that  show 
a  tree  standing  in  the  temenos  quite  like 
the  pine  at  Iria,  and  a  pillar  in  the  shrine 
like  that  of  Santiago. 2  x 

In  1253  a  confraternity  of  the  V  it  gen  del 
Pilar  was  established  at  the  taking  of 
Seville,  that  is  good  testimony  for  the 



relative  antiquity  of  the  cult.  In  1456,  a 
bull  of  Calixtus  III  affirmed  the  tradition, 
in  1459  John  II  of  Aragon  gave  privileges, 
in  1504  Ferdinand  the  Catholic,  King  of 
Aragon,  assisted  in  promoting  the  devotion. 
Pray  Lamberto,  who  represents  local  tradi- 
tion, claims  as  the  earliest  bishops  the  two 
Companions  of  the  Apostle  S.  James,  who 
may  be  substituted  for  the  Geographer's 
Companions  of  the  Prophet;  and  they 
involved  in  the  beginning  the  Sepulchre, 
that  their  charge  was  to  guard.  He  asso- 
ciates with  Saragossa,  Tortosa  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Ebro,  and  claims  for  Saragossa  in 
Spain  what  Tortosa  in  Syria  claims,  the 
first  church  built  to  Our  Lady  in  all  the 
world.  If  the  Lady  of  the  Doves  was  wor- 
shipped at  Heliopolis,  and  probably  Tortosa, 
along  with  a  bull-god  and  a  Pillar,  and  since 
the  coins  of  Saragossa  in  Roman  times  show 
the  bull-god  as  well  as  the  horseman,  then 
we  have  at  Saragossa  all  the  conditions  of 
the  same  cult. 

There  are  other  parallels  at  Hierapolis 
curious  to  note,  like  that  brightness  of  the 
temple  at  night  which  proceeds  here  from  a 



A  Borja  of 

Adad,  Our 
Lady  and 
a  Pillar 



WAY    OF     S.  JAMES 

stone  in  the  goddess's  calathos,  and  the 
stepped  pool  at  the  shrine  described  in 
Maundrell's  Travels 2  2  and  in  ThorkuTs  Vis- 
ion.  The  fragrance,  which  not  only  fills  the 
temple  but  hangs  in  your  garments,  has 
been  preserved  for  us  also  in  the  Legend  of 
S.  Isidore  with  the  same  vivid  phrasing, "  so 
that  it  hung  long  in  the  hair  and  beard 
of  those  about,"  as  Redempto  says  or 
another. 2  3  Lucian's  account  throughout  has 
the  tang  of  actual  memory,  and  it  is  not 
easily  forgotten: 

The  ascent  to  the  temple  is  built  of 
wood  and  is  not  particularly  wide;  as  you 
mount  even  the  great  hall  exhibits  a 
wonderful  spectacle  and  it  is  ornamented 
with  golden  doors.  The  temple  within 
is  ablaze  with  gold  and  the  ceiling  in  its 
entirety  is  golden.  There  falls  upon 
you  also  a  divine  fragrance  such  as  is 
attributed  to  the  region  of  Arabia,  which 
breathes  on  you  with  refreshing  influence 
as  you  mount  the  long  steps,  and  even 
when  you  have  departed  this  fragrance 
clings  to  you;  nay,  your  very  raiment 
retains  long  that  sweet  odour,  and  it 



will  ever  remain  in  your  memory.  But 
the  temple  within  is  not  uniform.  A 
special  sacred  shrine  is  reared  within  it; 
the  ascent  to  this  likewise  is  not  steep, 
nor  is  it  fitted  with  doors,  but  is  entirely 
open  as  you  approach  it.  The  great 
temple  is  open  to  all.  *4 

Besides  the  beardless  Zeus,  the  Goddess, 
and  the  symbol  set  up  under  a  baldachin 
and  topped  with  a  dove,  Macrobius  de- 
scribes a  bearded  Helios,  armed,  with  cala- 
thos  and  spear,  women  below  him  some- 
how involved  with  serpents.  Hierapolis 
was  a  famous  pilgrimage  place.  Many  cir- 
cumstances of  the  feasts, 2  5 — the  throngs 
of  strangers,  the  ritual,  the  carrying  of  the 
image,  the  emotion,  —  suggest  what  we 
know  of  Santiago  in  the  crowded  centuries, 
and  Lucian  and  Sobieski  are  very  com- 
parable in  what  they  report,  though  the 
details  are  more  often  diverse.  Those 
sacred  songs  to  the  sound  of  castanets, 
those  dancing  men,  like  the  saises  of  Seville 
where  the  Syrian  goddess  once  was  wor- 
shipped with  spring  processions  in  the 
streets  and  the  annual  wailing  for  her  lover, 




of  Tudela 
page  33a 





1.  From 


2.  From 

lers to 

3.  From 
to  the 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

seem  as  though  they  belonged  on  Asian  soil. 
The  customs  came  probably  unawares,  as 
men  settled  and  practised  their  own  wor- 
ship in  their  own  way,  but  architectural 
likeness  would  be  carried  as  men  travelled. 
Macrobius  and  Lucian  were  both  known 
to  the  whole  Middle  Age,  and  well  known; 
if  there  were  knowledge  in  bull-worship- 
ping Spain  of  the  bull-god  of  Heliopolis, 
and  in  the  City  of  the  Pillar  of  the 
pillar  at  Hierapolis,  and  in  the  land  of 
Santiago  of  the  statue  which  expressed 
nearly  every  function  and  every  attribute 
of  the  Tribal  Hero,  the  descriptions  would 
be  scanned  and  the  sanctuary  examined. 
The  early  pilgrims  all  knew  Baalbek, 
S.  Jerome's  Paula  no  less  than  S.  Silva 
of  Aquitaine,25  Burchard  no  less  in  the 
thirteenth  than  Mukaddasi  in  the  tenth. 
There  was  a  bishop  there  who  might  even 
take  a  journey  into  Spain,  like  that  other 
Syrian  bishop  whom  S.  Isidore  confuted 
and  convinced;  as  doubtless  Benjamin  of 
Tudela  was  not  the  only  traveller  to  talk 
with  men  who  had  looked  on  idols.  Euse- 
bius  writing  on  the  Theophany  records  that 



the  ancient  worship  was  not  yet  abated. 
In  the  time  of  Valens  the  orgies 2  6  still  went 
on.  Now  Theodosius  followed  Valens,  and 
may  well  have  had  the  same  impulse  as 
his  contemporary  Ambrose  at  Milan,  to 
consecrate  what  he  could  not  extirpate. 

Along  the  Eastern  Road. 

Nimrod  is  lost  in  Orion, 
and  Osiris  in  the  Dog-Star, 
—  Sir  Thomas  Browne. 

I  have  shown  in  earlier  chapters  how  in 
certain  aspects  the  sanctuary  of  Santiago 
resembles  Jerusalem,  as  in  the  sepulchre 
and  the  chain,  or  Constantinople,  as  in 
the  crown  and  the  notion  of  three  churches 
one  over  the  other.  These  likenesses  are 
deliberate.  Other  things  included  in  Thur- 
kill's  description  have  not  been  explained, 
as  we  can  explain  the  weighing  of  the  souls, 
and  the  devil  on  a  great  black  horse. 
Chief  of  these  are  the  stepped  pool  and 
the  stairway  through  which  you  look  up 
to  the  altar.    That  stairway  was  described 



Objects  at 
Sion  and 

Scales  and 



The  Great 
Stair  and 


(Pages  205 

Our  Lady 
of  the 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

by  Lucian  as  he  saw  it  at  Hierapolis,  and 
the  great  steps  with  the  vista  through  the 
propylaeum  and  hexagonal  court  even  into 
the  Basilica  of  Theodosius,  were  there  at 
Heliopolis  likewise,  and  they  were  figured 
on  the  coins, *  and  they  impressed  Puchstein 
when  he  was  digging  for  the  German 
emperor.2  The  coin  of  Philip  and  the 
drawing  of  Mr.  Pennell,  which  both  adorn 
this  book,  express  identical  architectural 
inventions,  and  Aymery's  description  of 
the  western  staircase  at  Santiago  supplies 
a  third  instance.  The  steps  and  the  vista 
are  not  in  the  least  Greek.  There  is 
nothing  like  them  in  any  account  of  Jerusa- 
lem, they  are  found  nowhere  in  Rome.  At 
one  shrine  in  France  they  may  be  seen, 
where  the  doors  that  close  them  at  the  foot 
were  made  by  Syrian  workmen,  and  that 
is  the  sanctuary  of  the  Mountain  Mother, 
Notre  Dame  du  Puy.  There  were  Syrian 
architects  in  Spain  as  well,  along  the 
Catnino  francSs,  and  Sr.  Lamp6rez  postu- 
lated their  share,  although  reserving  his 
evidence,  in  the  building  of  the  cathedral 
at  Compostella. 3 



Let  us  not  have  over  this,  if  any  one  is 
ever  well-disposed  toward  the  notion,  such 
unseemly  wrangling  for  precedency  as  in 
the  case  of  Toulouse:  let  us  say  that  in 
both  cases  the  architectural  impetus  was 
Syrian,  and  the  Storm  God  and  the  Moun- 
tain Mother  alike  were  domiciled  in  the 
west.  The  consistent  syncretism  of  the 
early  centuries  of  our  era  was  capable  of 
this  and  more. 

The  high  god  of  Compostella  had  taken 
up  into  himself  all  the  worships,  all  the 
devotions  that  reached  his  shrine,  and  they 
were  many.  They  were  borne  in  the  dust 
of  marching  legions,  of  wandering  peddlars, 
of  returning  pilgrims  and  crusaders.  His 
sanctuary  was  like  the  Syrian  goddess's, 
"with  something  of  the  traits  of  all  others,"  4 
Jerusalem,  Byzance,  and  Baalbek. 

There  is  no  other  account  that  explains 
all  the  facts.  There  is  no  improbability  d 
priori.  The  objection  that  in  a  Christian 
country  S.  James  could  not  have  come  so 
near  to  being  God,  will  hardly  stand.  His 
would  not  be  the  first  devotion  that  thought 
it  not  robbery  to  be  equal  with  God.    The 



. . .  Y  aqud 
monie  es  la 

donde  os  ha 
de  velar 



early  church  when  it  was  struggling  for 
existence  with  all  the  other  Syrian  cults, 
and  Egyptian,  and  Anatolian,  and  Asiatic 
from  further  east,  was  willing  to  identify 
Christ  with  the  sun,5  and  on  a  glass  the 
head  of  Christ  is  the  rayed  bust  of  Sol 
Sanctissimus.6  The  Manichaeans  identi- 
fied Him  with  the  sun:  the  Armenians  then 
and  still,  it  is  credibly  asserted,  as  Chris- 
tians have  always  worshipped  the  sun. 
S.  Bridget  in  Celtic  Ireland  was  identified 
with  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary, 7  the  local 
divinity  with  the  exotic,  she  was  called 
Mary  of  the  Gaels,  "the  mother  of  my  celes- 
tial king,"  and  one  verse  of  a  hymn  prays 
"that  she  will  root  out  from  us  the  vices 
of  the  flesh,  she  the  budded  rod,  she  the 
mother  of  Jesus."  Reville  and  Cumont 
are  authorities  respectable  even  to  the 
orthodox,  and  the  facts  about  S.  Bridget 
are  given  by  Don  Louis  Gougaud  in  the 
Bibliothhque  de  V  enseignement  de  Vhistoire 
eccttsiastique.  These  parallels  have  suffi- 
cient weight,  it  is  hoped  As  late  as  the 
twelfth  century  the  most  astonishing 
implications  were  used  for  their  emotional 




value  at  Santiago  in  Fulbert's  Mass,  and 
still  more  amazing  phrases  in  Queen 
Elvira's  donation  fifty  years  earlier.  S. 
James  was  still  the  high  god,  his  was  the 
worship  and  the  kingdom,  his  the  power 
and  the  glory. 

The  ultimate  fact  is  the  worship:8  reli- 
gions come  and  pass  again;  that  changes 

As  the  soul  whence  each  was  born  makes 

room  for  each, 
God  by  God  goes  out,  discrowned  and 

But  the  soul  stands  fast  that  gave  them 

shape  and  speech. 



The  state 
of  the  case, 
page  488 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 







WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 



Now  I  face  home  again,  very  pleased  and  joyous, 
But  where  is  what  I  started  for  so  long  ago, 
And  why  is  it  yet  unfound? 

—  Leaves  of  Grass. 





I  love  and  understand 
One  thing:  with  staff  and 

To  walk  a  wild  west  land, 
The  winds  my  fellowship. 
—  Lionel  Johnson. 

Who  goes  in  pilgrimage  to  a  god  must 
await  his  word:  or  soon  or  long,  he  can- 
not leave  till  he  has  his  answer.  It  is  well 
to  abide  in  expectation,  and  make  not  haste 
in  time  of  trouble.  I  have  waited,  some- 
times, on  the  great  S.  James,  but  I  never 
went  away  without  the  word.  And  how- 
ever much  a  man  had  longed  to  set  out 
upon  the  journey  when  spring  came  and 
he  smelt  the  fresh  clods  in  his  own  land, 
and  with  whatever  delight  he  had  packed 
a  bag  and  taken  passage  in  a  ship,  yet  it  was 



ly abide" 



En  Castillo, 
cotito  antes 

regocijo  de 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

never  without  content,  when  the  time  came, 
that  he  turned  his  face  toward  home, 
"as  one  that  travels  toward  the  darken- 
ing east/'  this  being  helped,  perhaps,  by 
a  growing  bodily  weariness.  Antonio  had 
said,  once,  in  our  hearing,  that  you  can't  go 
through  life  as  you  go  through  a  fair: 
Andar  por  el  mundo  como  una  romcria. 
I  was  going  home,  now,  coming  "back  to 
do  my  day's  work  in  my  day."  Like  the 
pilgrims,  who  were  wont  to  set  out  upon  the 
return  journey  in  the  early  morning, x  I  was 
ready  betimes. 

Before  leaving  Galicia  there  were  ac- 
counts to  settle.  Some  Spaniards  still 
assert,  Sr.  Casanova,  for  instance,  that 
Santiago  came  down  ready  made  like  the 
New  Jerusalem  out  of  heaven.  After  read- 
ing all  that  could  be  secured  of  what  he 
wrote  and  some  others,  and  composing  an 
exact  and  careful  refutation  of  it,  I  have 
put  that  in  the  fire.  The  truth  about  San- 
tiago, Street  declared,  and  Lamperez,  and 
I  have  shown  up  perhaps  a  point  or  two, 
and  Santiago  can  take  care  of  himself. 
So  I  am  not  careful  to  denounce  the  ac- 



complished  lady  who  has  written  of  San- 
tiago in  the  series  of  the  Mediaeval  Towns. 
She  gives  herself  away  on  every  page,  as 
one  blind-folded  whom  the  blind  have  led. 
As  for  the  symbolism  of  the  sculptures 
about  the  western  door,  they  must  be  read 
in  the  light  of  the  twelfth  century:  not 
what  one  thinks  of  one's  self,  but  what  the 
Middle  Age  thought,  and  read  and  recited 
must  explain  them. 

The  Portico  of  Visions. 

Of  stones  full  precious  are 

thy  walls, 
thy  gates  of  pearles  are  tolde, 
There  is  that  Alleluia  sung 

in  streetes  of  beaten  gold. 
—  W.  Prid. 

I  The  theme  of  Master  Matthew's  porch 
is  Apocalyptic,  but  the  sources  of  the 
imagery  are  to  be  found  less  precisely  in 
the  twenty-first  chapter  of  the  Revelation 
of  S.  John  the  Divine  than  in  the  mediaeval 
literature  of  Visions,  the  Apocalypse  of 
Paul,  the  Vision  of  Tundall  and  Thurkill's 



ddeite  de 
romeros  y 
alivio  de 

The  Gloria 


farers  from 
of  old 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Vision  in  especial.  To  Paul's  Vision  may 
be  attributed  three  elements,  of  which  the 
first  is  the  company  of  the  caressing  angels 
who  receive  and  defend  the  soul  of  the  just 
man  newly  dead,  and  present  it  before  God. 
Another  passage  explains  the  odd  little 
figures  set  high  on  the  door-jambs  at  the 
transept  portals,  by  explaining  their  pro- 
totypes at  Cremona.  These  are  Enoch 
and  Elijah,  who  receive  the  soul  at  the 
gates  of  the  Heavenly  City.  Finally,  in 
the  midst  of  the  city  is  an  altar  and  there 
"David  stands  with  harp  in  hands  as 
master  of  the  Quire "  precisely  as  he  sits 
on  the  outer  wall  at  Orense,  and  sat  once  at 
Santiago  before  the  facade  was  rebuilt.1 
The  Apocalypse  of  Paid  is  as  old  as  the 
fourth  century  in  Greek  and  was  known  to 
the  whole  western  church.  The  two  pass- 
ing quotations  from  a  rendering  of  S.  Peter 
Damian  of  which  I  have  made  much  use,  one 
about  the  angels  and  the  trees  and  the  other 
about  David  as  choirmaster,  may  serve  to 
illustrate  its  currency  in  the  eleventh  cen- 
Tundall's  Vision  was  seen  in  1149  and 



written  before  1 1 53 :  the  striking  parallel  it 
offers  to  the  north  aisle  door  has  been  al- 
ready noted.  The  punishment  of  carnal 
sinners, 2  is  equally  close  to  the  imagery  of 
the  south  aisle  door.  Other  passages  fall 
pat  to  the  pilgrims'  story: 

They  passed  from  that  pain 
And  comen  to  a  great  mountain, 
That  was  both  great  and  high 
There  on  he  heard  a  doleful  cry:3 


and  the  Pont  qui  tremble  is  described: 
All  quaking  that  bridge  ever  was.4 

Lastly  the  insistence  not  only  on  the 
number  but  on  the  variety  of  musical  in- 
struments in  Paradise,  explains  the  va- 
riety here  in  the  archivolt,  where  at 
Moissac,  for  instance,  you  have  simply 
two  dozen  fiddles. 

ThurkilTs  Vision, s  determined  as  it  was 
by  the  accounts  of  returning  travellers, 
supplies  the  fresh  cool  green  stuff  underfoot, 
beneath  the  sitting  Christ  and  S.  James, 
which,  also,  I  think,  is  unique  at  Santiago. 



.  .  .  Quia 
mens  pro- 
longatus est 



He  made 
the  world 

to  be  a 
grassy  road 


ThurkiU  had  greatly  desired  to  make 
the  pilgrimage  to  Compostella,  as  appears 
where  S.  Julian  speaks  of  "Thy  Lord  S. 
James  to  whom  thou  hast  already  put  it 
up  in  prayer  ":  he  must  have  talked  with 
returning  pilgrims,  and  got  together  un- 
commonly detailed  information  about  the 
place,  which  serves  at  times  to  complete 
our  knowledge.  In  the  account  of  the 
vision  quoted  with  but  little  condensation 
from  Ward's  translation,  in  Appendix  VII, 
I  have  indicated  in  brackets  the  bearing 
of  the  several  details: — beginning  with  the 
Causeway,  which  is  the  camino  de  Santiago, 
and  green  grass  unwithering,  which  is  the 
path  of  redemption  of  sins,  and  corresponds 
to  the  scorched  track  that  marked  the 
way  from  Eden  of  Adam  and  Eve. 6  The 
church  of  Mountjoy  is  confused,  as  hearsay 
knowledge  is  usually,  with  the  church  of 
the  Apostle,  and  the  vista  up  the  long  steps 
and  through  the  open  door,  even  to  the 
altar,  confirms  the  theory  that  the  first 
portal,  at  the  west,  was  like  that  of  Le 

If,  as  there  seems  a  possibility,  the  idea 



of  that  stairway  and  portal  was  carried  to 
Santiago  from  Hierapolis,  then  Le  Puy 
will  have  borrowed  it.  Indeed,  Sr.  Lam- 
perez  has  already  pointed  out  that  the 
doorway  of  S.  Michel  de  1' Aiguille,  in  the 
same  town,  so  much  resembles  the  cusping 
about  the  tribunes,  outside  the  apse  of 
Santiago,  and  so  closely  corresponds  to 
that  of  what  was  once  the  Mihrab  at  Cor- 
dova, that  we  are  justified  in  the  hypo- 
thesis of  an  influence  flowing  northward 
into  France,  Hispano-Mahomedan  in  its 
nature. 7 

The  Chantier. 

Par    Dios,    seHores,  qui- 

temos  el  veto 
que    turba     y    ciega    asi 

nuestra  vista. 
F errant  Sanchez  Talavera. 

Again,  there  is  the  question  of  the 
chantier.  The  cathedral  works  were  a 
permanent  corporation,  or  very  nearly. 
Before  or  about  the  year  iooo,  the  Spanish 
historians  say,  Spain  was  not  so  preoccu- 



before  thy 



A  white 
robe  of 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

pied  with  terror  of  the  end  of  the  world,  as 
were  the  northern  peoples.  Spain  was  occu- 
pied with  Almanzor.  But  about  the  same 
time  as  the  rest  of  Europe  put  on  its  white 
robe  of  churches,  the  Bishop  and  the  King 
undertook  to  restore  to  S.  James  his  sanctu- 
ary in  better  form.  This  was  certainly 
not  finished  until  the  middle  of  the  century, 
and  by  the  end  of  the  third  quarter  all 
was  in  train  for  the  great  rebuilding.  The 
builders  of  Alfonso  III  were  probably  all 
Spanish  or  Oriental;  the  builders  of  the 
eleventh  century  knew  Burgundy,  for  they 
planned  for  towers,  and  reared  them. 
The  absence  of  towers,  reasoned  Sr.  Soler 
about  Sahagun,  is  an  argument  that  the 
builder  was  not  French.  The  argument 
may  count  for  what  it  is  worth:  S.  Isidore 
has  not  twin  western  towers  (possibly  for 
special  reasons)  but'the  building  is  admitted 
as  French,  and  the  elder  part  accepted 
for  work  of  Ferdinand's  dedication,  1063. 
That  would  make  the  elder  Santiago  and 
the  elder  S.  Isidore  quite  contemporary. 
The  point  is,  here,  that  though  the  great 
Santiago  was  not  commenced  before  1078, 



the  chantier  had  already  those  characteris- 
tics which  we  have  loosely  called  Benedic- 
tine and  Burgundian  Romanesque,  and 
workmen  were  passing  along  the  Way. 
Thus  whatever  is  taken  away  with  one 
hand,  is  restored  with  the  other.  The 
master-workmen  of  the  twelfth  century 
were  trained  in  the  great  French  monastic 
style  that  is  often  called  Auvergnat,  that 
produced  S.  Faith  of  Conques,  S.  Martial 
of  Limoges,  S.  Sernin  of  Toulouse;  and  such 
smaller  churches  as  those  of  S.  Gaudens, 
Burlatz,  Alet,  Marcillac  and  Figeac; x  they 
directed  men  who  understood  the  style, 
for  these  had  received  from  the  same 
sources  a  little  further  up-stream.  What- 
ever may  be  the  case  with  the  sculptures 
at  Leon,  there  is  no  particular  reason  to 
suppose  that  the  architect  Petrus  de  Deo, 
who  was  buried  at  Leon  in  his  church 
(consecrated  1149)  was  trained  at  Com- 
postella.  Workmen  must  have  passed 
along  the  roads  and  the  better  ones  being 
fetched  to  Compostella  would  stay  there, 
and  not  go  home,  so  that  S.  Isidore,  for 
instance,  would  get  the  first  chance  as 





Petrus  de 




not  always 


they  went  by.  But  S.  Isidore  could 
import  architects  for  himself,  as  we  know 
that  Avila  did. 

As  the  workers  in  stone  constituted  a 
single  craft,  it  is  difficult  to  discuss  the 
sources  of  architecture  apart  from  sculpture. 
We  have  to  remember,  however,  that,  at 
any  rate  in  lesser  places,  which  depended 
on  the  Road  for  their  supply,  the  structure 
and  the  decoration  may  be  quite  unlike. 
For  instance,  the  decorative  style  of 
Santiago,  in  capitals,  mouldings,  flowers, 
cornices,  and  even  figures,  was  used  very 
widely:  in  parish  churches  that  stay, 
structurally,  as  completely  within  their 
proper  style  as  the  English,  like  Noya; 
in  straight  Burgundian  monastic,  like 
Carboeiro;  in  pure  cathedral-building,  like 
Orense.  The  most  surprising  instance  of 
this  law  occurred  at  Santiago,  where  on 
Auvergnat  structure  was  imposed  a  Poite- 
vin  scheme,  and  workmanship  of  Toulouse; 
the  most  absurd  at  Sanguesa,  where  on 
one  portal  the  jambs  go  back  to  Chartres, 
the  tympanum  to  Moissac,  and  the  upper 
part  to  Poitou. 



It  has  been  proposed,  unnecessarily  as  I 
think,  to  consider  the  portal  sculpture  at 
S.  Isidore  a  back-wash  from  Santiago.  The 
capitals  go  with  the  building,  they  are  not 
Toulousan,  but  the  tympana  and  figures 
about  the  doors  belong,  directly  or  in- 
directly, to  the  school  of  Toulouse.  In 
discussing  them  I  accounted  for  their  ap- 
pearance in  Leon,  by  a  synthesis  of  what 
ivories,  the  antique,  and  the  style  of 
Toulouse  could  give.  All  over  northern 
Spain,  in  the  twelfth  century,  the  style  of 
Toulouse  appears,  from  Soria  to  Oviedo, 
and  in  every  halting-place  along  the  pil- 
grim's road.  Not  all  the  workmen  had 
seen  Toulouse :  the  situation  may  be  under- 
stood by  considering  the  practice  and  the 
appearance  in  about  1895,  of  Impressionist 
painters  in  America  who  had  never  seen 
France,  or  in  this  year  of  grace,  191 7,  of 
Futurists  who  know  not  Milan.  In  the 
twelfth  century  the  wealth,  as  in  the  thir- 
teenth century  the  wretchedness,  of  Lan- 
guedoc,  scattered  its  sons  abroad.  In  the 
eleventh  and  the  twelfth  century  the  courts 
of  the  south  were  sought  by  everyone  who 




School  of 




lived  by  the  arts;  and  all  the  courts  in  turn. 
There  was  a  current  of  trobadors  circling 
in  the  great  stream  of  pilgrims  like  a  dance 
of  motes  in  a  ray  of  sunlight.  Juan 
Rodriguez  of  Padron,  Macias  o  N  amor  ado, 
and  that  Peter  of  Palencia  who  died  of 
love  for  a  grand-niece  of  Diego  Gelmirez, 
will  serve  for  one  instance,  the  complete 
understanding  of  many  and  various  instru- 
ments of  music  by  quite  provincial  carvers, 
for  another,  of  this  free  circulation  of 
artists.  In  the  end,  the  designation  school 
of  Toulouse,  ceases  to  stand  for  locality 
and  names  a  style:  consider,  for  instance, 
the  Christ,  published  by  Senor  Moreno, 
from  5.  Maria  de  Tera,2  or  the  pair  of 
apostles  from  S.  Juan  de  Rabaneyra,  in 
Soria;  the  former  is  low  provincial  work, 
the  latter  very  noble,  both  are  entirely 
Spanish,  but  the  style  is  Toulousan  in  the 
same  sense  in  which  Venetian  marbles 
and  Sicilian  mosaics  are  Byzantine.  The 
style  is  positive;  easy  to  distinguish  from 
that  of  Aries;  not  so  easy,  from  that  of 
Vezelay.  At  present  it  cannot  be  dated 



Of  the  sculpture  at  Santiago  we  know 
nothing  certainly  earlier  than  the  chantier 
of  the  present  church.  Of  the  carved 
columns  and  lintel  that  Alfonso  HI  im- 
ported, not  a  fragment  has  been  found. 
They  would  have  had  elements  perhaps 
immediately  oriental,  that  are  absent 

But  the  carving  at  the  south  door  is  not 
by  Toulousan  workmen.  Some  of  it  is 
provincial — the  shafts,  lovely  though  they 
be,  conceived  as  decoration.  A  great  deal  of 
that  which  stretches  across  the  face  of  the 
wall  above,  is  affected  by  the  school  of 
Chartres.  Between  some  of  the  figures 
high  in  the  west  corner,  and  the  so-called 
King  David  of  the  Porte  Royale,  the 
likeness  is  strong,  and  when  you  have  once 
caught  it,  then  you  see  it  also  in  the  strange 
central  figures  of  Christ  and  S.  James. 
The  placing  of  these  great  statues  above 
the  door  and  not  about  it,  the  absurd  little 
saints  fastened  up  on  the  jamb  face  as 
Brunehault  hung  her  intending  spouses 
on  the  wall,  the  plastic  irrelevancy  and 
incoherency  of  the  tympana,  are  all  marks 




School  of 



WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

of  provincialism:  the  chantier  had  more 
dexterity  than  imagination.  The  Cathe- 
dral, lying  off  there  at  the  edge  of  the 
world,  was  rich  as  in  a  fairy  tale:  it  could 
buy  genius,  but  it  could  not  buy  centrality. 

Excursus  on  Some  Twelfth  Century  Sculp- 

Felix  per  otnnes  Dei  plebs  ecclesias 
Devotee  laudis  Christo  reddat  hostias  .  .  . 
—  William,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem. 

We  have  seen,  from  time  to  time,  an- 
other current  than  that  of  French  architec- 
ture manifest  itself,  which  is  Italian,  at  S. 
Juan  de  la  Pena  and  S.  Cruz,  Estella  and 
Torres,  Carrion  and  Moarbes,  Leon,  Tuy, 
possibly  Armentia.  At  S.  Sepulcro  of 
Torres  and  S.  Sepulcro  of  Estella  there  is 
positive  borrowing,  in  the  former  case 
from  Master  Benedetto's  tympanum  of  the 
Deposition,  in  the  latter,  of  the  Modena- 
Pistoja  Last  Supper.  At  S.  Cruz  and  at 
Torres,  as  at  Vera  Cruz  of  Segovia,  occurs 
the  same  odd  device  of  piercing  a  window 
through   two   walls,  one   curved,  at  the 



tangential  point,  and  the  only  other  cases 

of  this  I  know,  lie  in  Ban  and  the  region 
round  about  or  in  Asia  Minor.  At  S. 
Miguel  of  Estella  the  portal  sculptures  are 
carved  on  two  wide  steles  that  flank  the 
jambs,  as  at  S.  Zeno  of  Verona  and  S. 
Biagio  of  Orvieto. 

The  latter  may  be  ignored,  for  it  has  a 
different  life-history,  the  former  deserves 
consideration.  Work  was  begun  in  1130, 
upon  the  church  at  Verona,  and  Master 
William  and  Master  Nicholas  are  both 
named  in  inscriptions,  the  former  as  author, 
the  latter  as  sculptor.  They,  or  another 
pair  of  the  same  name,  had  worked  at  Lan- 
franc's  Modena,  begun  1099,  consecrated 
1 106;  and  at  Ferrara,  1135.  The  little  fig- 
ures set  in  the  mouldings  of  door-jambs  at 
Ferrara1  have  a  strong  positive  likeness  to 
the  school  of  S.  Juan  de  la  Pena.  Though 
M.  Emtle  Male  has  proved  the  debt  of  these 
to  France,  yet  no  other  work  there  has  such 
a  likeness  that  I  know  excepting  that  at 
Cremona,  placed  in  11 14,  from  which  the 
Apostles  of  S.  Miguel  de  Estella  are  copied, 
and  also  those  of  Verona.     Elsewhere, 





WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

A  Spaniard 





neither  the  figure  sculptures  nor  the  capi- 
tals resemble  work  in  Spain.  That  looks 
as  though  a  Spaniard  had  possibly  worked 
in  the  ehantier  at  Ferrara. 

Northern  motives  came  with  French 
knights  and  pilgrims  into  Italy.  The 
battle  of  Roncevaux  was  figured  upon  the 
pavement  at  Brindisi;  northern  knights 
like  those  of  Modem  on  a  side-door  at 
Ban,  where  also  are  found  two  labours  of 
the  months.  The  labours  and  the  knights 
are  in  conjunction  at  Modena  in  the 
Porta  de  la  Peschiera,  and  here  the  knights 
are  named:  Arthur  of  Britain,  Gawain, 
Kay,  amongst  others.  Roland  and  Oliver 
stand  on  the  outer  door-jambs  of  Verona 
cathedral  and  at  S.  Zeno  another  cycle 
appears,  where  Theodoric  as  the  Wild 
Huntsman  rides  to  Hell.  Bor  jo  S.  Donnino 
is  carved  with  pilgrimage  themes:  above 
the  two  prophets,  angels  lead  journeying 
families,  one  rich,  one  poor,  and  on  the 
tower  is  figured  a  long  progress  of  kings. 
What  happened  in  Spain  was  happening 
in  Italy  as  well.  Those  grand  prophets  of 
S.  Donnino,  with  their  high  cheekbones, 




their  curled  and  waving  beards,  their 
melon  cap,  who  belong  at  earliest  to  the 
last  quarter  of  the  twelfth  century,  have 
nothing  to  do  with  the  strange  figures  of 
Cremona,  one  with  an  Assyrian  cap  and 
beard,  all  without  necks,  who  are  not  yet 
entirely  disengaged  from  the  rectangular 
slab.  But  they  have  much  to  do  with  the 
art  of  S.  Denis  that  culminates  at  Chart  res; 
compare  them  with  the  elders  of  the 
Apocalypse,  the  so-called  King  David.2 
At  Parma,  close  by,  Master  Benedetto 
worked  long  like  a  good  Gothic  artist. 
The  tympanum  and  lintel  of  the  Doom,  the 
tympanum  of  the  Epiphany,  lead  straight 
back  into  France.  The  Solomon  and 
Sheba  might  be  matched  at  Strassbourg 
and  Pampeluna,  but  in  the  Solomon  the 
features  assume  already  the  cast  which  is 
more  marked  by  far  in  the  seated  prophets 
which  make  a  pendant  to  the  group,  and 
which  are  grander  if  less  lovely  than  the 
San  Donnino  figures.  In  the  Deposition 
of  the  Parma  cathedral,  the  Byzantine  as- 
serts itself,  seizing  the  opportunity  in  the 
slender  figures  of  the  Holy  Women,  just  as 




in  France 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

at  Armentla  in  Spain.  All  things  con- 
sidered, I  should  make  a  hypothesis  that 
work  went  on  at  the  same  time,  at  Parma, 
and  S.  Donnino,  that  the  prophets  were 
the  culmination  of  that  at  Parma,  and  that 
those  of  S.  Donnino  came  afterwards. 3  By 
this  time  the  thirteenth  century  is  well 

Meanwhile  the  west  front  of  Chartres, 4 
and  the  sculptures  of  Aries  and  S.  Gilles, 
were  long  since  finished.  The  artist  who 
at  S.  Domingo  de  Silos,  in  the  cloister, 
adapted  the  style  of  Toulouse  to  the  rec- 
tangular panels  of  corners  and  buttresses 
must  have  known  the  cloister  at  Aries. 
There  in  Provence,  in  the  north-west  and 
the  north-east  angle,  the  space  between  the 
statues  is  filled  by  one  or  more  scenes  in 
relief.  Lasteyrie  cites  an  epitaph,  in  the 
north  gallery,  of  1165  s,  that  puts  the 
work  in  the  second  third  of  the  century. 
The  reliefs  at  Armentla  I  believe  were  made 
with  direct  knowledge  of  those  at  Aries, 
for  they  have  the  same  distribution  into 
major  and  minor  scenes,  a  larger  and  a 
lower  relief,  but  there  must  have  been 



knowledge  of  the  work  at  Silos  also:  a 
capital  at  S.  Maria  de  Estibalez  is  identical 
with  one  at  Silos.  Lastly,  it  seems  likely 
that  men  who  had  learned  at  Silos,  worked 
in  Estella,  for  the  capitals  of  S.  Pedro  la 
Rua  are  copied  after  the  abbey,  and  the 
portal  of  S.  Miguel  is  decorated  with  reliefs 
disposed  in  large  rectangles.  But  the 
workmen  from  Aragon  who  carved  the 
figures  at  S.  Miguel  may  well  have  known 
the  arrangement  at  S.  Zeno. 

There  is,  of  course,  documentary  evi- 
dence that  workmen  from  Lombardy  passed 
into  Spain.  There  is  that  Raymundo 
Lombardo  whose  contract  Villanueva  pub- 
lished,6 who  worked  in  Catalonia  from 
1 1 75  with  four  other  Lombardos,  and  as 
many  masons.  There  are  Lombard  towers 
in  the  Valley  of  Andorra,  in  Catalonia,  at 
Segovia,  possibly  at  S.  Isidore  of  Leon, 
certainly  at  Valladolid  and  Zamora.  At 
Ripoll  in  Catalonia,  as  at  S.  Abbondio  of 
Como,  there  are  twin  western  towers.  The 
builders  seem  to  have  gone  where  they 
were  called,  but  they  worked  most  in  the 
wide  domains  of  the  kings  of  Aragon,  who 







Roman  art 


WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

had  intercourse  with  Italy  always.  At 
Ripoll  the  architecture  was  as  Lombard  as 
at  the  Seo  de  Urgell,  though  double  aisles 
and  seven  apses  made  something  more 
magnificent,  in  its  own  way,  than  the  Ital- 
ian models.  Ripoll,  like  Silos,  was  mon- 
astic and  not  cathedral,  by  the  way.  The 
source  of  the  facade  I  believe  must  be 
sought  not  in  the  arcaded  portals  of  France, 
but  in  Italian  memories  of  the  antique. 
The  one  thing  that  it  really  looks  like,  is  a 
Roman  triumphal  arch.  There  are  found 
the  narrative  and  dramatic  reliefs,  the 
figures  grouped  in  a  continuous  relation, 
the  superb  frieze  across  the  top.  Into  this 
is  set,  indeed,  a  church  door  instead  of  the 
open  archway  of  the  monument:  the  style, 
so  far  as  it  can,  changes  to  correspond. 
The  lions  in  the  lowest  range  are  the  lions 
of  Lombard  porches:  on  the  north  side,  the 
little  fabulous  figures  below  are  found  on 
the  Parma  Baptistery  and  on  the  south 
flank  at  Verona;  the  theme  of  David  and 

his  musicians  was  used  by  Master  Bene- 
detto at  Parma,  later  than  this,  and  I  dare 
say  by  mere  coincidence.    I  see  no  reason 



to  suppose  that  he  knew  Spain — if  there 
were  any  reason,  then  the  hypothetical 
Spaniard  who  worked  at  Ferrara  might 
have  passed  through  Ripoll  first  and  then 
Parma,  and  in  talking  things  over,  have 
mentioned  this.  The  labours  of  the  months 
at  Ripoll  belong  with  the  Italian  and  not 
the  French  series. 7 

In  the  past  I  have  said  that  this  great 
frontispiece  was  like  a  page  of  miniature, 
but  I  saw  afterwards  that  it  was  not.  It 
is  like  the  Arch  of  Titus.  To  that  Apo- 
calyptic Christ,  above  whose  head  the 
everlasting  doors  are  lifted  up,  and  his 
Apostoladoy  we  must  refer  the  lost  first 
relief  of  the  style  of  Carrion.  I  am  dis- 
posed to  place  it,  by  hypothesis,  in  the 
porch  of  S.  Zoyl.  At  Estella,  as  noted, 
the  roof  is  lifted  above  the  figure  of  Christ, 
in  a  curious  imitation.  The  reliefs  at 
Carrion  and  Moarbes  are  made  for  some 
similar  exaltation.  The  style  of  those 
strange  dancing  figures,  with  solemn 
curled  beards  and  priestly  tiaras,  like  Asian 
hierarchs,  is  different  from  the  sculpture 
of  the  narrative  reliefs  of  Moissac  and 



A  hypo- 

at  S.  Zoyl 


Adriatic  to 


Toulouse  on  the  one  hand,  and  is  related 
on  the  other  to  that  at  Ripoll. 

Yet  one  more  note  is  needed,  that  carries 
the  student  from  Grecian  waters  to  Atlantic : 
the  arrangement  of  wall-arcading  at  S. 
Nicholas  of  Ban  is  repeated  on  the  north 
transept  face  at  Tuy.  The  same  grouping 
of  arches,  though  the  result  is  rather 
different,  appears  on  the  western  doorways 
at  Oloron  and  Vauvant,  and  in  the  Cloture 
S.  Jean  at  Angers,  with  two  doors  under 
one  wider  circular  arch,  that  leaves  for 
tympanum  a  flattened  figure  bounded  by 
three  curves,  one  high  and  two  re-entrant. 
Here,  however,  the  interest  is  fixed  on  the 
wall-space;  there,  on  the  arching:  this  is 
the  converse  of  that. 

Summing  up  it  appears  that: 

i.  A  current  flowed  in  from  Italy, 
that  passed  by  the  crusaders,  route,  from 
Brindisi  through  the  Emilia  and  prob- 
ably around  the  Mediterranean  shore: 
across  the  southern  slope  of  the  eastern 

2.    There  was  intercourse  with  Pistoja 



on  account  of  S.  James;  with  Parma  and 
Ferrara  because  these  lay  on  the  Road; 
possibly  with  Verona  and  Modena,  for 
the  circulation  was  swift  and  strong  in 
the  north  of  Italy. 

3.  Ripoll,  and  S.  Juan  de  la  Pefia, 
sent  severally  influences  westward:  that 
of  S.  Juan  may  be  traced  in  the  sculp- 
tures at  Estella,  the  style  in  the  north 
portal,  and  in  parts  of  the  western,  at 
Leon,  and  is  the  source  of  the  style  of 
Soria  and  some  of  Carrion;  the  influence 
of  Ripoll,  and  also  of  Toulouse  via  Ripoll, 
in  S.  Sepulcro  of  Estella  and  the  Carrion 

4.  The  figures  above  the  portal,  on 
the  transept  at  Santiago,  owe  something 
to  Chartres  but  something  to  Carrion,  in 
cast  of  feature  and  hair  and  beard. 

5.  The  figures  of  Master  Benedetto  at 
Parma  and  S.  Donnino  (if  indeed  the 
latter  are  his)  and  those  of  Master  Mat- 
thew, are  curiously  alike  in  some  ways, 
as  is  only  natural  since  they  both  drew 
from  the  same  sources. 

6.  In  Santiago,  while  Toulouse  and 
Vezelay  are  strong,  Carrion  and  Chartres 
are  also  present. 






i.  Transept 

2.  Cloister 

3.  Porch 


Workmen  of  S.  James. 

Mifia  terra,  mifia  terra, 
mifia  terra  y-en  ciqui, 
anxos  do  cey-o  levaime 
d  terra  oud'  en  nacin. 
—  Can  tar  Gall  ego. 

At  the  time  of  the  first  consecration  of 
Santiago,  1102,  the  transept  portals  were 
probably  in  use,  though  they  need  not  have 
been  completely  finished.  In  France,  how- 
ever, and  I  think  in  Spain,  though  not  in 
Italy,  the  stone  was  usually  carved  before 
it  was  set.  This  may  be  observed  at  S. 
Pedro  of  Soria.  In  the  time  of  Aymery 
Picaud,  all  three  were  completely  finished, 
for  he  mentions  no  work  going  on.  The 
carvers  were  probably,  in  the  middle  years 
of  the  century,  engaged  on  the  cloister:  in 
1 168  Master  Matthew  began  work  on  the 
Gloria.  The  date  of  1 102  is  important  as  a 
terminus  ad  quern  for  Chartres  and  Toulouse : 
these  distant  French  chantiers  are  responsi- 
ble for  work  finished  that  year  in  Galicia. 
The  style  of  Master  Matthew  is  very 
different;  racy,  and  in  his  pupils  homely. 
He  knew  Vezelay  as  someone  a  century 



before  him  had  known  Chartres:  and  Char- 
tres  perhaps  he  even  knew,  for  the  great 
art  there  has  left  its  mark  on  his  figures. 
His  genius  could  bend  stone,  flush  it,  warm 
it,  but  time  and  space  were  stronger.  His 
genius,  like  Dante's,  sums  up  the  Middle 
Age,  but  the  Gloria  of  Santiago,  like  the 
Divine  Comedy,  has  not  in  any  real  sense 
fait  tcole. 

It  was  copied,  of  course,  with  exactitude 
afr  Orense,  and  once  was  deliberately  imi- 
tated superbly  at  Avila.  On  the  south 
porch  of  Avila  the  statues  of  a  king  and 
queen  are  copied  from  two  at  Autun  that 
once  adorned  the  shrine  of  S.  Lazarus1: 
this  I  have  already  noted.  But  while  the 
narthex  (I  think  S.  Lamperez  has  said  it 
somewhere)  is  pure  Burgundian,  and  the 
tympanum  sculptures  there  are  copied, 
like  the  scroll  on  the  archivolt,  from 
Avallon,  and  the  draperies  show  a  first- 
hand knowledge  of  work  at  Vezelay,  the 
statues  themselves  turn  and  stand  and 
hold  converse  together  after  the  same 
wise  as  the  Compostellan,  and  the  Saviour 
on  the  central  post  (I  have  said  this  myself 



He  went 
there,  says 

all  the 
road  and 
back  again 


A  mingled 


in  an  article  elsewhere)  is  fitter  for  a  S. 
James.  This  last  work  at  Avila,  again, 
was  copied  for  the  central  capital,  above  a 
plain  post,  at  Leyre. 

In  the  article2  on  S.  Marta  de  Tera  full 
of  illumination  and  suggestion,  already 
referred  to,  Sr.  G6mez  Moreno  will  have  it 
that  the  early  sculptures  at  Santiago  were 
executed  by  a  supreme  master  from  Con- 
stantinople, whose  style  spread  all  over 
the  kingdom  and  finally  reached  Toulouse! 
There  seems  no  way  to  meet  a  statement  of 
this  sort,  except  by  a  shorter  and  a  harsher 
word  which  is  spelled  Bosh.  The  work  at 
Compostella  presents,  a  mixture,  separable 
by  analysis,  of  styles  known  in  their  purity; 
there  appears  a  normal  development,  and 
imitation  elsewhere  later,  but  nothing  an- 
tecedent; the  dates  alleged  are  untenable. 
French  cathedrals  were  begun  at  the  east 
end,  and  the  Spanish  that  followed  French 
models  also,  and  an  inscription  confirms 
the  fact  here:  now  the  ground  on  which  the 
eastern  chapel  stands  was  not  bought  till 
1077.  Lastly,  there  is  truth  in  the  neglected 
scholastic  aphorism  that  a  cause  must  be 


Pilgrims'  Cross  at  Mellid 


adequate  to  its  effect:  the  art  of  Toulouse 
in  the  rich  plain  is  the  flowering  of  an 
exquisite,  an  exotic,  a  premature  Renais- 
sance: not  such  the  art  of  Santiago,  in 
the  granite  hills. 

In  the  Gloria,  the  motive  of  the  tym- 
panum is  borrowed  from  southern  France: 
from  the  Gloria  the  figures  in  the  arch  were 
in  turn  copied  elsewhere.  So  little  in  Spain 
is  dated  with  exactitude  that  I  am  unable 
to  say  whether  this  arrangement  of  the 
little  figures  on  radii  of  a  circle  struck  from 
the  centre  of  the  lintel,  is  Master  Matthew's 
invention.  If  so,  it  passed  into  France  up 
the  road  with  the  pilgrims  almost  as  far  as 
Anseis'  messengers  went.3  It  is  found  at 
Oloron,  on  the  pilgrims'  road,  at  Soria, 
where  a  king  repeopled,  at  Zamora  and  Toro 
which  have  an  architecture  of  their  own;  at 
Corunna  and  Betanzos  in  northern  Galicia, 
applied  to  parish  churches;  at  Carboeiro, 
adorning  an  alien  style;  at  Puerto  Marin, 
whither  the  pilgrims  carried  it;  at  Moraime 
in  a  hideous,  at  Noya  in  a  beautiful  imita- 
tion of  the  portal.  There  must  be  other 
instances:  in  brief,  it  was  copied  every- 



Ei  semitas 
tuas  edoce 


passed  on 
to  Zamora 


WAY    OF    S.  JA  MES 

where.  Right  in  the  square  before  the 
porch  and  the  door,  in  the  sixteenth  century 
it  was  strangely  imitated  at  S.  Jeronimo. 
I  have  said  already  how  the  whole  Gloria 
was  reproduced  for  the  Paradise  of  Orense, 
and  the  nortn  and  south  doors  of  that 
cathedral  show  later  adaptations  of  the 
motives  of  the  northern  door,  the  Paradise 
of  Santiago,  fresh  and  fragrant  and  charm- 

The  porch  at  Tuy  is  not  influenced  in  the 
least  by  Santiago;  it  does  not  belong  in 
that  class.  It  is  a  Gothic  portal,  and  was 
designed  like  Burgos,  Leon,  Osma  and 
Toledo;  itself  it  probably  determined  the 
rich  and  beautiful  side-portal  built  in  the 
thirteenth  century  for  S.  Seurin  of  Bor- 

The  capitals  of  Santiago,  like  the  An- 
cients, were  copied,  and  with  more  success. 
Sr.  G6mez  Moreno  thinks  he  recognizes 
the  school  at  Corullon,  in  the  Vierzo,  which 
was  consecrated  in  1 186.  There  were  ways 
and  time  enough  for  the  style  to  get  there, 
for  a  parish  church,  I  suppose,  may  also  en- 
joy consecration  before  the  last  stone  is 



polished,  and  doors  may  even  be  built 
after  a  fabric  is  completed.  This  of  S. 
Esteban  opens  under  a  western  tower, 
quite  in  the  manner  of  the  region  round 
about,  and  the  capitals  are,  as  we  say,  not 
so  bad:  I  had  thought  them  simply  Rom- 

The  other  cathedrals  of  Galicia,  Mon- 
dofledo  and  Lugo,  Tuy  and  Orense,  have 
also  seemed  to  me,  in  their  most  important 
aspect,  simply  Romanesque,  with  a  greater 
debt,  or  a  less,  to  France,  determined  in 
each  case  by  the  history  of  the  see.  They 
are  reserved  for  another  book.  But  Senor 
Lamperez  has  analyzed  so  admirably,  in  a 
periodical  so  nearly  inaccessible,  the  grad- 
ual absorption  of  the  French  elements  and 
the  production,  by  a  change  comparable  to 
the  chemical,  of  a  true  style,  that  it  seems 
not  irrelevant  to  summarize  briefly  his  work : 

In  studying  the  five  Gallegan  cathedrals, 
Santiago,  Lugo,  Tuy,  Orense,  and  Mon- 
donedo,  the  distinguished  architect  begins 
by  recalling  the  surprising  instances  of 
archaism  in  Galicia,  cloisters  like  that  of 
S.  Francisco,  in  Lugo,  built  in  the  fifteenth 



A  chymical 

So  D. 





WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

century  with  marked  analogies  to  such 
very  ancient  ones  as  those  of  S.  Juan  de 
la  Peria  and  Gerona.  At  S.  Maria  del 
Azogue,  of  the  fourteenth  century,  in  Be- 
tanzos,  is  a  portal  absolutely  Romanesque; 
at  S.  Martin  of  Noya,  of  the  fifteenth,  the 
fagade  presents  forms  and  lines  proper  to 
the  castUlos-iglesias  of  the  twelfth,  and  the 
portal  is  inspired  from  Santiago  directly; 
the  pillars  of  S.  Maria  of  Pontevedra  are 
an  exact  translation  into  sixteenth  century 
Plateresque  of  the  bases,  brackets  and 
supports  of  the  twelfth  century  Roman- 
esque. Two  currents  co-exist  in  Gallegan 
architecture,  the  Santiaguese  and  the  real 
French  Gothic;  hence  certain  anachron- 
isms. Lugo  shows  the  conflicting  currents : 
pillars,  vault  and  capitals  in  the  radiating 
chapels,  are  full  of  reminiscences  of  the 
archaic  Gallegan  Gothic:  the  piers  of  the 
sanctuary,  with  a  cylindrical  core  and 
chapiteaux  &  crochets,  show  the  direct 
influence  of  a  purer  French  style.  Tuy 
was  going  to  be  completely  Compostellan, 
in  aisles,  pillars,  vaulting,  tribunes,  and 
system  of  ornament,  and  so  it  was  up  to 



the  crossing,  but  when  the  builders  came 
to  the  eastern  and  upper  part,  a  current  of 
exoticism  passed  over  Tuy.  The  piers  grew 
complicated,  ribbed  vaults  were  built,  and 
the  triforium  gallery,  which  inside  is  like 
Santiago  and  Lugo,  now  opens  upon  the 
nave  by  a  fine  arcade  of  the  purest  French 
Gothic.  The  art  of  Tuy  is  transitional  in 
two  senses:  as  a  mingling  of  elements, 
having  begun  Romanesque  and  then  been 
prepared  for  Gothic,  and  as  a  mingling  of 
schools,  beginning  Compostellan,  and  ac- 
quiring French  traits.  The  cloister  has 
Gothic  lines  and  Romanesque  details,  that, 
like  a  cloister  at  Orense  (now  built  into  a 
vestiary),  represent  the  Gothic  cloister 
tradition  over  against  the  Romanesque 
of  the  Franciscan  cloisters  of  the  region. 
Orense  was  begun  about  1132:  the  three 
apses  were  demolished  in  the  sixteenth 
century  to  build  the  present  ambulatory 
and  chapels;  girola  is  the  pretty  word, 
allied  to  Villars's  charolle,  for  which  we 
have  no  English.  The  form  of  the  plan 
and  the  composition  of  the  piers  show 
that  it  should   have   been   Romanesque 






— and 


WAY     OF    S.   JAMES 

with  aisle  vaults  groined  and  the  nave  a 
pointed  barrel-vault.  It  had  a  wooden 
roof  at  first;  in  the  second  third  of  the 
thirteenth  century  it  was  roofed  with  rib- 
vaulting,  and  the  diagonal  ribs  descend 
on  culs-de-lampe.  Without  triforium,  the 
church  gets*  direct  light  from  the  high  nave, 
and  by  this  belongs  to  the  French  transi- 
tional (romdnico-ojival)  style,  and  is  by  so 
much  the  less  Compostellan.  The  lantern 
of  the  crossing,  begun  in  1499  by  Roderick  of 
Badajoz,  unites  two  systems,  the  Christian 
and  the  Mohammedan.  It  has  a  primary 
system  of  arches  interlaced  which  leaves  a 
space  in  the  centre,  covered  in  turn  by  a 
secondary  system  of  arches  which  come 
to  a  keystone.  This  example  of  Mude^ar 
in  Galicia  is  precious,  for  instances  are 
rare;  among  them,  the  roofing  of  the 
transept  of  S.  Francisco  at  Lugo,  and  the 
stairway  of  the  college  of  S.  Jerome  in 
Santiago.  At  Mondonedo  the  vaulting 
shows  the  two  systems,  Compostellan  and 
French,  combined  and  not  mixed,  marking 
the  complete  progression  of  the  style.  On 
the  whole,  except  for  the  presence  of  a 



triforium  arcade,  within  which  exist  tri- 
bunes spanned  by  quadrant  arches  under 
cover,  the  style  is  very  near  to  the  Cister- 
cian, pure  and  untroubled, 4 

A  process  of  this  kind,  by  which  an  early 
influence  is  received,  reacted  upon,  and 
made  a  part  of  the  living  whole  thereafter 
to  appear  in  contrast  with  a  later  influence 
from  the  same  source,  is  reasonable  and 
common.  History  and  literature  are  made 
out  of  it.   There  the  case  rests. 


Santiago  de  Galicia 
Espallo  de  Portugal 
Axudadme  d  veneer 
esta  balalla  real. 

Looking  back  over  the  whole  long  jour- 
ney, the  churches  are  recalled  in  groups 
which  correspond  to  their  function  rather 
than  geography.  Beginning  with  cathe- 
drals, the  list  reads,  Jaca,  Pampeluna, 
Vitoria,  Burgos,  Leon,  Astorga.  Of  these 
the  first  is  the  most  isolated  and  also  the 
eldest,  it  is  contemporary  with  the  great 



Sorted  by 


So  at  Car- 

WAY     OF     S.JAMES 

abbeys:  the  last  is  not  ot  the  Middle  Age. 
The  others  are  French  immediately,  with 
all  their  rich  local  tone  and  difference  in 
sculptural  style.  . 

Two  monastic  churches,  of  unparalleled 
power  and  great  wealth,  betray  French 
builders,  Las  Huelgas,  and  Villa-Sirga. 
With  these  should  be  connected  two  city 
churches,  S.  Pedro  in  Vitoria,  of  which  the 
portal  is  cathedral  (though  the  interior 
approaches  the  typical  Spanish  lofty  late 
Gothic),  and  S.  Maria  de  Cambre,  close  to 
Corunna,  as  French  as  the  east  end  of 
Lugo  within,  but  quite  strange  and  in  some 
ways  Gallegan  in  the  fagade. 

Eunate  and  Torres,  built  for  knights  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre,  are  more  like  each 
other  than  anything  else,  though  the  former 
is  Romanesque  and  regional,  the  latter 
ogival  and  exotic. 

The  roll  of  great  abbeys  is  overpower- 
ing: S.  Juan  de  la  Pefia,  Leyre,  Irache, 
Fromista,  S.  Zoyl  of  Carrion,  Benevivere, 
Sahagun,  S.  Pedro  de  las  Duenas,  S.  Isidore, 
Samos,  with  these  counting  S.  Lorenzo  de 
Carboeiro  because  it  copied  Santiago.    At 



S.  Juan  the  church  was  pre-Romanesque, 
the  cloister  of  a  Romanesque  not  perfectly 
explained  but  possibly  Italian,  another 
cloister  Romanesque  of  the  great  French 
school  that  carved  S.  Eutropius  at  Saintes, 
Fontevrault,  Aulnay,  and  a  hundred  other 
churches.  Leyre  is  Poitevin,  with  a  facade 
planned  in  the  Poitevin  style  but  Toulousan 
carving.  Like  S.-  Juan,  it  stands  not  on 
the  road,  but  up  among  the  hills,  and  Uju6, 
on  its  hilltop  crown,  visible  from  half  over 
Navarre,  it  almost  seems,  has  the  same 
Poitevin  east  end.  Irache  is  transitional 
building,  with  the  oddest  suggestions  of 
Cistercian  despite  the  dome  and  apses  that 
recall  on  the  one  hand  the  Salamantine 
group,  on  the  other  the  domed  churches 
of  Souillac  and  Solignac,  and  with  a  possible 
Syrian  strain.  Fr6mista  is  domed  in 
another  way,  also  oriental,  but  otherwise 
French,  eleventh  century,  with  a  pair  of 
little  Poitievin  bell-turrets  at  the  west.  S. 
Zoyl  of  Carrion  keeps  nothing  but  the 
base  of  the  belfry  from  the  pilgrims'  time: 
that  window  belongs  with  Frdmista:  pro- 
bably S.  Zoyl,  which  was  bigger,  was  more 





The  richer, 
the  more 

WAY    OF     S.JAMES 

nearly  transitional;  Benevivere  also.  They 
were  near  together  and  near  to  Sahagun; 
they  were  Benedictine,  in  close  relation 
with  Cluny;  they  were  rich,  and  it  would 
seem,  though  not  a  law,  yet  a  rough  rule, 
that  the  richer  the  church,  the  more  French. 
From  Burgos  to  Leon  was  the  very  middle 
of  the  Way,  crowded  as  Charing  Cross: 
grandly  the  abbeys  builded  in  Romanesque 
fetched  from  France.  Sahagun  was  Bur- 
gundian  Romanesque,  and  so  was  S.  Pedro 
de  las  Duenas,  which  was  to  it  as  moon- 
light unto  sunlight.  Like  the  great  mother 
church,  these  had  a  central  tower.  S.  Isi- 
dore, narthex,  apse  and  nave,  is  in  the 
French  style  of  the  west,  and  as  I  write 
these  lines  the  chisels  are  tinkling,  the 
hammers  are  tapping,  to  free  the  imprisoned 
capitals  of  the  original  cloister  from  plaster 
and  mortar  that  held  them  so  long  lost.  Of 
Samos  I  know  nothing  but  the  present 
fabric:  it  was  not  directly  on  the  feoad,  but 
I  should  like  to  be  sure  whether  tramping 
figures  like  Peter  of  Corbie  and  William 
the  Englishman,  did  not  design  and  rear 
the  earlier  church  of  S.  Julian.    S.  Lorenzo 




de  Carboeiro,  is  structurally,  of  the  noblest 
Burgundian  building  that  holds  in  its 
grand  forms  the  seed  of  white  Cistercian. 

Conventual  and  Collegiate  churches  may 
be  classed  together  by  the  conditions  of 
their  organization  and  their  endowment. 
S.  Cruz  de  la  §er6s,  with  much  likeness  to 
Jaca,  and  some  noble  Spanish  traits,  yet 
points  to  France  by  lantern  and  domical 
vaulting;  Sanguesa  is  as  curious  within  as 
outside,  without  counting  the  beautiful 
lantern,  worthy  to  name  with  those  of 
Orense  and  Tarazona;  it  has  parallel  apses 
and  aisles  almost  as  lofty  as  the  nave,  but 
no  transept  and  no  west  end:  the  capitals 
at  the  east  are  archaic  Spanish  types,  those 
in  the  nave,  of  a  perfected  kind  that  may  be 
Spanish  still.  S.  Domingo  de  la  Calzada 
originally  was  in  the  same  style  as  the 
minor  cathedrals  of  Siguenza,  Osma,  and 
Tarazona,  with  girola  and  without  towers; 
the  origin  of  that  style,  nearer  or  more 
remote,  is  the  French  of  France.  Not- 
withstanding the  importance  of  the  foun- 
dation and  the  splendours  of  the  monastic 
building,  perhaps  the  church  of  Irache 



al and 



WAY    OP    S.   JAMES 

should  for  architectural  reasons  have  been 
considered  here.  Castrojeriz  is,  as  I  under- 
stand, of  a  stubborner  fashion,  liker  to  S. 
Quirce  in  the  oakwoods  south  of  Burgos, 
and  S.  Juan  in  the  thickets  north  of 
Burgos:  like  in  the  quality  of  building  and 
the  cutting  of  stone,  that  is  to  say,  for  S. 
Quirce  has  a  dome  and  S.  Juan  has  no 
nave,  though  it  was  grandly  planned  ; 
and  S.  Maria  has  flowered  into  a  glorious 
rose.  This  style,  derived  originally  from 
France,  as  appears  the  moment  structural 
elements  are  examined,  has  become  Castil- 
ian  of  the  soil,  just  as  the  Compostellan 
has  become  Gallegan  of  the  rock;  it  is 
Spanish  by  an  adoption  as  fierce  and  in- 
domitable as  when  warriors  gashed  their 
arms  and  mingled  the  blood  in  one  cup  to 
drink.  S.  Maria  del  Camino,  of  Carrion, 
represents  an  earlier  stage  in  the  develop- 
ment of  this.  Here  also  fall  the  two 
churches  near  Vitoria,  S.  Andres  de  Armen- 
tia,  with  sculpture  of  Languedoc  left  from 
the  old  portal,  beast-headed  Evangelists 
in  the  pendentives,  and  capitals  carved 
with  the  lusty  beasts  that  flourished  from 



Saintes  to  Soria.  In  S.  Maria  de  Estibalez 
the  single  nave  and  the  dome  recur,  but 
the  capitals  within,  while  some  are  oriental, 
are  some  of  the  archaic  school  of  Clermont- 
Ferrand,  and  the  transept-face  must  be 
compared  with  Aulnay.  The  little  church 
of  the  Sar,  in  a  marsh  below  Compostella, 
with  three  barrel  vaults  of  equal  height, 
and  a  rising  lintel,  like  Conques,  finds 
parallels' and  prototypes  in  the  churches 
of  the  Charente.  Though  Armentia  was 
once  a  cathedral,  these  three  last  named 
come  very  near  to  the  grander  sort  of 
parish  church:  that  of  Barbadelo,  for 
instance;  and  the  pilgrims'  church  of  S. 
Maria  de  Mellid  should  be  compared  with 
these  near  Vitoria. 

In  the  towns  flourished  and  flowered 
every  lovely  sort  of  parish  church,  slender, 
lofty,  and  exquisite.  The  style  is  at  last 
completely  Spanish.  The  earliest  examples 
of  it,  e.  g.,  S.  Miguel  and  S.  Pedro  in 
Estella,  have,  the  one,  a  pure  and  north- 
ern sort  of  apse  under  pointed  arches,  the 
other  apsidioles  that  recall  Aquitaine;  the 
loveliest,    the   three    Maries   of    Najera, 






The  con- 
clusion of 
the  whole 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

Logrono,  and  Vitoria,  pass  by  sensible 
stages  into  something  rare  and  royal.  In 
Puente  la  Reyna,  Burgos,  Fr6mista,  Car- 
rion, Roncesvalles,  these  blossom  like  a 
hawthorn-bush,  lift  up  their  heads  like 
palm  trees  by  the  waterside.  Leon  has  its 
homely  type  of  parish  church,  Galicia  its 
granite  chapels.  Puerto  Marin  stands 
alone,  French  building  of  another  sort. 

In  the  twelfth  century  the  great  abbeys, 
in  the  thirteenth  the  cathedrals,  imported 
their  builders.  The  monastic  and  collegi- 
ate foundations  imitated  so  far  as  they 
could  afford,  but  the  Spanish  leaven  works 
more  here,  and  here  a  very  noble  Roman- 
esque style,  in  a  very  real  sense  Spanish,  is 
dominant.  The  burgher  churches,  mostly 
much  later  in  date,  are  strictly  Spanish 
and  almost  Renaissance:  but  they  are 
made  out  of  all  that  had  gone  before.  The 
whole  entrance  of  Cistercian,  and  the 
Friars'  Gothic  of  Galicia,  though  they 
contributed  to  fifteenth-century  art,  are 
apart  from  the  present  question,  as  the 
monuments  are  apart  from  the  camino 



One  other  question  must  be  considered 
briefly:  the  appearance  of  certain  decora- 
tive elements  not  Latin,  nor  Byzantine, 
nor  French,  nor  Syrian:  the  braid,  the 
plait,  and  the  twisted  cord  or  rope,  and  the 
twisted  and  plaited  knot  that  appears  as  a 
separate  or  separable  ornament  like  the 
rosette  and  the  helix,  and  has  the  same 
standing  as  honeysuckle  and  lotus,  guil- 
loche  and  meander.  Courajod  had  in- 
vestigated some  of  these  elements  shortly 
before  he  died,  and  he  called  them  Northern 
and  Scandinavian:  had  he  lived  longer,  he 
might  have  exchanged  the  last  word  for 
Siberian.  The  twist  and  the  knot  both, 
are  claimed  for  Gallo-Roman  and  proved 
for  Frankish,  they  figure  in  Merovingian 
remains  and  on  fibulae  and  brooches.1 
They  are  found  on  pillars  at  Cravant.  They 
are  on  the  crowns  of  Guerrazar;  they  are 
also  on  the  churches  of  Leyre  and  Sanguesa. 
One  such  knot  is  carved  on  a  capital  at 
Constantinople,  as  adorning  an  angers 
breast. 2  The  marshy  head  of  the  Adriatic, 
like  the  mountain  shore  of  the  Asturias, 
need  only  be  named,  Cividale  with  Oviedo. 



The  knot 
and  the 






WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

If  they  are  found  in  Gothland,  and  in  the 
lands  of -Ostrogoths  and  Visigoths,  where 
did  they  take  their  rise?    I  was  at  some 
pains  to  disengage  the  Scandinavian  ele- 
ment in  Gallegan  lore,  precisely,  because, 
by  whatever  road  that  came,  these  too 
might  travel.    If  we  could  know  for  sure 
that  it  came  after  a  thousand  years,  as 
some  will  have  it,  whence  came  the  Golden 
Fleece,  what  good  would  that  do?3    The 
art  would  still  be  one  alien  to  all  that  we 
mean  by  Gothic,  which  is  an  art  purged, 
refined  like  silver  thrice;  and  to  all  that  we 
mean  by  Romanesque,  grand  with  antique 
strength,  precious  with  strange  gifts  from 
the  East.    It  has  no  part  in  the  glory  of 
religion  and  of  Spain:  —  Burgos  massy  and 
mighty,   Leon   all   on   flame,    high-lying 
Orense,   Tuy  that  the  brimming   Mino 
bathes,  broad-girted  Lugo,  Santiago  varonil. 





Pry  thee  tell  me,  how  does 
the  good  Man  S.  James  do? 
and  what  was  he  doing? 

—  Why,  truly,  not  so  well 
by  far  as  he  used  to  be. 

—  What's  the  Matter,  is 
he  grown  old? 

— Erasmus'  Familiar  Colloquies. 

When  Charlemagne  came  back  from 
Spain,  says  Turpin's  Chronicle,  he  dis- 
tributed the  treasures  he  had  taken  among 
certain  churches.  At  S.  Romain  de  Blaye 
there  are  masses  that  he  founded  (it  was 
said)  for  all  those  who  should  receive  mar- 
tyrdom in  Spain,  and  S.  Denis  promised 
eternal  glory  to  those  who  had  died  or 
should  die  in  the  Saracen  wars  of  Spain.1 
These  masses  and  vigils,  these  solemn  feasts 






WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

with  long-drawn  neuvaine  and  triduum  lead- 
ing up  to  them,  were  there  the  peculiar 
advantage  of  the  good  knights  who  crossed 
the  mountains  in  the  eleventh  and  the 
twelfth  century.  Knights  of  the  Temple 
and  the  Hospital,  Crusaders  of  Ferdinand 
the  Great,  and  Alfonso  VI,  companions  of 
My  Cid  Ruy  Diaz,  and  of  the  Lord  of 
Battles,  Alfonso  of  Aragon,  could  count  on 
them  in  some  sort  to  neutralize  things  that 
happened  at  the  taking  of  Toledo  and 
Valencia,  for  instance,  which  they  would 
not  have  liked  to  remember,  which  might 
not  have  let  them  sleep  o*  nights.  In  the 
heat  of  blood  they  did  the  best  they  could, 
and  the  outcome  they  could  "throw  on 
God,  He  loves  the  burthen."  The  Free 
Companions  who  took  Peter's  money  to 
fight  Henry,  or  Henry's  pledges  to  fight 
Peter,  were  probably  just  as  sure  of  drawing 
steadily  from  this  same  safe  investment. 
The  Black  Prince,  in  Froissart,  regularly 
opens  battle  with  a  prayer. 

The  very  poor,  who  went  on  the  pilgrim- 
age to  keep  a  vow  made  in  mortal  danger,  or 
in  youth  because  the  fever  of  wandering 



was  in  the  blood,  or  in  age  because  there 
was  no  place  else  to  go,  the  house  having 
been  burnt  or  sold,  the  earning  capacity 
dropped  below  zero,  the  friends  or  child- 
ren's children  tired  of  supporting  a  useless 
mouth,  these  probably  expected  little  but 
what  each  day  brought.  But  the  bourgeoi- 
sie got  infinite  satisfaction  out  of  the  re- 
collection, and  a  kind  of  social  status,  such 
as  membership  in  the  Stone  Church,  or  the 
First  Presbyterian  or  the  Old  Swedes,  in  a 
class  of  American  towns,  affords.  France 
was  full  of  confraternities  of  the  returned, 
which  may  have  been  mutual  benefit 
societies  but  certainly  were  occasions  of 
pleasure,  and  celebrated,  besides,  the 
monthly  Mass  and  the  annual  banquet, 
and  in  some  cases  an  evening  meeting  once 
a  month,  like  the  Royal  Arcanum,  or  the 
Scottish  Rite. 

The  Confrerie  des  Pelerins  de  S.  Jacques, 2 
in  Paris,  was  founded  some  time  before 
1298,  but  up  to  July,  1313,  it  was  a  mod- 
est confraternity  of  returned  travellers 
with  one  annual  mass  at  S.  Jacques-la- 
Boucherie:  then  the  king  gave  them  the 



.  .  .  Mas  es 

tetter  buen 

para  andar 




WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 

right  to  assemble  and  deliberate  their 
affairs.  This  was  Louis  le  Rutin,  short- 
lived, who  left  the  throne  to  brothers  deeply 
concerned  with  Spanish  relations.  Queen 
Jehane,  the  wife  of  Philip  the  Long,  was 
much  interested,  but  indeed  king  and 
princes  and  great  lords  together,  found  it 
expedient  to  enroll,  for  the  confraternity 
grew  to  power  and  wealth.  At  the  outset, 
however,  royalty  had  a  personal  interest. 
Small  wonder  that  Kings  of  Navarre  pro- 
moted the  travel;  it  meant  more  to  the 
mountain  kingdom  than  the  Union  Pacific 
to  the  States  half  a  century  ago.  Under  the 
date  of  1324  exists  a  list  of  persons  pledged 
to  give  in  order  to  found,  in  the  chapel,  four 
places  of  chaplains;  there  were  also  be- 
quests, and  some  odd  gifts  in  kind,  e.g., 
thirty  days  of  a  mason  and  his  assistant 
for  building.  The  first  large  meeting  was 
held  on  December  15, 1318,  in  the  meeting 
place  of  the  Butchers,  the  chapter-room 
of  S.  Jacques-la-Boucherie.  Candles  were 
provided,  a  good  fire,  and  a  sentier  and  a 
half  of  wine,  the  first  items  in  accounts 
kept  for  four  and  a  half  centuries. 



In  that  year  they  had  acquired  the  land 
near  the  Porte  S.  Denis,  and  the  first  stone 
was  laid  February  18,  1319,  by  the  Queen. 
Robert  de  Lannoy  began  at  once  on  the 
twelve  apostles,  and  painted  and  gilded  a 
great  S.  James:  as  the  work  was  finished  it 
was  brought  on  a  boat  to  the  Louvre,  and 
thence  carried  through  the  streets,  child- 
ren singing  before  it.  The  church  had  three 
aisles,  of  five  bays,  a  window  above  each 
pointed  arch,  chapels  around  the  ambula- 
tory, a  timber  roof,  and  statues  everywhere. 
It  was  not  demolished  till  1808,  and  five 
of  the  statues  are  still  at  the  Cluny.  The 
foundation  included  a  cloister,  the  lodging 
for  the  canons  or  chaplains,  a  hospital,  and 
a  cemetery.  The  great  banquet  fell  on  the 
first  Sunday  after  S.  James's  Day:  a  shed 
was  put  up  for  the  tables,  but  then  awnings 
had  to  be  stretched  on  every  side  beyond. 
In  1338,  900  sat  down,  in  1340,  1080,  in 
1341,  1273.  The  scraps  went  to  the  poor 
and,  besides,  a  collection  was  taken  up. 
Every  beggar  that  day  got  something;  in 
1324  there  were  300  beggars.  The  estab- 
lishment, quite  naturally,  was  down  on 






WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

the  banquet,  which  fell  into  discredit  and 
then  disuse.  In  the  year  1368  it  had 
harboured  16,690  pilgrims.  Finally,  like 
other  vested  interests,  the  Revolution 
cleared  it  away.  What  became  of  the 
trtsor,  rich  both  in  relics  and  jewels,  I  do 
not  know.  Probably  the  establishment 
knew  something. 

At  Compiegne  the  confraternity  acted  a 
mystery  play  every  year:  it  figures  fre- 
quently in  the  town  accounts  from  1466 
to  1539.  The  members  acted  "la  vie  et 
mistere  Saint  James  en  personnages  selon 
la  legende,"  and  these  plusieurs  jeunes 
compaignons  de  ceste  ville  were  not  paid, 
but  their  expenses  were  reimbursed,  for 
scaffoldings,  costumes,  clothes,  which  may 
mean  stage  hangings,  wax,  torches,  light 
and  minstrels.  It  was  a  good  deed;  "pour 
Thonneur  de  Dieu  et  de  Monseigneur  S. 
Jacques  et  pour  la  recreation  du  populaire 
de  la  ville  et  des  villaiges  k  Pentree  d'icelle 
ville  et  ainsi  qu'il  est  de  coustume  ancienne 
et  par  chascun  an."  This  confraternity 
lapsed  in  the  eighteenth  century  and  was 
refounded  in  the  church  of  S.  James  by  one 



Jean  Raux,  who  possibly  had  made  the 
journey  in  1692. 3 

In  161 5  certain  citizens  of  Moissac,  who 
had  made  this  pilgrimage,  established  a 
confraternity  in  honour  of  Monseigneur 
S.  Jacques.  The  members,  who  had  to  be 
townsfolk  in  good  standing,  had  all  made 
the  journey:  they  were  bound  to  assist  (in 
the  French  sense)  at  offices  and  funerals  in 
a  broad-brimmed  hat,  enfarolado,  turned  up 
after  the  familiar  fashion.  Even  as  late  as 
1830  the  figure  of  a  pilgrim  in  cloak  and 
hat,  with  staff  and  scrip,  led  the  procession 
of  the  parish  of  S.  James,  on  the  day  of 
Corpus  Christi. 4  At  Bordeaux  the  society 
existed  before  1493,  and  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  nineteenth  century  there  were 
still  more  than  eighty  members.  It 
met  in  a  chapel  of  S.  Michael's  church, 
dedicated  originally  to  S.  Apollonia  but 
long  since  abandoned  to  the  Apostle,  and 
altered  and  reconsecrated  April  29,  161 2. 
The  society  was  dissolved  at  the  Revolu- 
tion of  1830:  Bordeaux  museum  possesses 
several  of  the  jet  tokens  more  prized 
by  collectors  now  than  once  by  pilgrims, 




Helper  and 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

Populus . 

suetus  sub 
vivere  bar- 

and  among  them  a  lovely  figure  of  the 

But  even  in  the  sixteenth  century  the 
pilgrimage  had  fallen  off.  In  1557  a  pam- 
phleteer demands  that  the  pilgrims'  hos- 
pices in  Paris  shall  be  put  to  other  use, 
"seeing  that  at  the  present  time  there  be 
no  more  pilgrims  going  the  said  voyages 
and  that  the  founders1  intent  was  not  that 
they  should  stand  thus  useless  while  the 
real  poor  are  robbed  of  their  revenues." 6 
In  1671  and  1678  Louis  XIV,  as  noted 
earlier,  forbade  any  pilgrim  to  set  out  with- 
out a  permit  signed  and  countersigned, 
royal  and  episcopal  sanction.  In  1738, 
dating  from  August  1,  pilgrims  are  for- 
bidden, armed  or  otherwise,  to  go  to  S. 
James  or  elsewhere,  or  leave  the  kingdom, 
without  express  leave  from  king  and  bishop. 
In  17  77  five  pilgrims  of  Monblanc  (near 
Montpellier)  were  arrested,  stripped,  and 
sent  to  the  workhouse  at  Pau.  M.  de 
Tray  wrote,  reporting  the  incident,  on  this 
occasion,  "I  make  it  a  rule  to  take  from 
these  people  everything  I  find,  their  goods, 
papers,  gourds,  leather  capes,  etc.,  and  I 



never  give  them  back  but  tear  them  up  and 
burn  them,  to  make  them  understand  they 
are  getting  off  easily,  since  the  king's  orders 
about  the  pilgrimages,  renewed  by  Mgr. 
d'Aine  your  predecessor,  condemn  pilgrims 
to  the  galleys  for  life.  They  get  off  cheap 
with  the  workhouse."6  The  Declaration 
of  Independence  had  been  signed  already. 
The  Revolution  was  only  fifteen  years  off. 
Sr.  L6pez  Ferreiro  has  enumerated, 
unfortunately  without  dates,  the  numerous 
churches  that  in  various  countries  were 
dedicated  to  S.  James.  In  Italy  he  finds 
thirty-one,  in  Prance  forty-two,  in  Belgium 
fifty-two,  in  Germany  about  fifty.  The 
diocese  of  Liege  alone  had,  counting  chapels 
also,  forty-five;  the  diocese  of  Breslau  the 
surprising  number  of  seventy-three;  that 
of  Prague  forty.  In  England  there  are  at 
present  forty-four. 7  This  sort  of  enumera- 
tion is  unprofitable:  it  may  end  with  a 
quaint  bit  of  history:  in  the  middle  of  the 
eleventh  century  the  Consuls  of  Bremen 
offered  to  send  every  year  a  delegate  to 
Santiago  to  represent  them.  The  Pil- 
grimage was  to  the  Middle  Age,  amongst 



jam  liber 
longa  par- 




WAY     OF     S.   JAMES 

other  things,  a  perpetual  Centennial  and 
Columbian  Exposition,  with  the  same 
business  opportunities.  But  the  Spaniard 
cannot  seize  them,  for  he  cannot  get  himself 
liked.  The  score  of  early  travellers  whom 
I  have  read,  did  all  most  wonderfully  hate 
Spain.8  The  road,  George  of  Einghen 
found  in  1457  sumamente  penoso:  the  Span- 
iards themselves  have  a  proverb  about  the 
fare  encountered  along  it,  Catnino  francis, 
venden  gato  por  res.  English  travellers  are 
the  loudest  in  their  complaints,  the  most 
outrageous-mannered:  Purchas's  Pilgrim  is 
chiefly  concerned  about  getting  the  right 
change,  and  cannot  call  any  of  the  foreign 
names  right.  Queen  Mary  Tudor's  phy- 
sician is  as  splenetic  in  the  sixteenth  century 
as  Dr.  Tobias  Smollett  in  the  eighteenth, 
though  the  last,  unluckily  for  readers, 
escaped  Spain.  Notwithstanding,  it  was 
an  Englishman,  the  delightful  Howell,  who 
wrote  in  a  temper  of  praise  and  honest 
liking  that  we  ourselves  might  well  emulate: 

But  let  the  French  glory  never  so 
much   of   their   country   as  being  the 



richest  embroidery  of  Nature  upon  earth, 
yet  the  Spaniard  drinks  better  wine, 
eats  better  fruits,  wears  finer  cloth,  hath 
a  better  sword  by  his  side,  goes  better 
shod,  and  is  better  mounted  than  he.9 

Par     ende     digamos     en     oraqion 

pater  nosier  et  abe  Maria  et 

Credo    in    Deum 





So  Howell 



WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 



The  green  road  and  the 
grey  road,  they  show  no 
track. — Fiona  Macleod. 

A  learned  German  once  thought  that 
he  saw  the  tombs,  at  Blaye,  where  Ro- 
land was  buried  alongside  of  Holyfernes; 
the  occasion  of  the  misunderstanding  being 
Roland's  horn  Olifauni.  Jehane,  knowing 
that  it  was  formerly  shown  at  S.  Seurin  of 
Bordeaux,  would  have  the  lad  exhibit  it 
who  took  us  about,  being  called  for  the 
purpose  from  sweeping  up  the  church.  He 
was  a  very  quiet  and  care-worn  Ion,  who 
knew  his  Gallo-Roman  treasures  in  the 
crypt,  and  his  Merovingian,  and  to  her 
question  replied  with  discretion  that  others 
had  enquired,  but  he  did  not  know  where  it 




was,  and  indeed  had  never  talked  with  any 
who  remembered  seeing  it.  That  horn  was 
sounding  in  our  ears,  day  after  day,  among 
the  steep  defiles,  the  dark  green  cork  trees, 
of  Childe  Harold's  Spain,  at  Pancorbo  and 
Villafranca,  past  Hernani  where  another 
French  clarion  caught  up  the  falling  echo, 
along  the  strands  and  shores,  ringed  in  by 
blue  and. vaporous  mountains,  where  the 
grey  sea  chafes  on  every  headland,  and 
sleeps  in  every  bay,  from  Fuentarabia  to 

I  was  not  careful  to  follow  the  confused 
trails  along  this  road:  James  Cayley  is  no 
company  for  me,  and  that  man  of  parts  and 
of  humour,  Charles  Marriott,  was  bent  for 
Bilbao  and  not  for  Santiago.  But  Vitoria 
I  sought  out  because  the  cathedral  was 
said  to  be  copied  after  Leon,  and  I  had  my 
reward,  though  not  at  the  cathedral,  which 
is  a  poor  thing. 

The  town  itself  is  delightful,  with  that 
bright  cool  northern  quality,  so  commonly 
and  so  pleasantly  encountered  in  travelling 
about  a  country,  which  should  teach  us  that 
such  things  as  north  and  south,  though  one 






and  mozo, 
all  one 


may  think  them  geography,  are  really  only 
politics.  The  streets  were  so  broad,  the 
houses  were  so  neat,  the  parks  were  so 
verdant,  everything  was  so  clean!  A  mozo 
in  corduroy  from  the  diligence  began  by 
carrying  the  little  bag  for  me  to  a  hotel 
large  and  fair  and  furnished,  like  a  French 
provincial  inn,  and  thereafter  turned  up  on 
the  sidewalk,  in  every  nick  of  time,  like  the 
servant  in  classical  comedy,  till  he  had 
called  for  the  same  little  bag  on  the  third 
day  and  bestowed  the  owner  thereof  in 
safety  on  top  of  the  yellow  motor-omnibus 
again.  He  was  conversational,  he  was  well- 
informed,  he  desired  to  please:  now  those 
are  not  traits  of  the  Castilian,  nor  the  men 
of  Aragon,  nor  the  GaUegans.  Certainly  it 
seemed  these  first  days  Vitoria  was  not 
Spain  but  somewhere  else,  with  a  complete 
upper  town,  of  trees  that  hung  over  high 
walls  and  grass-grown  streets,  Gothic 
oriels  and  Renaissance  portals,  safely  set 
away,  high  up.  The  mozo  could  conduct, 
by  divers  ways,  past  every  proud  and  pre- 
cious remnant  of  an  idolized  past,  for  beside 
the  pride  of  the  three  Provincias  vasconga- 



das,  the  very  top  and  front  of  Castilian 
pride  looks  small  and  slight.  On  the  broad 
steps  which,  dividing,  about  the  church  of 
S.  Miguel  and  enclosing  it  as  a  stream  en- 
closes the  rock-grown  birch  and  harebell, 
might  have  given  a  lesson  to  the  architect 
of  Lourdes — on  these  long  stairs  I  met  one 
day  an  Old  Soldier,  and  ventured  to  put  a 
question  of  ceremony.  Remembering  what 
excuse  the  rival  servants  in  Verona  made 
for  quarrelling  one  night,  I  asked,  not  when 
it  was  fit  to  take  or  yield  the  wall,  but 
simply  if,  when  two  people  met,  each 
turned  to  the  right.  "Surely,"  said  he,  as 
if  he  said  "we  are  Christians  here,"  and  un- 
covered his  white  head,  and  was  going  on 
his  way,  when  a  sudden  thought  turned 
him  up-hill  again.  "That  rule  is  modified 
by  courtesy,"  said  he.  "If  I,  coming  up 
here,  met  you  coming  down,  I  should  have 
to  turn  out  to  the  left,  to  leave  you  the 
wall."  So  the  lesson  first  learned  from 
insolent  old  ladies  who  held  the  wall  stub- 
bornly and  had  to  be  walked  around,  like 
a  post  or  a  broken  motor-car,  had  another 
ending.    Old  use  dies  hard,  and  women  are 



the  wall 


A  chantier 



the  last  to  quit  it,  and  many  a  bourgeoise 
will  take  the  wall  of  a  strange  woman,  but 
old  courtesy  is  yet  living,  and  warm  at 
heart  to  the  stranger/ 

They  are  building  in  Vitoria  a  New 
Cathedral  in  the  lower  town,  at  the  oppo- 
site end  from  the  railway  station,  and  a 
man  at  the  chantier  said  that  the  Old  Cathe- 
dral had  nothing  of  value.  He  was  nearly 
right.  Built  in  the  second  half  of  the 
fourteenth  century,  too  new  by  half  for  the 
sleepy  air,  the  quiet  square,  the  soundless 
houses,  up  there  in  the  blue  where  the 
tower  sails  among  white  clouds,  it  replaces 
a  castillo-iglesia,  or  perhaps  two,  but  was 
not,  however,  cathedral,  for  Vitoria  had 
no  bishop.  The  Catholic  Kings  made  it 
collegiate  in  1496. 

It  is  entirely  possible  that  the  building 
was  begun  by  Bishop  Juan  del  Pino  of 
Calahorra,  a  great  builder  and  a  good  one, 
who  rebuilt  the  episcopal  palaces  in  Vitoria 
and  Calahorra,  and  the  cloister  in  S.  Dom- 
ingo de  la  Calzada.  He  ruled  only  eleven 
years,  but  he  enjoyed  the  reversion  of  three 
sees,  apparently,  for  Armentia  had  been 




the  seat  while  Calahorra  was  lost,  and  S. 
Domingo  when  it  was  insecure.  The  date 
would  suit.  The  church  has  suffered 
earthquakes,  whereby  low  arches  span 
all  the  aisles  and  spoil  all  the  vistas;  and 
restorations,  whereby  it  is  smug  and 
clean  as  a  maid-servant  going  to  church. 
At  any  time  the  leafage  of  the  capitals 
can  hardly  have  been  fresh  or  picturesque, 
for  that  mid-fourteenth  century  work 
suggests  mid- June,  the  heavy  scent  of 
cabbage  roses  and  the  thick  and  breathless 
trees.  The  plan  is  curious,  not  quite 
successful,  but  beautiful  in  the  perspective 
of  arches  that  open  and  vaults  that  with- 
draw. It  is  like  a  fresh  effort  to  solve  the 
problem  that  Soissons  and  S.  Yved  posed: 
how  to  combine  the  transeptal  apses, 
square-ended,  here,  and  two  on  either  side, 
with  the  three  apsidal  chapels  radiating 
from  a  polygonal  apse.  The  nave,  exceed- 
ing lofty,  and  its  aisles,  are  all  too  narrow 
for  the  crossing  and  what  lies  beyond  thus 
broadened  to  the  eye  by  illusive  devices, 
and  actually  on  a  rather  larger  scale;  and 
the  sixteenth  century  porch  again  is  too 



and  plan 



The  froth- 
ing style  of 


broad,  too  like  a  plump  beauty.  The 
statues  that  stand  about  the  northern 
hemicycle  therein,  have  a  Renaissance  look, 
like  the  SS.  Peter  and  Paul  of  Pampeluna 
cloister.  The  style  here  in  Vitoria  is  the 
same  as  that  at  Pampeluna,  derived  partly 
from  south-western,  partly  from  north- 
eastern France.  Though  the  portal  proper 
with  its  three  doorways,  its  jamb  statues, 
its  careful  legendary  exposition,  looks  to 
Leon  for  suggestion,  certain  details  recall 
work  at  Pampeluna,  and  a  good  many 
heads  transport  the  imagination  to  that 
eastern  border  of  a  pure  Frankish  art,  where 
the  Church  of  Brou,  and  Rheims,  S.  Mihiel, 
and  Troyes,  are  only  outcrops  of  a  con- 
tinuous line.  The  sensitive  little  S.  Catha- 
rine explains  herself:  her  kindred  are  in 

Vitoria  in  some  ways  recalls  such  cities  as 
Dijon  and  Rouen,  especially  in  her  posses- 
sion of  smaller  churches  quite  in  her  own 
style,  good  enough  and  grand  enough  to 
make  the  name  of  minor  invidious.  S. 
Michael  is  of  that  wide  serene  late  Gothic 
that  is  really  Renaissance,   with   round 



columns  and  broad  arches,  about  contem- 
porary with  S.  Michael's  at  Dijon  and 
S.  Peter's  at  Caen.  Even  the  absurd 
pale  blue  and  gilding  of  the  interior  cannot 
trouble  its  fairness,  and  under  the  vast 
portico  the  Virgin  of  Victories  is  enthroned. 
The  tympanum  of  the  door  tells  the  whole 
of  S.  Michael's  fairy  ipopte  in  the  same 
expressive  and  deliberate  art  that  Pam- 
peluna  had  already  employed,  and  that 
serves  again,  at  the  door  of  S.  Peter's,  this 
time  a  little  under  pressure,  to  tell  the 
whole  story  of  the  Apostle  and  his  Lord. 

The  Spanish  insistence  on  just  orienta- 
tion has  set  the  east  end,  side  by  side  with 
the  main  entrance  to  S.  Pedro,  on  an 
important  street,  so  that  the  traveller 
descends  the  steep  hill  upon  four  apses 
and  a  porch,  all  in  a  row.  Within,  a  very 
high  nave  of  three  bays  and  noble  transept 
of  two  open,  loftily  together  and  intri- 
cately upon,  chapels.  The  rotables  are  full 
of  interest,  the  tombs  that  lie  between  and 
within  the  apses,  beautiful  in  their  chang- 
ing forms,  from  the  thirteenth-century 
knight  in  the  dress  of  peace,  and  the  old 



S.  Michael 




king  who  wears  steel  under  his  robes,  to  a 
glorious  Renaissance  warrior  of  black  stone, 
another,  recumbent,  in  armour  of  Charles 
V's  time,  and  a  kneeling  courtier  contem- 
porary to  Raleigh  and  Essex.  The  history 
of  a  free  people  who  never  unlearned  their 
own  peculiar  pride,  is  laid  up  in  these 
tombs,  uncorrupt,  unmouldered  yet.  Out- 
side, the  porch  is  arranged  under  a  tower: 
the  Madonna  occupies  the  central  post  and 
a  complete  Apostolado  the  sides,  where 
holds  S.  James  a  place  of  eminence;  on  the 
buttresses  of  the  apse  were  statues  once, 
canopies  and  brackets  yet  remaining. 
Within  and  without,  S.  Pedro  could  set  up 
for  a  cathedral. 

S.  Andres  de  Armentia  was  a  cathedral 
once:  the  see  of  Calahorra  for  four  cen- 
turies. The  last  bishop  of  Armentia,  D. 
Fortunio,  at  the  end  of  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury, brought  about  a  fine  action  recorded 
in  the  Codex  EmUianensis.  The  bishops  of 
Spain  being  resentful  and  indignant  to  see 
how  stubbornly  the  papal  legates  strove  to 
abolish  the  ecclesiastical  order,  the  Office  or 
Use  which  had  been  employed  since  the 



foundation  of  the  monarchy,  which  was 
called  commonly  the  Gothic  Use,  or  the 
Isidorian,  and  later  the  Mozarabic,  sent  to 
Rome  three  bishops  of  whom  Fortunio  of 
Alava  was  one,  who  carried  with  them 
the  codices  of  the  ecclesiastical  Use,  to 
show  them  to  Alexander  II:  he  and  the 
abbot  of  S.  Benedict  of  Rome  (which  is  to 
say  Monte-Cassino)  and  other  learned 
men,  after  maturely  considering  and  care- 
fully examining  these  books,  declared  them 
pure  and  Catholic  in  all  they  contained, 
and  bade  under  penalties  that  none  should 
dare  to  trouble,  condemn,  or  alter  the  divine 
office,  according  to  the  most  ancient  use  of 
Spain.  It  did  no  good,  the  Mozarabic 
Use  had  to  go,  but  Fortunio  had  fought  a 
good  fight.  He  died  in  1088.  Not  for 
another  while  did  the  bishops  seek  con- 
firmation from  the  See  of  Peter:  the  con- 
stant practice  of  the  kings  of  Castile  being 
to  establish  cathedral  churches,  nominate 
bishops,  fix  their  jurisdiction,  settle  their 
grievances,  and  ask  no  other  sanction  than 
kingship  with  the  counsel  of  the  grandees 
and  prelates  about  the  throne. z    Fortunio, 






WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

it  may  be  judged,  preferred  that  way. 
After  him  bishops  still  used  the  title, 
though  Calahorra  was  the  see:  Bishop 
Rodrigo  de  Cascante  witnesses  the  Fuero  of 
Vitoria,  as  bishop  of  Armentia,  and  to  him 
may  be  assigned  the  building  of  the  church. 
His  time  lasted  from  1146  to  1181,  and  a 
stone  recovered  at  the  ruinous  alteration 
in  1776  reads:  "Huius  operis  autores  Ro- 
dericus  Eps.  ..."    There  it  breaks  off. 

The  church  has  a  single  nave,  possibly 
still,  under  the  plaster,  barrel-vaulted  like 
the  transepts  and  apse.  The  ribs  of  the 
grand  crossing  come  down  on  four  winged 
figures  with  the  heads  of  the  Apocalyptic 
beasts:  at  Leon  in  the  vault  they  were 
painted  thus.  Two  coupled  capitals  from 
the  devastated  nave,  that  sustain  the 
western  gallery,  are  carved  with  the  fauna 
of  S.  Pedro  de  Soria,  Romanesque  beasts 
orientalized,  with  long  necks,  carrying  their 
heads  down  among  their  feet.  The  capitals 
of  the  crossing  are  of  the  same  sort  except- 
ing at  the  apse,  where  they  are  transitional. 
This  is  noble  and  native  building,  and  the 
western  door  was  once  a  glory,  but  the 



eighteenth  century  pulled  the  sculptures 
down  and  a  few  poor  remnants  in  the  south 
porch  and  a  somewhat  rhetorical  descrip- 
tion, are  all  we  have  to  recall  it. 

Said  the  Licentiate  Bernard  Ibafiez,  in 

The  facade  is  peculiarly  fine  in  this 
particular;  it  is  divided  into  two  parts 
and  in  the  upper  stands  Christ  with  his 
Apostles  full  length.  In  the  second  is 
the  Lamb  of  God,  in  an  oval,  waving 
the  standard  of  the  Cross,  and  around 
it  this  motto:  Mors  ego  sum  mortis 
vocor  Agnus  sum  ho  fortis.  On  the 
right  stands  S.  John  with  this:  Ecce 
Agnus  Dei.  On  the  left  Isaiah,  saying: 
Sicut  ocis.  Below  is  the  Labarum  of 
Christ  and  at  the  sides  of  it  Alpha  and 
Omega,  that  all  deciphered  together, 
means,  Christus  principium  etc.  finis.  In 
the  middle  [between  upper  and  lower 
parts  of  the  facade]  runs  a  ribbon,  with 
this  inscription:  Porta  per  hanc  celi  fit 
per  via  unucuique  fideli,  and  another,  in  a 
semicircle,  goes  around  the  whole,  and 
says :  Rex  Sabaoth  Magnus  Deus  etc .  dicitur 
Agnus  Dei  Nuntius.  .  .2 



S.  Andrgs 





WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

The  scheme  almost  certainly  goes  back 
to  the  church-front  of  Angoul&ne,  where 
the  Apocalypse  is  manifested,  high  up  in  a 
mandorla  in  an  arched  recess,  and  below, 
under  arches,  the  Witnesses  are  grouped. 
Here,  however,  the  Christ  and  Apostles  fill 
a  gigantic  tympanum.  The  plan  was  modi- 
fied, apparently,  by  whatsoever  tradition 
determined  S.  Miguel  of  Estella,  for  the 
two  reliefs  that  have  survived,  of  the  En- 
tombment and  the  Harrowing  of  Hell, 
though  built  in  under  arches  are  mani- 
festly flat-topped  sculpture,  like  the  cloister 
reliefs  at  Aries  and  S.  Domingo  de  Silos. 
Finally,  two  jamb-statues  survive,  and  a 
third,  shorter,  figure  of  Abraham  sacrificing 
Isaac  with  a  swooping  angel  in  the  capital, 
is  lifted  to  the  right  height  on  a  broken, 
wonderful  acanthus  capital,  turned  upside 
down.  Under  the  principal  reliefs  are 
others,  that  we  may  judge  from  the  analogy 
of  Parma,  Borgo  San  Donnino,  and  Moissac, 
were  once  above  the  rest,  and  in  an  angle 
is  built  up  such  a  bit  of  chamfered  wall 
that  monsters  crawl  on,  as  flanks  the  portal 
at  Moissac  and  at  Ripoll,  but  here  the 



reliefs  are  partly  human  and  may  just 
possibly  be  meant  for  Dives  and  Lazarus. 
Into  the  cloister  wall  close  by  this  last, 
above  a  tomb  recess,  is  set  a  tympanum 
where  two  apostles  kneeling,  adore  the 
Agnus  Dei  in  a  roundel,  and  below,  in 
another  roundel,  the  labarum  is  sustained 
by  two  flying  figures,  one  certainly  bearded. 
The  elements  here  are  very  various,  and 
the  style  is  not  one.  The  figures  in  the 
large  tympanum  are  of  the  school  of  Tou- 
louse, a  later  growth  from  those  of  the 
transept  of  S.  Sernin;  one  in  particular 
repeats  the  gesture  and  the  forms,  but  the 
flying  angels  sprawl  and  swim  as  only  in 
fourteenth-century  Florence  and  on  the 
churches  of  the  south-west  of  France.  That 
Toulousean  transept  portal  was  consecrated 
1096:  these  are  not  early,  not  archaic, 
simply  not  good:  the  thirteenth  century  is 
a  safe  guess.  There  is  a  sort  of  freedom, 
looseness,  lightness,  about  drapery  of  the 
thirteenth  century.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
little  tympanum,  though  the  technique  is 
the  same,  belongs  by  its  motives  to  Aragon, 
where  a  parallel  is  found  at  S.  Pedro  in 







WAY     OF    S.   JAMES 

Huesca:  the  chrism  occurs  at  Jaca  and  S. 
Cruz  de  la  Ser6s.  The  figures  now  at  the 
end  of  the  porch  are  really  incorporate 
with  the  shafts,  as  at  S.  Bertrand  de  Com- 
minges,  which  lay  directly  on  the  Way; 
and  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  Abraham 
always  ranged  with  them,  since  the  dis- 
parate size  is  no  more  marked  than  where 
at  Aries  the  Martyrdom  of  S.  Stephen  re- 
places a  statue.  On  the  trumeau,  the  group 
would  go  well,  with  the  two  figures  in  the 
jambs.  The  great  reliefs  have  much  in 
common  with  those  of  Silos,  but  in  the 
sudden  gesture  of  Christ  in  Limbo,  with 
which  should  be  compared  the  mosaic  at 
Torcello,  and  in  the  long  veiled  figures  of 
the  Maries,  hieratic,  immaculate,  and  the 
seated  angel  with  strong  unfolded  wings, 
appears  a  first-hand  acquaintance  with  the 
Byzantine.  Where  Aries  drew  from  Rome, 
this  draws  from  Byzantium.  At  this  point 
the  Byzantine  tetramorph,  there  inside, 
should  be  recalled.  The  mixture  is  just 
what  we  should  expect  of  an  old  place, 
once  important,  seated  on  a  Roman  and  a 
pilgrim  road:  traditions  of  Aragon,  of  Con- 



stantinople,  are  grafted  on  that  of  Langue- 
doc,  in  the  iconography  and  the  Jacture;  and 
the  scheme  of  the  whole,  while  in  the  main 
determined  by  that  of  Angoumois,  was 
altered  by  the  current  we  have  encountered 
at  Estella  and  at  Carrion.  Though  the 
little  tympanum  in  the  eighteenth  century 
was  over  the  door,  probably  that,  in  the 
beginning,  had  none,  like  Saintes  and  Bor- 
deaux and  Aulnay  and  the  original  Civray. 
The  tympanum  should  belong  to  a  side 
door,  as  at  Leyre  and  Huesca.  The  great 
tympanum  occupied  the  upper  part  of  the 
facade,  and  an  awkward  concession  to  the 
artist's  recollection  of  how  they  did  the 
thing  in  France,  is  found  in  the  immense 
size  of  the  Christ,  and  the  presence  of  ab- 
surd arches  and  tabernacles  over  the 
Apostles  wherever  there  was  room,  though 
there  was  never  room  for  columns.  Below, 
flanking  the  door  jambs  wherein  statues 
stood,  stretched  a  pair  of  great  slabs,  as  at 
Estella,  carved  with  the  eternal  Hope, 
"Thou  wilt  not  leave  my  soul  in  hell." 
The  Apocalyptic  Lord,  who  Himself  rose 
put  of  the  empty  tomb,  took  with  him  our 



and  French 



S.  Maria  de 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

first  parents.  These  slabs,  falling  exactly 
halfway  between  the  cloister  sculptures  at 
Silos  and  the  portal  sculptures  at  Estella, 
explain  the  last.  Two  other  reliefs  are 
built  into  this  porch  wall,  that  may  have 
occupied  the  spandrels  about  the  door:  the 
Annunciation,  and  S.  Martin,  a  pilgrim 
theme.  In  spite  of  their  injured  state, 
especially  the  weatherworn  Apostolado, 
there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  any  other 
considerable  portions  lost,  that  once 

The  white  sanctuary  of  S.  Maria  of  Esti- 
baliz, visible  from  very  far  on  a  high  green 
hill,  has  always  been  a  place  of  pilgrimage: 
it  was  a  monastery  in  1074  when  Alvaro 
Gonzalez  made  a  present  to  the  abbey  of  S. 
Millan  of  various  properties  and  the  altar 
at  the  right  in  the  monastery  of  S.  Maria  de 
Estibaliz.  The  poor  pretty  church  has  been 
"  the  stars'  tennis  ball,  struck  and  bandied." 
Dona  Maria  L6pez  gave  it  to  Najera  in 
1 138,  and  when  Najera  wanted  to  build 
the  new  church,  it  was  sold  to  Fernan 
Perez  de  Ayala,  for  a  good  price  in  gold 
and  an  annuity  in  perpetuity.3    Though 



the  contract  was  ratified  by  John  II  in 
Valladolid,  March  15, 1432,  there  was  some 
sharp  practice,  for  shortly  the  annuity 
stopped,  and  the  Adelantado  mayor  of 
Guipuzcoa,  D.  Pedro  Fernandez  de  Ayala, 
or  his  heir,  was  discovered  to  have  sold  the 
property,  at  a  profit,  to  the  city  of  Vitoria. 4 
The  city  still  keeps  up  the  establishment, 
which  is — "Item,  one  priest  to  say  Mass, 
item,  one  old  man  to  sweep." 

They  both  were  charming  to  the  visitor. 
The  church  has  three  parallel  apses  on  the 
brow  of  the  cliff,  an  early  Gothic  door  that 
opens  on  sweet  turf,  and  a  grand  south- 
transept  facade  that  looks  abroad,  and  is 
copied  in  a  general  way  after  Aulnay.  The 
detail,  however,  is  quite  different,  being 
diaper  on  the  columns:  on  the  jambs  such 
a  scroll-work  as  wreathes  about  the  east 
window  of  Aulnay;  and  in  the  archivolts, 
leaf  and  guilloche.  A  little  Annunciation  is 
built  in  by  the  door:  on  one  capital  the 
demon  or  savage  like  a  red  Indian,  who  is 
familiar  at  Wzelay,  Conques  and  Clermont. 
Inside,  some  of  the  capitals  have  oriental 
traits,  some  the  Romanesque  that  reaches 



priest,  Jack 


Para  andar 

me  bastan 
mis  pensa- 


WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

from  S.  BenoJt-sur-Loire  to  Fr6mista,  but 
these  about  the  apse  are  of  the  school  of 
Clermont-Ferrand.  Another  one  is  identi- 
cal with  a  cloister-capital  at  Silos.  The 
sanctuary  has  a  round  barrel-vault  in 
advance  of  the  apse,  the  nave  has  two  bays 
of  pointed  barrel-vault,  the  south  transept 
one,  the  north  transept,  a  cross-vault  with 
wall-ribs;  the  crossing,  strong  ribs  and 
windows  in  the  four  bays,  a  wider  space  of 
wall  than  usual  being  interspersed  between 
the  apses.  This  pilgrimage  church  owes  its 
being  to  pilgrims  and  its  form  and  charm. 
The  carving  everywhere  is  very  precious. 

Beyond  the  wide  meadow  land  that  laps 
Vitoria  the  road  turns  and  doubles  among 
huge  mountains,  that  earlier  ages  found 
depressing  to  the  spirits,  and  comes  at  last 
to  the  easy  way  by  sands  and  shores  and 
desert  wildernesses. 





"Still  alive  and  still  boldtn  shouted  Earth, 
11  The  dead  fill  me  ten  thousandfold 

Fuller  of  speed  and  splendour  and  mirth. 
I  was  cloudy  and  sullen  and  cold, 
Like  a  frozen  chaos  upr oiled, 

Till  by  the  spirit  of  the  mighty  dead 

My  heart  grew  warm:  I  feed  on  whom  I  fed. ' ' 

The  whole  region  of  Roncevaux  is  Pyr- 
enean  and  neither  Spanish  nor  French.  The 
mass  of  conventual  buildings  at  the  village 
with  slate  roofs  hipped  and  pyramidal, 
ought  to  be  in  the  Engadine  or  the  Tyrol. 
The  church  was  rebuilt  in  the  fourteenth 
century,  not  ignobly:  the  well-ribbed  apse 
and  chevet,  the  piers,  probably  circular 
always,  the  multiplied  mouldings  of  the 
portal,  are  all  Navarrese,  ripe,  strong,  and 
sound.  On  the  Spanish  soil,  one  cannot 
ask  more.  Hereabouts  Brunette  Latini, 
coming  back  from  a  political  mission,  heard 
bad  news. 1  The  Ossuary  has  a  corrugated 
tin  roof;  the  keys  of  S.  James's  chapel  are 
not  to  be  procured;  the  pilgrims'  cross  is 
lichened  out  of  recognition;  but  still  high 
are  the  mountains  and  dark  are  the  rocks. 

The  precise  place  of  the  battle,  the  prob- 




floret  stent 




In  a  mist 


WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

able  path  of  the  main  army  and  the  rear- 
guard, have  all  been  discussed  so  learnedly, 
and  with  such  knowledge  of  the  ground, 
that  they  need  not  here  be  touched. a  The 
grass  is  very  green  in  the  wide  field,  and  in 
the  narrow  defile  the.  rocks  stand  up  dark 
in  the  drifting  mist,  and  the  trees  drip, 
softly  shrouded  in  the  pale  vapour,  and 
the  brooks  roar  down  invisible  or,  when  the 
cloud  lifts,  hang  like  a  white  skein  against 
the  opposite  green.  As  at  Pinisterre,  so 
here  the  souls  of  the  dead  were  all  about  us, 
pressing  close,  calling,  in  the  murmur  of  the 
living  forest,  in  the  hush  of  the  rocky  spur, 
calling  so  desperately  it  seemed  they  must 
make  a  sound.  The  white  mist  closed 
round  on  us,  wrapped  us  about,  came  in 
between  each  and  other.  The  echo  of  Ro- 
land's horn  is  in  our  ears:  high  are  the 
mountains  and  dark  are  the  rocks:  and 
there  follows  a  mist  and  a  weeping  rain. 
The  souls  of  that  bitter  defeat  are  there  yet. 
Roland,  when  all  was  lost,  had  turned 
and  crossed  the  field  alone;  he  had  searched 
the  valleys,  and  he  searched  the  mountains 
an4  found  his  comrades  one  by  one,  and  the 



Chanson  names  them ;  and  he  brought  them, 
dead,  for  Turpin's  benediction;  "God  the 
glorious  have  your  souls,1'  says  Turpin, 
"and  put  them  in  a  fair  paradise  of  flow- 
ers." His  own  death  hurt  him  sore,  that 
he  should  not  ever  again  see  the  Emperor. 
Roland  turned  and  crossed  the  field,  he 
searched  and  found  his  comrade  Oliver 
under  a  pine,  beside  an  eglantine;  he  held 
him  fast  embraced.    Turpin  absolved  him 

and  blessed  him — and  the  dule,  the  pity 
of  it!  Then  Roland,  seeing  his  peers  dead, 
all  the  fair  company  of  the  knights  of 
Christ,  and  Oliver  whom  he  loved  so  well, 
wept  and  his  face  was  changed,  and  will  he 
or  no,  he  was  senseless.  Said  the  Arch- 
bishop, "O  Baron,  the  pity  of  it!"  Then 
Turpin  held  up  his  fair  hands  to  God  and 
prayed  for  Paradise  to  be  granted,  and  he 
died  all  alone:  he  had  been  a  good  knight, 
by  deed  and  by  speech :  God  give  him  bene- 
diction! So  Roland  knew  that  death  was 
very  near:  the  mountains  were  high,  ther 
trees  were  very  high,  he  could  not  see  well, 
but  four  steps  of  marble  shone  in  the  grass 
and  he  got  to  them.   There  against  a  cross, 



After  the 


The  death 
of  Roland 

WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

under  a  pine,  lay  the  Count  Roland,  he 
turned  his  face  to  Spain,  he  began  to  re- 
member many  things.  He  thought  of  all 
the  lands  the  barons  had  conquered,  of 
sweet  France,  of  the  men  of  his  own  line, 
his  father  and  his  father,  of  Charlemagne, 
his  lord,  who  had  bred  him  up;  and  he 
could  not  stir  but  the  tears  came  and  the 
sighs.  And  he  would  not  forget.  He  made 
his  penitence,  he  prayed  God's  mercy: 
"God  of  truth,  and  not  a  liar,  who  brought 
back  Lazarus  from  the  dead,  and  saved 
Daniel  from  the  lions,  guard  my  soul  from 
what  lies  in  wait  for  the  sins  I  did  in  my 
life."  He  proffered  to  God  his  right-hand 
glove,  S.  Gabriel  took  it  from  his  hand. 
Then  he  bowed  his  head  on  his  arm,  folded 
his  hands  and  met  his  end.  God  sent 
his  angel  Cherubin,  and  S.  Michael  of 
the  Peril,  and  with  them  both  came  S. 
Gabriel.  The  Count's  soul  they  carried 
to  Paradise. 

So  Roland  is  dead — God  keep  his  soul  in 
Heaven  —  and  Charlemagne  is  come  to 
Roncevaux.  But  the  good  knights  are  all 
dead,  the  fair  company  of  the  White  Horse- 



men,  knights  of  Christ,  and  the  old  man 
cried  and  plucked  at  his  fair  white  beard. 

The  splendour  of  Roncevaux  is  the  splen- 
dour of  a  losing  fight,  the  glory  that  shines 
on  that  field  is  the  glory  of  martyrdom. 
Not  today  can  we  bear  to  speak  of  France, 
and  of  loss  together.  Charlemagne,  like 
Frederick  II  and  like  Santiago,  still  sits 
in  his  tomb,  crowned,  armed,  robed,  and 
sword-girt,  ready  to  come  forth  in  the  hour 
of  France's  need. 

All  Souls'  Day,  191 7. 


Anda  el  tiempo  y  anda  y 
todo  se  acaba. 

If  it  is  murk,  murk  night,  if  the  Way  is 
all  dark,  there  are  lights  that  show  which 
way  to  go.  There  are  innumerable  lights. 
The  multitudinous  stars  in  the  great  heaven, 
the  countless  little  flickering  lights  of  the 
sepultados,  the  thousand  candles  that  burn 
stilly  above  the  altar,  all  are  the  souls  of 
the  dead.     The  French   knights  of  the 



Candor  est 




Laus  mortis 

WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

twelfth  century  thought  the  stars  were  their 
own  knightly  guidance,  the  host  whose 
shout  was:  "  / Santiago  y  Cierra  Espanal " 
but  they  were  all  the  time  souls  that  had 
gone  that  way  long  and  long  before;  before 
Altamira  was  painted  or  Cerro  de  los  Santos 

It  was  a  favourite  choice  of  the  Middle 
Age  to  paint  on  churchyard  wall  and 
charnel-house  how  we  all  follow  after 
death.  A  man  will  travel  across  half  the 
broad  earth  to  visit  an  empty  tomb  or  a 
handful  of  mouldering  bones.  Death  is  the 
one  sure  guardian;  all  good  things  are  safe 
there,  immortally  fair.  Fair  things  mortal 
pass,  and  the  things  of  art,  and  the  dreams 
of  a  common  brotherhood  and  of  "a  heart 
even  as  mine  behind  this  vain  show  of 
things";  Death  lays  them  away  like  the 
kings  of  Egypt  in  pyramids. 

Across  the  sky  the  souls  are  passing  on 
the  starry  track,  and  in  them  the  soul  dis- 
cerns its  brethren  and  its  destiny.  Look- 
ing up  from  the  rimy,  silvered  earth,  hour 
after  hour,  plunged  in  their  ineffaceable 
multitude,  one  remembers   a  song   that 



youth  once  made  of  the  wandering  souls 
along  the  unending  track: 

The  wind  blows  out  of  the  door  of  day, 
The  pine  trees  toss  along  the  way, 
And  the  open  road  runs  over  and  on 
Whither  the  souls  of  the  dead  have  gone. 
Dead  feet  patter,  dead  voices  say 
Over  the  hills  and  far  away  I 




WAYOF    S.     JAMES 





Espana  sagrada,  XIX,  XX,  XXX— Fita  y 
Guerra,  Recuerdos  de  un  viaje — L6pez  Fe- 
rreiro,  Historia  de  la  S.  A.  M.  Iglesia — 
Lamperez,  Historia  de  la  arquitectura — 
Fernandez  Casanova,  Monografia  de  la  cate- 
dral  de  Santiago— Villa-amil,  La  catedral  de 
Santiago,  and  Description  historica-artistica 
arqueologica — Llaguno,  Noticias  de  los  ar- 
quitectos  y  la  arquitectura,  I — Fita  et  Vinson, 
Le  codex  de  S.  Jacques  de  Compostelle — R.  de 
Lasteyrie,  L1  Architecture  Religieuse  en  France 
— Ch.  de  Lasteyrie,  VAbbaye  de  S.  Martial  de 
Limoges — C.  Enlart  in  Michel,  Histoire  de 
VArt,  I,  ii  and  Opusculi — E.Bertaux  in  Michel, 
Histoire  de  VArty  II,  i  and  II,  ii — Abb€ 
Bouillet,  S.  Foy  de  Conques,  S.  Sernin  de 
Toulouse  et  S.  Jacques  de  Compostelle— Street, 
Gothic  Architecture  in  Spain, — C.  Gasquoine 
Hartley,  Santiago  de  Compo Stella. 


1  Fita  y  Guerra,  Recuerdos  de  un  viaje,  p. 

a  Id.  ibid.,  p.  74. 

*  Id.  ibid.,  p.  70;  from  Zepedano. 




WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

«  Chronicle  of  Sampiro,  Espafia  sagrada, 
XI V,  439 ;  Chronicon  Irense  in  Espafia  sagrada, 
XX,  6oi. 

s  Espafia  sagrada,  XIX,  329. 

*  Id.  ibid.,  331-3- 

ild.  ibid.,  335.  These  Scripturae  majori 
ex  parte  ineditae  that  F16rez  published,  lead- 
ing up  to  the  Historia  Compostellana  in  Vol. 
XX,  are  invaluable  for  study  of  the  twelfth 
century  devotion,  and  their  evidence  is  not 
involved  with  their  authenticity. 

8  Espafia  sagrada,  XIX,  3^0. 

•  Pita,  who  knows  more  than  most  Spanish 
scholars  and  immeasurably  more  than  any 
others  about  the  Spain  of  antiquity,  identifies 
"Eabeca  "  with  B£tica,  the  See  that  suc- 
ceeded Aquae  Flaviae,  where  now  is  Boticas, 
west  of  Chaves;  Recuerdos  de  un  viaje,  p.  61. 
On  pp.  60-61  he  publishes  five  of  the  inscrip- 
tions at  Santiago ;  others  are  in  Hubner.  In- 
scriptions have  been  found  at  Aquae  Flaviae, 
including  one  to  the  nymphs  (Corpus  Inscrip. 
Lai.  II,  2474).  The  description  is  quoted  by 
Street,  Some  Account  of  Gothic  Architecture,  I, 
190  note;  and  printed  by  Florez,  Espafia 
sagrada,  XIX,  3^4. 

10  The  original  of  the  document  does  not 
exist;  a  copy,  "in  Gothic  script,"  was  pre- 
served at  Oviedo  which  Castella  printed  in 
the  seventeenth  century.  It  can  hardly  be  an 
authentic  composition  of  the  ninth  century, 
— and  indeed  it  pretends  to  neither  title  nor 
signature — because  the  emphasis  laid  on  the 
church  doors  in  the  description  belongs  to 
Romanesque  building  with  its  jamb-shafts. 



But  it  embodies  a  constant  tradition,  and  in 
certain  details,  like  the  inventory  of  relics  in 
the  altars,  it  may  be  trustworthy. 

11  Dreves,  Analecta  Hymnica,  xvii,  201. 

"  Villa-amil  y  Castro,  La  catedral  de  San- 
tiago (1909),  p.  9. 

"  Historic  dtlaS.A.M.  Iglesia,  II,  184. 

m  EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  86  sqq. 

l*Lovium,  as  the  Compostellana  calls  it, 
suggests  a  wolf's  den.  EspaHa  sagrada,  XX, 

16  Lamperez,  Historia  de  la  arquitectura,  I, 

"EspaHa  sagrada,  XVIII,  80. 

19 EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  177-178;  Dozy, 
Recherches,  I,  199-202.  V.  note  p.  43:  "E 
pensava  e*  dezia  outro  non  avia  eun  o  mundo 
senon  o  bon  varon  Santiago  que  era  Deus  dos 
cristianos."  Pita,  Escrit.  Hist.,  Ill,  75  (1835). 

»•  EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  174-178. 

"EspaHa  sagrada,  XVII,  301. 

"  EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  195. 

"EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  177. 

*'  Baum,  Romanesque  Architecture  in  France, 
p.  viii. 

**  Fita  et  Vinson,  Le  codex  de  5.  Jacques, 


**Note  Archiologique   sur   S.   Sernin,   in 

Bulletin  du  ComitS  de  Travaux  Historiques. 

96  R.  de  Lasteyrie,  L* Architecture  Religieuse, 

pp.  251, 282,  448;  Ch.  de  Lasteyrie,  L'Abbaye 

de  5.  Martial  de  Limoges,  p.  315;  Bouillet,  5. 

Foy  de  Conques,  5.  Sernin  de  Toulouse,  S, 

Jacques  de  Compostelle,  in  MSmoires  de  la 

SocUti  des  Antiquaires  de  France,  1892,  pp. 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

1 17-128;  Street,  Gothic  Architecture  in  Spain, 

If  197. 

V  EspaHa  sagrada,  XX,  52.  The  date,  by 
the  way,  is  given  wrongly  there,  as  appears  by 
the  context. 

28  Lamperez,  op.  cit.t  I,  149-158,  espe- 
cially, 158. 

2*  Fita  et  Vinson,  op.  cit.,  59. 

*°  EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  199-201. 

*x  EspaHa  sagrada,  XX,  473.  F16rez,  by 
the  way,  accepts  this  date  without  question, 
EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  204;  and  I  think  the 
first  occasion  of  dispute  was  the  French  claim 
to  complete  possession.  I  believe,  myself, 
that  the  right  date  is  1078. 

*a  Lopez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  Til,  Appendix  i, 
p.  3 ;  Espana  sagrada,  XIX,  203. 

«  Chronicles  of  Burgos,  EspaHa  sagrada, 
XXIII,  310. 

"Llaguno,  Noticias  de  los  arquitectos  y 
Arquitectura,  I,  41-42;  Quadrado,  Asturias  y 
Leon,  280. 

«  Fita  et  Vinson,  op.  et  loc.  cit. 

j«  EspaHa  sagrada,  XX,  137, 308. 

*i  La catedral  de  Santiago,  p.  54. 

'*  Manuel  d'Archiologte  Francaise,  p.  244. 

*9 EspaHa  sagrada,  XX,  473. 

*°Id.  ibid.,  p.  401. 

«*  Id.  ibid.,  p.  545. 

*' Id.  ibid.,  p.  594. 

**  Fita  y  Vinson,  Le  Codex  de  S.  Jacques, 
p.  48. 

44  L<5pez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  IV,  Appendix  vi, 
Appendix,  xxxvii. 

45  Lopez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  V,  73. 



«*  EspaHa  sagrada,  XX  III ,  3 24 ;  Ldpez  Fe- 
rreiro, op.  cit.t  v,  57. 

"A  painting  of  S.  Ferdinand,  in  a  MS.  of 
Compostella,  shows  three  towers  that  look 
to  be  at  the  springing  of  the  apse,  and  over 
the  crossing.  These  miniatures,  however, 
are  sadly  conventional  and  untrustworthy: 
as  in  black  letter  books,  a  few  figures  do  for 
all  the  kings  and  queens.  The  Knight  of 
Rozmital  saw  six  towers,  four  round  and  two 
square:  one  of  these  was  in  an  angle  near 
the  porch. 

«8  L6pez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  Ill,  229. 

4»  I  am  not  sure  that  travellers  have  noted 
the  likeness  to  the  one  surviving,  in  pictures 
of  that  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre  at  Jerusalem. 
From  the  fifteenth  century  there  are  plenty: 
yet  I  never  look  at  a  picture  of  the  Puerto  de 
las  P later ias  that  this  does  not  rise  up.  Cf. 
PP.  Vincent  et  Abel,  Jerusalem.  The  in- 
fluence may  have  been  partly  French  at  first- 
hand, but  there  were  Spanish  crusaders  too, 
and  pilgrims  and  sumptuous  Spanish  gifts 
that  are  still  preserved  in  Jerusalem.  V. 
G6mez  Carrillo,  Jerusalem  y  la  tierra  santa, 
p.  218-224,  L°s  tesoros  de  Santiago. 

5°  Dante,  Purgatoriot  x,  39-40. 

5 l  Michel,  Histoire  de  VArt,  II,  i,  253. 

s a  The  description  of  Aymery,  which  con- 
stitutes in  the  Guide,  Chapter  ix,  §§  3-15,  is 
reprinted  by  L6pez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.t  III,  Ap- 
pendix ii. 

S3  L6pez  Ferreiro,  El  pdrtico  de  la  gloria, 
Santiago,  1893. 

J*  The  importance  given  to  this  motive  is 




WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

to  be  explained  from  the  Apocalypse  of  Paul. 
V.  extract  in  Appendix  VIII. 

"  Cf.  the  figure  of  Christ  cradled  in  the 
Tree  of  Life,  in  the  legend  of  the  Cross:  e.  g.t 
Cursor  Mundi,  1.  1343. 

*6  Cf.  also  Thurkffl's  Vision,  Appendix  VII: 
the  fresh  turf  of  the  Vision  is  very  English, 
but  it  is  Atlantic  as  well  and  not  unknown  to 

"Dreves,  Analecta  Hymnica  Medii  Aevi, 
XVII,  151. 

**  Revue  de  VArt  ChrHien,  March,   1895. 

*»  For  a  discussion  of  TundalTs  Vision  and 
this  door,  v.  p.  253. 

60  R.  de  Lasteyrie  in  Monuments  Piot,  VIII. 


Florez,  Espafia  sagrada,  XIX,  XX — La 
Fuente,  Historic  eclesidstica  de  Espafia — 
Lopez Ferreiro, Historia dela  S.A.M.  Iglesia, 
III,  IV,  V.  The  substance  of  this  chapter  is 
nearly  all  in  the  Historia  Compostellana,  which 
F16rez  printed,  but  I  have  used  in  part  besides 
La  Fuente,  the  Spanish  History  of  the  Holy 
Apostolical  Metropolitan  Church  of  Santiago , 
by  the  late  D.  Antonio  Ltfpez  Ferreiro,  who 
in  his  biography  of  the  great  Archbishop 
embedded  therein,  understood,  and  rendered, 
the  epical  character. 

1  La  Fuente,  Historia  eclesidstica  de  EspaHa, 
III,  305,  IV,  147  sqq. 

2  Riafio,  Viajes  de  extranjeros,  p.  247. 



3  La  Puente,  op.  cit.t  IV. 

4  La  Fuente,  op.  tit.,  Ill,  305. 
s  La  Fuente,  op.  cit.,  IV,  149. 

6  Dozy,  Recherches,  II,  315-332. 

7  Espafia  sagrada,  XXI,  pp.  359-360. 

8  Fita  et  Vinson,  Le  Codex  de  S.  Jacques, 
pp.  48-49. 

9  Historia  Compostellana,  II,  xxviii;  see 
L6pez  Ferreiro,  Historia  de  laS.A.  M.  Iglesia, 
IV,  21.  Cf.  also  Lopez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  IV, 
181 ;  "When  (about  the  year  1 135)  there  came 
to  Santiago  a  Canon  of  Jerusalem  called  Aym- 
ery,  with  letters  from  the  Patriarch  Stephen." 
Is  this  the  one  in  the  Book  of  S.  James?  The 
Canon  gives  no  references. 


Espafia  sagrada — Lopez  Ferreiro,  His- 
toria de  la  S.  A.  M.  Iglesia — Fita  y  Guerra, 
Recuerdos  de  un  viaje — Villa-amil,  mobiliario 
liturgico — Fita  et  Vinson,  Le  Livre  de  S. 
Jacques  de  Compostelle — Bonnault  d'Houet,X^ 
Peterinage  d'un  Paysan  Picard — Fabi6,  Viajes 
por  Espafia — Riano,  Viajes  de  extranjeros — 
Dreves,  Analecta  Hymnica. 

1  L6pez  Ferreiro,  Historia  de  la  S.  A.  M. 
Iglesia,  IV,  71;  Historia  Compostellana,  11, 
xxvii,  Espafia  sagrada,  XX,  427. 

a  Murgufa,  Galicia,  p.  426. 

*  Pelerinage  d'un  Paysan  Picard,  p.  87. 

*  Espafia  sagrada,  XX,  379-380. 




WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

s  Cltara  is  the  name  of  a  vestment  cited  in 
three  documents  of  the  twelfth  century, 
though  in  an  account  of  the  fourth  marriage 
of  Dona  Urraca  in  Leon,  1144,  ^ne  word 
certainly  means  a  musical  instrument.  Cf. 
Villa-amil,  Mobiliario  LMrgico,  p.  349,  pp. 
290,  291. 

*  Historic  Compostellana,  in,  xv;  Espana 
sagrada,  XX,  499. 

7  Alexandre  de  Laborde,  Itineraire  de- 
scriptif  deVEspcgne,  II,  194. 

'Saavedra's  translation  in  Boletin  de  la 
Sociedad  Geogrdfica  de  Madrid,  XXIV,  166. 

9  Historic,  de laS.  A.  M.  Iglesia,  III,  p.  566, 
App.  ii. 

10  Morales,  Viaje  santo,  p.  153. 
"Lopez  Ferreiro  has  reprinted  from  the 

Book  of  S.  James  the  whole  of  Chapter  ix 
in  the  Guide,  the  description  of  the  church, 
and  therefore  I  have  not.  Historic  de  la 
S.A.M.  Iglesia,  III,  App.  ii,  pp.  8-24. 

xa  Cf.  Porreno,  Nobiliario  del  Reyno  de 
Galicia,  in  Murguia,  Galicia,  p.  505;  also 
Villa-amil,  Mobiliario  Liturgico,  p.  347-8. 

JJ  Fita  et  Vinson,  Le  Codex  de  S.  Jasques, 


1  *  Historic  Compostellana,  i,  xviii;  Espana 

sagrada,  XX,  p.  52. 

1  s  Fita  et  Vinson,  op.  cit.,  p.  58;  Lopez 
Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  Ill,  App.  p.  20. 

16  On  December  30,  the  feast  of  the  Trans- 
lation, to  be  exact.  L6pez  Ferreiro  publishes 
this  as  from  the  Codex  {Historic  de  laS.A.  M. 
Iglesia,  III,  pp.  301-303),  but  I  have  not  been 
able  to  verify  the  reference.      By  Codex  he 



means  sometimes  the  Book  of  S.  James  and 
sometimes  the  Historia  Compostellana. 

*i  Dreves,  Analecta  Hymnica,  XVII,  201. 

18  Lopez  Perreiro,  op.  cit.,  Ill,  App.  iii, 
pp.  25-27.    From  Tumbo  A ,  fol.  34,  verso. 

The  Church  of  a  Dream: 

1  EspaHa  sagrada,  xx,  52. 

'Quoted  in  Wright,  Early  Travels  in 
Palestine,  p.  337.  The  Lord  of  Vieuxchateau 
made  his  journey  in  1432-3. 

i  For  Assisi,  v.  Lina  Duff  Gordon,  The 
Story  of  Assisi,  pp.  106,  136,  and  Vasari,  Vite, 
I,  pp.  280, 281.  For  Compostella,  v.  Rev.  F. 
Fita,  Recuerdos  de  un  viaje,  pp.  79, 80, 81 . 

Vasari's  words  are  these: 

"Un  maestro  Jacopo  Tedesco  .  .  .  de- 
signo  un  corpo  de  chiesa  e  convento  bellissimo, 
facendo  del  modello  tre  ordini,  uno  da  farse 
sorro  terra  e  gli  altre  per  due  chiese;  .  .  . 
e  perche  la  propria  sepoltura  che  serba  il 
corpo  del  glorioso  Santo  6  nella  prima,  ci6e 
nella  piu  bassa  chiesa,  dove  non  va  mai 
nessuno  e  che  ha  le  forte  murale;  intorno  al 
detto  altare  sono  grate  de  ferro  grandissime 
con  ricchi  ornamenti  di  marmo  e  di  musaico, 
del  laggiu  riguardano."  Ed.  Milanesi, 
Florence,  1878. 

*  Cf.  Miracle  xviii,  in  Appendix  II. 

s  F.  Riafto,  Viajes  de  extranjeros  por  Es- 
pana,  p.  136. 

6  Quoted  in  S.  Baring-Gould,  Lives  of  the 
Saints  (1898),  December,  p.  131. 

1  Pierre  Loti,  Jerusalem,  pp.  69-72. 

1  Murgufa,  Galicia,  p.  505. 





9  Riaflo,  op.  cil.,  135, 136. 
*•  Wright,  Early  Travels  in  Palestine,  p.  75. 
1  x  Boswell,  An  Irish  Precursor  of  Dante,]).  32. 
"puillaume  de  Deguilleville,  P&erinage 
de  I' Ante,  1.  9601  sqq. 

"  La  dessous  celle  couronne 
Ou  le  roys  ses  graces  donne 
Entre  quand  veut  la  royne, 
Et  voit  le  roys  sans  courtine, 
Et  se  siet  asses  pres  de  li." 

* 3  There  were  three  thrones:  "On  the 
middle  one  sat  young  persons  wearing  crowns 
of  laurel.  Over  the  throne  hung  a  large  and 
costly  crown " .  (p.  1 48) .  "All  the  Royal-  Per- 
sons before  meat  attired  themselves  in  snow- 
white  glittering  garments.  Over  the  table 
hung  the  great  golden  crown,  the  precious 
stones  whereof  without  other  light  would 
have  sufficiently  illuminated  the  hall"  (p. 
158)*  By  the  way,  a  little  earlier  in  the 
narrative  occurs  the  weighing  of  the  candi- 
dates, in  as  full  detail  as  that  in  ThurkiU's 
Vision,  on  the  third  day  (after  one  night, 
that  is,  in  the  strange  castle).  "Meanwhile 
the  scales,  which  were  entirely  of  gold,  are 
hung  in  the  midst  of  the  hall.  There  was 
also  a  little  table  covered  with  red  velvet  and 
seven  weights  thereon:  first  of  all  stood  a 
pretty  great  one  ..."  etc.  (p.  122). 
The  Chymical  Marriage  of  Christian  Rosen- 
creutz,  c.  161 6,  translated  1690:  reprinted  by 
A.  E.  Waite  in  The  Real  History  of  the  Rosi- 
er ucians. 

r«  Phlerinage  d'un  Paysan  Picardt  p.  79* 



As  Pilgrims  Pass: 

1  Fabie\  Viajes  por EspaHa,p.  173. 

*  Riano,  Viajes  de  extranjeros;  p.  338-9. 

1  Pelerinagea'un  Pay  son  Picard,pp.  74-76. 
« Historia delaS.A.  M.  Iglesia,  III,  146. 
s  Riano,  op.  cit.f  p.  137. 
6  Id.  ibtd.,  p.  16. 

I  Fabi6,  op.  cit.t  p.  173. 

8  Hartley,  Santiago  de  ComposteUa,  p.  170. 

*  Cf.  Melida,  El  jinete  iberico  in  Botetin  de 
la  Sociedad  EspaHola,  1900,  VIII,  178-180. 

"Espafia  sagrada,  XIX,  64;  XX,  6,  7,  8. 
.  "  P. 'Meyer,  La  Vie  et  la  Translation  de  5. 
Jacques  le  Majeur  in  Romania,  XXXI,  253, 

II  Lopez  Ferreiro,  Galicia  en  el  ultimo  tereio 
del  siglo  XV,  I,  275. 

«s  Lopez  Ferreiro,  Historia  de  la  S.  A.  M. 
Iglesia,  V,  Appendices,  64-67. 

f«  Viaje    de    EspaUa    por     un    anonimo, 
Madrid,  1883. 
•  ■  *«  Riafio,  op.  cit.,  p.  25. 

Castle  and  Church: 

1  Fabi6,  Viajes  por  EspaUa,  p.  98. 

*  Id.  ibtd.,  p.  173. 

*  Riafio,  Viajes  de  extranjeros,  p.  99. 

*  Murguia,  Galicia,  p.  484. 
s  Fabii,  op.  «"/.,  p.  99. 

6  Lopez  Ferreiro,  Galicia  en  el  ultimo  tereio 
del  siglo  X  V,  1, 45, 46,  quoting  Recuento  de  las 
casas  antiguas  delreyno  de  Galicia. 

1  Froissart,  Chronicles  of  France,  England 
and  Spain,  II,  xxxiv. 

8  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  p.  407. 




WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

9  Premier  Voyage  de  Philippe  le  Beau.  I 
take  the  phrase  from  Bonnaflfe,  Voyages  et 
Voyageurs  de  la  Renaissance,  p.  47. 

10  Froissart,  op.  cit.,  in,  xlviii. 

11  Cancionero  popular  gallegof  in  Biblioteca 
de  tradiciones  populates,  XI,  137. 

12  Hispaniae  IUustratae,  Vol.  IV,  93. 


Viaje  de  Espafla  pot  un  an6nimo~— 
Viajes  por  Espafla — Riaflo,  Viajes  de  extran- 
jeros — El  pelegrino  curioso — Bonafede,  Viag- 
gio  Occidenkue  a  S.  Giacomo — Ballesteros, 
Cancionero  popular  gollego. 

'This  is  taken  from  Mrs.  Gallichan's 
Santiago  de  Cotnpostetta,  p.  44,  where  it  is 
quoted  without  source  or  author.  I  fancy  I 
have  met  it  elsewhere,  and  not  quite  believed 
in  it:  "  Esa  iiene  algo  de  rancio,"  as  Antonio 
said  one  day,  but  it  is  picturesque.  The 
following  two  passages  are  taken  from  an 
article  on  the  Cronica  de  los  Francos  in  the 
Boletin  de  la  Real  Accidentia  de  Historia  (I, 
461,  note),  written  by  the  translator  of  the 
Bayen,  D.  Francisco  Fernandez  y  Gonzalez. 

'  Fabil,  Viajes  por  Espafla,  p.  95. 

*  Riaflo,  Viajes  de  extranjeros,  p.  135. 

4  Fabil,  op.  cit.,  p.  104;  Riaflo,  op.  ctt.,  p.  15. 

s  D.  Jose*  Perez  Ballesteros,  Biblioteca  de 
tradiciones  popular esf  VII,  IX,  and  XI;  these 
canciones  are  all  found,  VII,  196. 



6  Ria/fo,  op.  cit.f  p.  16. 

'Cumont,  Textcs  et  Monuments  FigurSs,  II, 
1 66.  He  is  mistaken,  however,  in  supposing 
Iria  Plavia  to  be  Caldas  de  Reyes :  it  is  Padron. 

•E.  G.  R.,  Viaje  de  EspaHa  por  un  and- 
nimo:  this  has  no  pagination  being  copied 
from  the  black-letter. 

9  Cf.  Macrobius,  Sat.  i,  xxii,  §  13. 

10  biblioteca  de  tradiciones  populates,  IX, 

11  Id.  ibid.,  132. 

"  The  church  was  published  by  Sr.  Garcia 
de  Pruneda  in  the  Boletin  de  la  Sociedad 
Espanola,  1907,  p.  156. 

x*  Fabi£,  op.  ctt.,  p.  104. 


Murgufa,  Galicia — Emilia  Pardo  Bazan, 
De  mi  tierra — Biblioteca  de  tradiciones  popu- 
lates— Kelly,  Curiosities  of  Indo-European 
Tradition  and  Folk-Lore — Mila  y  Fontanals, 
La  poesia  popular  gaUega — Dante,  Divina 
Commedia—-Boswe\\,  An  Irish  Precursor  of 
Dante — Meyer  and  Nutt,  The  Voyage  of 
Bran— Turnbull,  The  Visions  of  TundaU— 
Ward,  Catalogue  of  Romances — Ward,  The 
Vision  oflhurkUl— Perkins,  The  Revelation  of 
the  Blessed  Apostle  Paul— Walker,  Apocry- 
phal Gospels,  Acts  and  Revelations— Kolbing, 
Owen  Mtles — Brown,  I  wain. 

1  The  testimony  of  the  two  secretaries 
agrees:  "A  Divo  Jacobo  ad  Stellam obscuram 






WAY    OF     S.   JAMES 

quatuordecem  milliarium  via  est  .  .  .  sub  eo 
templo  est  pagus  amplus,  que  vocatur  finis 
terrae,  nam  ultra  eum  nihil  aliud  est  quam 
agae  et  pelagus,  eijus  terminos  nemo  novit, 
praeter  ipsum  Deum."  Des  Bohmischen 
Herrn  Leo  von  Rozmital  Ritter-  Hof~  und  PU- 
ger-Reise,  Stuttgart,  p.  88. 

44  Von  Sant  Jacob  ritt  wir  an  den  Finstern 
Stern,  als  es  dann  die  bauren  nennen,  es 
heisst  aber  Finis  terrae.  Do  sieht  man  nichts 
anders  essethinuber  dann  himmel  und  wasser, 
und  sagen  mer  do  so  ungestum  sey,  das  nie- 
mand  mug  hinuber  faren,  man  wiss  auch 
nit,  wass  do  gesset  sey."    Id.  ibid.,  177. 

2  Riafio,  Viajes  de  extranjeros,  p.  16. 

*  Murguia,  Galicia,  p.  182. 

*Id.ib.,  183. 

5 Bibliotecade  tradiciones  populates,  IV,  129. 

6  Biblioteca  de  tradiciones  popular  es,  IX,  194, 

1  Kelly,  Curiosities  of  Indo-European  Tra- 
dition and  Folk-Lore,  pp.  130,  132. 

*Mila  y  Fontanals,  La  poesia  popular 
gallega,  Romania,  VI,  67. 

9  Malory,  Morte  d' Arthur,  XIX,  ii. 

10  Meyer,  La  vie  et  la  Translation  de  S. 
Jacques  le  Majeur,  mis  en  prose  d'un  poeme 
perdu.    Romania,  XXXI,  pp.  252  sqq. 

» Id.  ibid.,  265. 
12  Id.  ibid.,  273. 
**EspaHa  sagrada,  XIX,  333. 
M  Murguia,  Galicia,  p.  206. 
*»  Cf.  in   especial   Jane   Harrison,   Prole- 
gomena to  the  Study  of  Greek  Religion,  passim. 
x6  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  p.  425. 



1 7  Baranda,   Clave  de   la  Espatla  sagtada, 

P.  331. 

16  Id.  ibid,,  257. 

'•The  prose  version  of  a  lost  poem,  exist- 
ent only  in  a  single  MS.  and  published  for 
strictly  conventional  and  erudite  ends. 

20  Murguia,  op.  tit.,  230. 

81  Id.  ibid.,  p.  235. 

22  Id.  ibid.,  p.  23d. 

2*  Galicia  en  el  ultimo  tercio  del  siglo,  XV,  I, 


a«  Murguia,  Galicia,  234. 

*s  Biblioteca  de  ttadiciones  populates,  IV, 

26  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  229. 

2  7  Biblioteca  de  tradiciones  populates,  IV,  90. 

38  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  pp.  188,  224. 

2»  Giner  Aribau,  Folk-Lore  de  Ptoasa,  Bib- 
lioteca de  tradiciones  populates,  VIII,  119,  120. 

3°  Dante,  Inferno,  iii,  37. 

**  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  p.  233. 

32  Biblioteca  de  tradiciones  populates,  IV, 

« J  Dante, tParadiso,  xxxi,  1, 4,  7,  13-15. 

34  Historia  eclesidstica,  iii,  229. 

3s  It  figures  also  in  the  Visions  of  S.  Per- 
petua,  A  A.  SS.  March,  1,  633. 

*6  Cancionero  popular  gaUego,  Biblioteca 
de  tradiciones  popular es,  VII,  195. 

37  Giner  Aribau,  in  Biblioteca  de  tradiciones 
populates,  VIII,  140,  267  and  268. 

*8  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  236. 

3*  Fiona  Macleod,  Where  the  Forest  Mut- 
muts,  p.  81. 

4°  Kelly,  op.  cit.,  124.     The  reader  will  not 





forget  that  in  the  spring,  Frau  Holde  ham  auf 
dem  Berg  empor!  Cf.  also  Boswell,  An  Irish 
Precursor  of  Dante,  p.  174. 

4'Murguia,  op.  cit.,  237;  again  this  recalls 

«*  Lionel  Johnson,  Poems,  pp.  11 2-1 13. 

The  Long  Way: 

x  Giner  Aribau,  op.  cit.,  VIII,  228. 

3  Murguia,  op.  cit.,  p.  231. 

*  Gilbert  Murray,  in  the  Appendix  to 
Jane  Harrison,  Prolegomena  to  the  Study  of 
Greek  Religion,  599,  664. 

4  Walker,  Apocryphal  Gospels,  Acts  and 
Revelations,  p.  376. 

s  Quoted  by  Gubernatis,  Mythohgie  des 
Plantes,  II,  115-121. 

6 1  owe  this  to  a  communication  of  my  friend 
D.  Angel  del  Castillo,  who  has  doubtless  by 
now  published  the  church  in  the  Boletin  de  la 
Real  Academic  Gallega. 

1  Iturralde  y  Suit,  Las  grandes  ruinas 
mondsticas,  pp.  380-381. 

8  Rene  Basset,  Extrait  de  la  Description 
d'EspagHe  tirS  de  VOuvrage  du  Geographe Ano- 
nyme  (TAlmeria:  en  Homenaje  D.  Francisco 
Cardera,  pp.  642, 645. 

The  Singing  Souls: 

1  Turnbull,  The  Visions  of  Tundall. 
'Brooke,   Christ's    Victory  and  Triumph, 

p.  150- 

3  Boswell,  An  Irish  Precursor  of  Dante, 
p.  76;  Ward,  Catalogue  of  Romances,  II,  521. 

« Ward,  op.  cit.,  II,  520-27. 



*  Kuno  Meyer  and  Alfred  Nutt,  The  Voyage 
of  Bran,  p.  6. 

•A.  C.  L.  Brown,  Iwain,  in  Harvard 
Studies,  VIII,  63. 

7  Summary  in  Ward,  op.  tit.,  II,  527. 

•  Op.  cit.,  I,  xvi. 

The  Bridge  of  Dread: 

1  Vision  of  Laisren,  assigned  by  Dr.  Kuno 
Meyer  to  the  ninth  or  tenth  century,  and 
published  by  him  among  Stories  and  Songs 
from  Irish  MSS:  in  Otia  Merseiana,  I,  pp. 

2Purchas  his  Pilgrims,  reprint  of  1905, 
VII,  530. 

*La  Grande  Chanson  des  Pelertns  de  S. 
Jacques,  v.  Appendix  V. 

♦  Kdlbing,  Engliscke  Studien,  I,  75.  Cf. 
also  pp.  74,  76.  It  should  be  stated  that  in 
dealing  with  poetry  in  French  and  English 
so  old  as  to  be  perhaps  unintelligible  to  the 
reader,  the  writer  has  taken  the  same  liberty 
as  our  betters  a  hundred  years  ago,  and 
modernized  a  bit,  while  supplying  the  exact 
reference  for  those  who  can  deal  with  it. 

s  El  Purgatorio  de  S.  Patricio,  p.  165. 

6  From  Soccard's  Noels  et  CanHques. 

7  Kolbing,  op.  cit.,  p.  1 19. 

8  Ward,  op.  cit.,  II,  441. 

»  From  Summary  in  Ward,  Catalogue,  ii,  398. 

10  Id.  ibid.,  399.  From  a  translation  of  the 
Coptic  Version  a  short  passage  is  extracted  in 
Appendix  VIII. 

«  Turnbullj  The  Visions  of  Tundall,  p.  14; 
the  second  bridge,  p.  19. 





WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

11  Scott,  Minstrelsy  of  the  Scottish  Border, 
II,  365. 

l*  See  Appendix  X. 

x*  Remains  of  Gentilism  and  Judaism,  p. 
31  and  pp.  220-22. 

*sOp.cit.,  II,  361. 

16  For  this  unfortunately  he  gives  no  pre- 
cise reference;  it  was  reprinted  in  Ballads  and 
Lyrics  of  Old  France,  T.  Mosher,  pp.  42-3. 

li  This  is  said  not  unaware  of  the  sword- 
play  theory. 

18  Gaston  Paris,  Le  Conte  de  la  Charette, 
in  Romania,  XII,  p.  510.  Gaston  Paris,  op.  et 
loc.  ciL,  XII,  pp.  473~4»  §30-31. 

z»  Wright,  Catalogue  of  Romances,  II,  441. 

30  Scott,  Minstrelsy  of  the  Scottish  Border, 

HI,  50. 

11  Cf.  however  Reinach,  Cultes,  Mythes 
et  Religions,  II,  60,  61,  and  I,  276. 

"  Vigfusson  and  Powell,  Corpus  Poeticum 
Boreale,  I,  142. 

**  Cf  also  Morris,  in  The  Blue  Closet: 

O  Love  Louise,  is  this  the  key 

Of  the  happy  golden  land? 
O  Sisters,  cross  the  bridge  with  me, 

My  eyes  are  full  of  sand. 
What  matter  if  I  cannot  see, 

If  ye  take  me  by  the  hand? 

Also  in  this  connexion  may  be  cited  Mr. 
Yeats,  in  such  passages  as: 

He  made  the  world  to  be  a  grassy  road 
Before  her  wandering  feet. 



3«  Between  the  Lyke-Wake  Dirge  and  the 
Alma  en  pena,  the  contrast,  in  the  matter  of 
what  works  shall  avail,  is  quite  typical:  the 
southern,  the  Catholic  ballad,  lays  the  stress 
on  acts  of  religion,  the  Spiritual  Works,  fast- 
ing, watching,  prayer:  the  northern  and  Pro- 
testant, on  the  Corporal  Works  of  Mercy,  on 
feeding  the  hungry  and  clothing  the  naked. 

3*  C/.  Kelly,  op.  cit.f  117, 123. 

36  Pelerinage  d'un  Paysan  Picard  a  S.  Jac- 
ques de  Compostelle,  pp.  99,  100.  I  have 
translated  literally  the  stumbling  phraseology 
that  accords  with  the  muddled  thought. 

3*  Scott,  Count  Robert  of  Paris,  pp.  120-12 1. 

38  Murguia,  Galicia,  p.  153. 

3 >  Cantigas,  civ. 

*°  In  brief,  the  whole  story  of  the  pilgrim- 
age, the  whole  tale  of  the  writer,  may  be 
resolved  into  as  neat  and  destructive  an 
analysis  of  legendary  themes,  only  in  part 
Celtic,  as  ever  furnish  title  to  a  Doctor's 
silken  gown. 


Espafia  sagrada — Murguia,  Galicia — Me- 
nendez  y  Pelayo,  Historia  de  los  heterodoxos 
espaHoles — Osma,  Catdlogo  de  azabaches  com- 
postelanos—Fita  y  Guerra,  Recuerdos  de  un 
viaje — Fita,  Opuscule — Melida,  Opuscula — 
Luke  of  Tuy — Heiss,  Monnaies  antiques  de 
VEspagne — Cumont,  Oriental  Religions  in  Ro- 
man Paganism,  and  Monuments  Relatifs  au 
Culte  de  Mitkra— Toutairi,  Les  Cultes  Patens 






WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

dans  V empire  Romain — Reville,  La  Religion  d 
Rome  sous  Us  SSveres — Reinach,  Cuties,  Mythes 
et  Religions — Dussaud,  Notes  sur  la  Mythologie 
Syrienne — Breliier,  L'Eglise  et  V Orient  ou 
Moyen-Age — Maury,  Croyances  et  LSgendes 
du  Moyen-Age — Saintyves,  Les  Saints  Suc- 
cessors des  Dieux  —  Delehaye,  Les  LS- 
gendes Hagiographiques — Babut,  Priscillien 
et  le  Priscillianisme— Goblet  d'Alviella,  La 
Migration  des  Symboles — Dreves,  Analecta 
Hymnica  MediiAevi — Diederich,  Eine  Mithras 
Liturgie  and  Der  Untergang  der  Antiken 
Religion — Wroth,  Catalogue  of  Greek  Coins — 
Walker,  Apocryphal  Gospels ,  Acts,  and  Revela- 
tions— Evans,  Mycenaean  Tree  and  Pillar 
Cults — Lawson,  Modern  Greek  Folk-lore  and 
Ancient  Greek  Religion1— Jane  Harrison,  Prole- 
gomena to  the  Study  of  Ancient  Greek  Religion 
— A.  B.  Cook,  Zeus — Garstang,  The  Syrian 
Goddess — Mrs.  Arthur  Strong,  Apotheosis  and 
After-Life — Rendel  Harris,  The  Dioscuri  in 
the  Christian  Legends,  The  Cult  of  the  Heavenly 
Twins,  Boanerges — Prothingham,  Hermes  the 
Snake-God  and  the  Caducous — Publications  of 
the  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society. 

1  F.  Pita,  in  Boletin  de  la  Real  Academic  de 
la  Historia  (1891),  XIX,  528. 

*  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  140. 

*  P.  Pita,  in  Boletin  de  la  Real  Academia  de 
la  Historia,  LII,  455. 

4  P.  Pita,  in  Boletin  de  la  Real  Academia  de 
la  Historia,  XLII,  393. 

*  J.  de  Dios  de  la  Rada  y  Delgada,  in  Boletin 




de  la  Real  Academia  de  la  Historio,  XXXVI, 


«  Warde  Fowler,  The  Raman  Ideas  of  Deity, 

p.  12. 

»  In  the  Lay  of  Helgi,  that  is  precisely  not 

1  They  all  occur  in  the  Mazdean  religion, 
and  were  taken  over  into  the  Mithraic.  Cf. 
Cumont,  Textes  el  Monuments  Figures,  I, 37. 

•  Warde  Fowler,  op.  cit.,  p.  12. 

10  Lopez  Ferreiro,  Historia  de  la  S.  A.  M. 
Iglesia,  III,  App.,  p.  25. 

"  Cf.  Reinach,  Cultes,  Mytkes  et  Religions, 

"Murguia,  Galicia,p.  18;  cf.  also  p.  133. 

1  *  Paul  the  Deacon,  History  of  the  Lombards, 
IV,  xvi,  pp.  160,  162. 

"« Mrs.  Arthur  Strong,  Apotheosis  and  After- 
life, Lecture  I. 

The  Constant  Worship: 

1  Murguia  sustains  me  in  this:  cf.  Galicia, 

pp.  134-135. 145- 

*J.  Late  de  Vasconcellos,  Religuloes  da 


•  Op.  cit.,  p.  122. 

«Heiss,  Les    Monnaies  Antiques  de  VRs- 
pagne,  pp.  251-254. 
s  Id.  Aid.,  PI.  £. 

•  Id.  ibid.,  PI.  xi-xii. 
7  Id.  ibid.,  PI.  xiii-xiv. 

•  Id.  ibid.,  PL  xiv-xvi. 
» Id.  ibid.,  PL  xvi. 
»Id.ibid.,Fi.  xix-xx. 
» Id.  ibid.,  PI.  xx-xxi. 





WAY    OF    S.   JAMES 

"  Id.  ibid.,  PL  xxiii-xxvi:  figured  p.  354. 

l*  Id.  ibid.,  PL  xxx. 

x«  Mllida,  Eljinete  ibSrico,  in  Boletfn  de  la 
Sociedad  Espafiola,  1900,  VJII,  3,  p.  175. 

*s  Heiss,  op.  cit.,  PL  xxxi. 

16  Id.  ibid.,  PI.  xxxii. 

«» Id.  ibid.,  PL  xlvi,  lii-liii. 

**Id.  ibid.,  PL  lxiii,  briv. 

x»  Id.  ibid.,  PL  xxxvii,  xlii. 

20  Id.  ibid.,  PL  xxxix,  xl,  xlvii. 

» Id.  ibid.,  PL  lxv. 

»/<*.  ibid.,  PL  x\. 

*Jtf.  iWtf.;  PL  xxxii.         - 

*«  .fa.  *taf.,  PL  xxxiii. 

»*  74.  *Wtf.,  PL  xxxvi. 

-« A*.  *W<*.,  PL  xlviii. 

*i  Id.  ibid.,  PL  lx-lxii. 

*•  Id.  ibid.,  PL  lix:  figured  p.  354. 

*»  Id.  ibid.,  PL  xxxii. 

'°Macrobius,  Saturnalia,  I,  xix,  15. 

'x  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  5,  6,  12.  The 
reference  as  thus  given  by  Men&idez  Pelayo  I 
cannot  verify,  but  the  same  inscription,  as  I 
think,  is  published  by  Pita  y  Guerra,  Recuerdos 
de  un  viaje,  pp.  15,  19,  28. 

*aMenendez  y  Pelayo,  Historic  de  los 
heterodoxos  espaHoles,  I,  348. 

«  Espaha  sagrada,  XIV,  108. 

*«  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  676, 677:  Menen- 
dez  y  Pelayo,  op.  cit.,  343.  Poriz,  VII,  80,  and 
Hubner,  who  takes  them  from  him,  read  Divi- 
ne, but  I  assume  that  the  latest  writer  has 
grounds  for  the  altered  reading  of  19 1 1 .  The 
whole  region  of  Trujillo  is  full  of  moon- 
masked  stones  (cf.  d  I.  L.  II,  673,  679,  68 1, 



684),  but  crescents  and  orbs,  conjoined  here 
as  in  Syria,  as  weU  as  stars,  may  refer  to  the 
planet.    The  other  allusion  is  in  Strata,  iii. 

"Reinach,  TraiU  d'Epigraphie  Grecque, 
p.  151. 

s*  The  worship  of  S.  Eulalia  was  taken  from 
Menda  to  Barcelona  by  S.  Quiricus,  a  Gallegan 
and  Bishop  of  Barcelona  (656-669) :  Gandara, 
Cisne  Occidental,  II,  302.  S.  Columba,  another 
aspect  of  Her  of  the  Doves,  appears  in  Juan 
Tamayo  de  Salazar  as  saints,  mostly  Gallegan 
or  Portuguese.    Martyrologium  aispanium, 

HI,  369. 

"  Cook,  Zeus,  pp.  96-99;  Pigs.  72,  73. 

»■  Heiss,  op.  cit.,  PI.  xxxii. 

"Osma,  Catdlogo  de  asabaches  composte- 
lanos,  p.  50. 

«•  Espaha  sagrada,  IX,  84. 

41  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lat.,  II,  2100, 2122, 2407; 
Toutain,  Les  CuUes  Patens,  I,  i,  41 1. 

4'Murguia,  op.  cit.,  p.  153. 

**  La  Migration  des  Symboles,  p.  330. 

44  Reinach,  CuUes,  Mythes  et  Religions,  II, 

pp.  50,  51,  53. 

"Livy,  Epitome,  Iv;  Strata,  Geographia, 

III,  iii,  5. 

<6  R.  Menendez  Pidal,  La  leyenda  de  los 
infantes  de  Lara,  pp.  1 82-191. 

4*  Espana  sagrada,  XIV,  134. 

4*  Reinach,  in  Daremberg  et  Saglio,  Die- 
Honnaire,  II,  331,  note  107,  s.  v.  Dolichenus. 

49  Dreves,AnalectaHymnica,  XVI,  2 19-222. 

s°  Oriental  Religions,  pp.  249,  134. 

^EspaHa  sagrada,  XX;  Lopez  Ferreiro, 
Historia  delaS.  A.  M.  Iglesia,  III,  App.  64. 




WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

**  Catholic  Encyclopedia,  s.  v.  Susanna: 
AA.  SS.  II  February;  II  April. 

«  Cumont,  Textes  et  Monuments,  I, 68. 

« Id.  ibid.,  II,  362. 

«  Cook,  Zeus,  p.  134,  Fig.  100. 

**  Walker,  Apocryphal  Gospels,  Acts,  and 
Revelations,  p.  376. 

«  Otto,  Augustus  Soter,  in  Hermes,  XLV, 


*8  Cumont,  Oriental  Religions,  p.  96.     The 

inventory  is  given  in  Meneiidez  y  Pelayo,  op. 

cit.  pp.  497-498. 

*»  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  3, 386. 

60  Heiss,  op.  cit.,  PI.  lix,  2  and  4  and  pp. 

61  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  3730,  161 1. 

62  Wright,  I,  369;  Julian  I,  Discourse  iv; 
Hymn  to  King  Sun,  in  Macrobius,  Saturnalia, 
I,  xx,  13. 

"  Eusebius,  Ltfe  of  Constantine,  iv,  19-20. 

6 4  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  46. 

6*Menendez  y  Pelayo,  Historia  de  los 
heterodoxos,  I,  500;  Fita,  Boletin  de  la  Acade- 
mia  de  Historia,  X,  242. 

66  Boletin  de  la  Real  Academia  de  la  His- 
toria,  19171  April:  Cultos  emeritenses  de  Serapis 
y  de  Mithras. 

6 1  Op.  cit.,  p.  60. 

68  Reville,  op.  cit.,  p.  61. 

•»  Id.  ibid.,  105,  106. 

»•  Id.  ibid.,  p.  70. 

»*  Dr.  Rendel  Harris  is  authority  for  this, 
in  The  Cult  of  the  Heavenly  Twins. 





The  Star-Led  Wizards: 

1  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  178,  179,  606, 
805,  5260,  5521,  3706. 

3  Id.  ibid.,  2764,  5413;  2776— Toutain 
characteristically  considers  these  mothers 
Gallican  and  not  Galician — 2848;  cf.  Boletin 
de  la  Real  Academic  de  la  Historic  (1910), 
LVI,  349;  2818;  cf.  Boletin  de  la  Real 
Academic  de  la  Historic  (1900),  XXXVI, 


3  S.  Jacques  en  Galice,  in  Annates  du  Midi, 

1900;  p.  161. 

«Babut,  PrisciUien  et  It  Priscillianisme, 
p.  192. 

*  Espatia  sagrada,  XX,  9-10. 

6  Murguia,  Galicia,  published  this. 

?  Compostellana,ia  Espafla  sagrada,XX,  10. 
This  can  only  be  interpreted  to  mean  that  the 
pine  tree  stood  before  the  shrine,  or  else  that 
the  shrine  stood  in  a  grove  of  pines,  but  both 
were  there  before  S.  Martin.  It  is  still  called 
S.  Martin  Pinario. 

•Cumont,  Textes  et  Monuments  Figurts, 
II,  166-167.  By  error  he  calls  Iria  Plavia 
Caldas  de  Reyes:  that  was  Aquae  Celenias. 

9  Toutain,  Les  Cultes  Patens,  I,  ii,  145,  to 
these  must  be  added  eleven  more  in  the 
Narbonnais.  Cf .  Corpus  Inscrip.  Lot.,  II,  464, 
807,  2634,  2705,  5635, 1025, 1966,  5366, 4086. 
To  the  solar  gods,  258,  259,  2407,  5319,  6308, 
4604,  add  to  these:  Bulletin  Hispanique,  1904, 
p.  347;  Annie  Epigraphique,  1905,  nos.  24,  25, 
26;  Comptes-rendus  de  V Academic  des  In- 
scriptions, 1905,  pp.  148-151. 

10  Pierre  Paris,  Restes  du  culte  de  Mithra  en 





Espagne  in  Revue  Archeologique,  July-De- 
cember, 1 91 4. 

11  Notes  de  Mythologie  Syrienne  (1903), 
pp.  23  sqq.  52  sqq. 

l2Historia  de  los  heterodoxos,  I,  469;  Corpus 
Inscrip.  Lat.,  II,  5929;  Heiss,  Monnaies 
Antiques  de  V Espagne,  PI.  lv.  To  this  must 
be  added,  as  I  believe,  a  Celtiberian  type  of 
Sagunto  (Heiss,  xxvii,  1  and  2,  and  also  11; 
xxviii,  13,  15,  17,  18;),  Valencia,  xxviii,  has 
the  same  winged  helmet  which  at  Sagunto 
was  associated  with  the  caduceus;  Iliberi, 
xlviii,  6. 

'J  Reinach,  Cultes,  Mythes  et  Religions,  III, 
pp.  170-177  and  indeed  the  whole  essay  on 
Mercure  TricSphale,  pp.  160  sqq. 

x«  Dussaud,  op.  cit.,  p.  24. 

15  Espana  sagrada,  IX,  108  sqq.,  310. 

16  Macrobius,  Saturnalia,  I,  xxi,  5. 

1  *  Reinach,  s.  v.  Dolichenus,  in  Daremberg 
et  Saglio,  Dictionnaire.  S.  Marinus  figures  in 
various  parts  of  the  North-west  and  North- 
east: SS.  Marinus  and  Patronus  at  Gerona. 
Tamayo  de  Salazar.     Martyr.  Hisp. 

x'Fita  y  Guerra,  Recuerdos  de  un  viaje, 
pp.  28-29.  There  is  something  about  this 
church  in  the  singular  letter  which  Alfonso 
the  Chaste  is  supposed  to  have  written  to  the 
clergy  and  people  of  Tours  in  the  year  906, 
and  which  came  from  the  Archives  of  Cluny: 
Espana  sagrada,  XIX,  348,  349. 

x9  Espana  sagrada,  XX,  59.  This  is  not  the 
same  as  the  original  See  of  Iria,  dedicated  to 
S.  Eulalia,  for  the  Compostellana  continues, 
4 '  et  sicut  altare  S.  Eulaliae  in  Iria. ' '  The  state- 



ment  about  the  priest  Pelayo,  is  repeated 
later  (II,  lv),  pp.  373~374- 

20  This  curious  statement  which,  though 
it  has  suffered  literary  contamination  un- 
doubtedly, yet  seems  a  real  piece  of  folk  tradi- 
tion, I  owe  to  the  kindness  of  a  correspondent 
at  the  Hispanic  Society  of  America,  New  York, 
who  reports  it  as  picked  up  in  South  America 
from  an  old  chaplain. 

21  P.  Paris,  Les  Bronzes  de  Costig,  in  Revue 
Archeologique,  1897, 1»  I3&'>  Essai  sur  I  Art  et 
V Industrie  de  I'Espagne  primitif,  I,  140-162. 

22  Melida,  La  Coleccion  Vives,  in  Revtsta  de 
Archivos,  Bibliotecas  y  Museos,  1900,  p.  156. 

*3  Peristephanon,    Hymn    X.    Passio    S. 
Rotnani  Martyris,  11.  1010-1050. 
3«  Op.  cit.,  p.  398. 

*s  Cumont,  Oriental  Religions,  p.  23. 
26  LEglise  et  VOrient  au  Moyen  Age,  pp. 


a?  Murgula,  Galicia,  pp.  183,  201-206. 

38  Extirpacidn  de  la  idolatria  del  Peru,  p.  33. 

3»  Rendel  Harris,  Boanerges,  20,  note ;  quoted 
from  Pettitot,  Traditions  Indiennes  du  Canada 
Nord-Ouest,  p.  283. 

3°Arriaga,  op.  cit.,  p.  32;  Acosta,  Natural 
and  Moral  History  of  the  Indies,  Hakluyt 
Society,  p.  304. 

**  Dussaud,  Notes  de  Mythologie  Syrienne, 

*a  Wroth,  Catalogue  of  the  Greek  Coins  of 
Galatia,  Cappadocia  and  Syria,  pp.  292,  294, 
295,  PI.  xxxvi;  Cook,  Zeus,  p.  558,  Figs.  421, 

33Parnell,  Greece   and   Babylon,    p.    288; 







Zimmern,  Beitrdge,  p.  123.  I  am  indebted 
for  this  reference  to  my  colleague  Dr.  W.  C. 
Wright,  and  for  a  fresh  translation  of  the 
Babylonian  formulae  to  Dr.  Morris  Jastrow 
of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

**  Dussaud,  op.  cit.,  pp.  29-51. 

3«  Dussaud,  op.  cit.,  pp.  85-86;  G.  P.  Hill, 
Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies  (191 1),  XXXI,  59. 

36  Leary,  Syria  the  Land  of  Lebanon,  p.  190; 
Charton,   Voyageurs  anciens  et  modernes,  II, 


3  7  Best  figured  in  Cook,  Zeus,  p.  569  and 
PL  xxxiii. 

38  De  Ridder,  Catalogue  des  Bronzes  de  la 
Collection  de  Clercq,  pp.  143  sqq. 

>9  Published  by  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text 
Society,  for  Acre,  18-29.  Cf.  Cites  de  Jheru- 
sdUm,  for  Tortosa,  p.  43,  p.  48:  in  Palestine 
Pilgrims'  Text  Society. 

*° Charton,  op.  cit.,  p.  175, 

<*  Phene  Spires,  Jerusalem  Churches,  in 
Architecture  East  and  West,  pp.  203, 206, 207. 
A  fragment  of  the  cult-statue  has  been  found 
at  Bey  rout:  Dussaud,  op.  cit.,  p.  129. 

*2  Op.  cit.,  p.  94. 

43  Citez  de  Jherusalem,  p.  32:  Palestine 
Pilgrims'  Text  Society. 

44  Hispaniae  IUustratae,  IV,  34. 

45  5.  Jacques  en  Galice,  p.  159. 

The  Mortal  Twin: 

zBabut,  Priscillien  et  la  PriscUlianisme, 

p.  130. 

aEspaHa  sagrada,  XVI,  39;  Babut,  op.  cit., 

p.  238. 



*  5.  Silva  of  Aquitaine,  pp.  35,  43:  Palestine 
Pilgrims'  Text  Society. 

<Chabot,  Chronique  de  Michel  le  Syrien, 
I, 149. 

'  Caxton's  Golden  Legend,  V,  97,  Nativity 
of  our  Lady. 

6  Chabot,  op.  tit.,  I,  148-149. 

I  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  19, 

8  Chabot,  op.  tit.,  p.  183. 

•  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  11. 
10  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  pp.  2, 


II  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  45. 

12  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  33. 
x*  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  pp.  5, 

33,  43- 

*«  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  78. 

xs  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  42, 46. 

16  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  p.  100. 

*»  Hispaniae  IUustratae,  IV,  34. 

l%  S.  Jacques  en  Galice,  pp.  151,  152. 

"  Id.  ibid.,  p.  166. 

20  Id.  ibid.,  p.  153;  Dreves,  Analecta 
Hymnica,  XXVII,  187. 

21  Walker,  Apocryphal  Gospels,  Acts,  and 
Revelations,  p.  354. 

22  Id.  ibid.,  pp.  440-443. 

«  Id.  ibid.,  pp.  308,  320,  323. 

2* Id.  ibid.,  pp.  309,  323. 

a*  Id.  ibid.,  p.  314. 

»« Id.  ibid.,  pp.  314,  328,  329. 

2*  Id.  ibid.,  p.  305. 

al  Id.  ibid.,  p.  315. 

*»  Id.  ibid.,  pp.  301,  303. 






29  Id.  ibid.,  p.  394. 
*x  Id.  ibid.,  p.  316. 

*aSchepss,  Corpus  Scrip.  Eccles.  Lot., 
XVIII,  44. 

33  Boanerges,  passim. 

The  High  God: 

1  Cook,  Zeus,  pp.  549,  551. 

2  Macrobius,  Saturnalia,  xxiii,  23,  10  sqq. 
I  quote  from  Mr.  Cook's  version  pp.  552-553. 

*  Catholic  Encyclopedia,  s.  v.  Genesius.  Ta- 
mayo  y  Salazar,  Martyr.  Hisp.,  I,  38. 

« Robinson,  Later  Biblical  Researches  in 
Palestine,  III,  522. 

*  Life  of  Constantine,  iii,  58. 

6  Theodoret,  Eccles.  History,  iii,  7. 

rChabot,  Chronique  de  Michel  le  Syrien, 
II,  262. 

8Niebuhr,  in  Corpus  Soriptorum  Historiae 
Byzantinae,  p.  344. 

*  Fita  y  Guerra,  Keener dos  de  un  viaje,  p. 
30.    Gandara,  Armas  y  triunfos,  pp.  31,  108. 

X0Eusebius,  op.  cit.,  iii,  58;  Robinson,  op. 
cit.,  p.  522. 

1 1 0.  Puchstein,  in  Jahrbuch  des  Kaiser  I. 
Deutsch.  Archaelog.  Institut.,  1901,  XVI,  pp. 
131  sqq.,  XVII,  87  sqq. 

12  Overbeck,  Exploits  of  Mar  RabbiUa. 

x*  In  1852  Robinson  saw  there  "two  rows 
of  pedestals  as  if  for  statues  or  sphinxes  " 
(op.  cit.,  511).  These  sphinxes  were  found 
by  Garstang  elsewhere  in  the  lands  of  the 
Hittite,  and  the  Sphinx  which  stepped  down 
from  its  pedestal  and  testified,  in  the  city  of 
the   Man-Eaters,    was  most  likely   Hittite. 



Garstang,  Land  of  the  Hittite;  Walker,  Apo- 

cryfhal  Gospels,  Acts,  and  Revelations,  p.  357; 

Reinach,  Cultes,  Mythes  and  Religions,  I,  406. 

x*Dussaud,  Notes  de  Mythologie  Syrienne, 

PP.  49-51- 

»« Id.  ibid.,  pp.  81-115. 

16  British  Museum,  Catalogue  of  Coins, 
Phoenicia,  PI.  xi,  6. 

1  ^  Babylonian  Origin  of  Hermes  the  Snake 
God,  in  American   Journal  of  Archaeology, 

1916,  xxf  ii,  175  sqq. 

18  Garstang,  The  Syrian  Goddess,  pp.  4c 
sqq.  57  sqq.,  69-77,  79. 

J»  Id.  ibid,  pp.  22-24. 

20  The  Minoan  and  other  parallels,  both 
prehistoric  and  contemporary,  in  Evans,  My- 
cenaean Tree  and  Pillar  Cult,  passim.  The 
Cruz  de  los  Harapos  is  here  explained  by  ob- 
servations in  modern  Greece. 

"  Lopez  Ferreiro,  op.  cit.,  I,  309;  II,  194. 

"  Garstang,  op.  cit.,  pp.  91-92. 

a*  EspaHa  sagrada,  IX,  410. 

a«  Garstang,  op.  cit.,  pp.  69-70. 

2 s  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Text  Society,  The 
Pilgrimage  of  the  Holy  Paula,  i,  p.  4 ;  S.  Silva 
of  Aquitaine,  p.  34. 

a6S.  Lee,  Eusebius  Bishop  of  Caesar ea  on 
the  Theophania,  quoted  in  Cook,  Zeus,  p.  550, 
note  8. 

Along  the  Eastern  Road: 

'Wroth,  British  Museum  Catalogue  of 
Greek  Coins,  Galatia,  Cappadocia  and  Syria, 
pp.  290,  291,  293,  PI.  xxxvi,  7;  Cook,  Zeus, 
pp.  566-567,  figs.  433,  434. 





WAY    OF    S.  JAMES 

2  O.  Puchstein,  Jahrbuch  des  Kaiserl.  Deutsch. 
Archaeolog.  Institut,  1902,  XVII,  87,  97. 

*  Historia  de  la  arquitectura,  I,  149-158. 

«  So  Lucian,  Garstang,  The  Syrian  Goddess, 
p.  71. 

*  Reville,  La  Religion  d  Rome,  pp.  286,  290. 
*Cumont,  Textes   et   Monuments  FigurSs, 

It  355-356. 

7  Gongaud,  Les  ChrStientes  CeUiques,  p.  261. 
•The  case  is  this: 

(1)  Stones  were  worshipped  in  proto- 
historic  Spain,  and  the  drawing  of  Santiago's 
pillar  is  identically  like  those  on  Minoan  gems. 
A  Pillar  was  associated  with  S.  James,  and 
worshipped  at  Saragossa,  and  at  Compostella. 

(2)  The  Jinete  is  to  be  identified  with 
Castor,  and  S.  James  involved,  as  warrior  and 
as  twin,  wherever  he  was  worshipped. 

(3)  The  High  God  of  Compostella:  he  is  a 
storm  god,  a  sky  god,  and  a  sun  god.  His 
Mate  is  the  Lady  of  the  Doves,  Dea  Ataecina. 

(4)  S.  James  is  psychopompos  and  patron 
of  wayfarers,  succeeding  the  Celtic  Esus- 
Mercury,  and  Mithras.  He  is  a  chthonian 

(5)  The  type  of  Serapis  and  the  epithet 
Soter  were  given  to  him. 

(6)  The  relation  of  Mother  and  Son  at 
Compostella  must  be  connected  with  the 
Lusitanian  inscriptions  to  the  Mother  of  the 

(7)  He  is  a  vegetation-god,  and  rain- 
maker: a  bull-god. 

(8)  He  is  the  twin  of  Christ. 



(9)  This  combination,  in  the  High  God  of 
Compostella,  of  sun  god,  fertility  god,  and 
war  god,  made  easy  this  identification  with 
the  greatest  of  the  Syrian  Baals,  the  Zeus  of 

(10)  The  later  empire  and  Middle  Age 
knew  all  about  Heliopolis  from  Lucian  and 
Macrobius  and  also  from  travellers,  John  of 
Antioch,  Michael  the  Syrian  and  Benjamin  of 
Tudela,  all  writing  in  the  twelfth  century, 
and  all  describing  what  was  there. 

(11)  Syrian  architects  left  their  mark  in 

(12)  It  is  most  probable  that  the  stair  at 
the  west  end  of  Santiago  and  Notre  Dame  du 
Puy,  is  fetched  from  Syria. 



Compare  for  the  matter  of  this  chapter,  the 
following  authorities  already  so  often  cited: 
Lamperez — M.  G6mez  Moreno — Murgula — 
E.  Male — E.  Bertaux — R.  de  Lasteyrie — C. 
Enlart — A.  Venturi — A.  Kingsley  Porter. 

1  Murgula,  Galicia,  p.  428. 

The  Portico  of  Visions: 

1 V.  Appendix,  VIII. 

■  Turnbull,  The  Visions  of  Tundall,  p.  30. 
*  Turnbull,  op.  cit.,  lines  358-61,  p.  12. 
4  Id.  ibid.,  line  412,  p.  14. 





5  Ward,  Journal  of  the  Archaeological  Asso- 
ciation, 1875,  XXXI,  p.  420  sqq. 

6  Adam  says: 

Toward  the  east  end  of  yonder  vale 
A  green  way  find  thou  shall. 
In  that  way  shall  thou  find  and  see 
The  steps  of  thy  mother  and  me 
Following  in  the  grass  green 
That  ever  sithence  hath  been  seen 
Where  we  came,  going  as  unwise 
When  we  were  put  from  Paradise 
Into  this  world  s  wretched  slade  [dale] 
Where  I  first  myself  was  made, 
For  the  greatness  of  our  sin; 
Since,  might  no  grass  grow  therein. 
That  same  will  thee  lead  thy  gate 
From  hence  to  Paradise's  gate. 

Cursor  Mundi,  11.  1251 

sqq.    In  Early  English  Text  Society,  Original 

Series,  lvii. 

7  Lamperez,  Historia  de  la  arquitectura,  I, 

The  Chantier: 

1  V.  Lasteyrie,  V Architecture  Religieuse  en 
France,  p.  448. 

3  Boletin  de  la  Sociedad  Espanola  de  Excur- 
sions, XVI  (1908),  p.  86. 

Excursus  on  some  Twelfth  Century  Sculpture : 

1  Figured  in  Venturi,  Historia  dell'  Arte 
Italiana,  III,  191. 



3  Cf.  Emile  Male  in  Gazette  des  Beaux  Arts, 
January,  191 8. 

*  All  figured  in  Venturi,  op.  cil.,  III,  pp.  287- 


4Lasteyrie  decides  that  these  sculptures 
fall  between  11 45  and  1194,  and  probably 
within  the  first  half  of  that  time.  Monuments 

*  Of.  cit.,  p.  50. 

6  Villanueva  y  Geltru,  Viaje  literario  a  las 
iglesias  de  EspaHa,  IX,  298-300.  . 

7  These  include  Lucca,  porch;  Pisa,  baptis- 
tery; Arezzo,  pieve;  Perugia,  fountain;  Fer- 
rara,  cathedral. 

Workmen  of  S.  James: 

1  Published  by  Lasteyrie,  Monuments  Piot, 
VIII,  Plate  x. 

2  In  Boletin  de  la  Sociedad  Espaflola,  1908, 
p.  86. 

a  Cf.  Baum,  Romanesque  Architecture  in 
France:  at  Bordeaux,  Saintes,  Aulnay,  and 
Angers  are  personages  thus  arranged;  at  S. 
Maurice,  Vauvant,  Maillezais,  are  fabulous 

*  Lamperez,  Las  catedrales  gallegas,  in  Ilus- 
tracion  EspaHola  y  Americana,  1903. 


1 V.  Congrls,  Archiolopque  de  France,  1894. 
M.  Anatole  de  Roumejoux,  L'Ornementatton 
aux  Spoques  MSrovingiens  el  Carolingiens,  with 

'Photograph,  Sebah  et  Joaillier,  No.  54, 
Mosque  of  Kahrie. 





*  "This  much  seems  clear:  that  the  Siber- 
ian art  as  exemplified  in  the  Nonocherkarek 
treasure  would  naturally  lead  on  to  the 
'Gothic' style,  the  ornamental  style  of  the 
barbarians  that  overran  the  Roman  Empire. 
Specimens  of  this  work  are  distributed  from 
Stockholm  to  Spain  and  from  Ireland  to  the 
Caucasus,  but  there  seems  good  reason  to 
suppose  that  it  arises  in  southern  Russia.  .  .  . 
The  beast  style  seems  to  derive  from  the 
Scytho-Siberian. . . .  [The  patterns]  held  their 
own,  longest  as  Island  varieties  in  Ireland  and 
Scandinavia,  where  they  came  to  be  thought 
autochthonous  and  characteristically  Keltic 
or  Northern."  Minns,  Scythians  ana  Greeks, 
p.  282.  Cf,  also,  p.  266, "  Scythic  beast  style," 
and  xxxix,  Addenda  and  Corrigenda, 


1 L.  Gautier,  Les  Chansons  de  Geste,  note  on 
verse  892. 

2  Henri  Bordier,  La  Confririe  des  PHerins 
de  S,  Jacques,  Memoires  de  la  SocieU  de 
VHistoire  de  Paris  et  de  VIsle  de  France,  vols. 
I  and  II. 

*  Bonnault  d'Houet,  PUerinage  d*un  Pay- 
san  Picard,  1890,  p.  xix. 

«  M.  TAbbe*  Camille  Daux,  Le  PUerinage  de 

«M.  Camille  de  Mensignac,  La  ConfrSrie 
Bordelaise  de  Mgr.  S.  Jacques  de  Compostelle 
a  VEglise  S.  Michel  de  Bordeaux. 

6Adrien    Lavergne,  Les    Chemins  de   S. 




Jacques  en  Gascoigne,  in  Revue  de  Gascoinge, 

7  Lopez  Ferreiro,  Historia  de  la  S.  A.  M. 
Iglesia,  V,  pp.  77"89- 

8  Fabie\  Viajes  par  EspaHa,  p.  29. 

•  James  Howell,  Instructions  for  Forraine 
Travel;  Arber's  English  Reprints,  XVI,  p.  38. 

10  Colophon  to  a  set  of  Miracles  published 
from  a  MS.  of  the  fifteenth  century  by  Pita, 
Estudios  Historicos,  III  (1885). 


Espafta  sagrada —  Diccionario  Geogrdfico- 
histdrico,  Secci&n  1 — Lamperez,  Historia  de  la 
arquitectura — Pirilla,  Provincial  vascongadas — 
Madrazo,  Navarra  y  LogroHo  1 — Becerro  de 
Bengoa,  El  libro  de  Alava — Iturralde  y  Suit, 
£a  cruz  de  Roncesvalle — B6dier,  Les  iigendes 

1  Marina,  Diccionario  geogrdfico-historico, 
Seccion  1, 1,  107. 

2  Lampgrez,  Historia  de  la  arquitectura, 
1, 610,  n.  3. 

3  Marina,  Diccionario  geogrdfico-historico, 
Seccidn  1, 1,  272. 

«  Garran,  S.  Maria  la  real,  pp.  35,  36. 


1  Tesoretto,  cap.  ii,  11. 27-40., 

2  BeMier,  Les  Chansons  Epiques,  IV;  Pfo 
Rajna,  Homendje  a  Menindez  Pelayo,  II,  387. 



494  WAY    OP    S.  JAMES 




AND    MONOGRAPHS     |      I 



WAY    OP    S.    JAMES 


I.  Notes  on  S.  James  Major,  S.   Mary 

Virgin,  and  the  Pillar,  at  Saragossa. 

II.  Miracles  of  S.  James. 

III.  Miracles  of  Our  Lady  of  Villa-Sirga. 

IV.  The  Great  Hymn  of  S.  James. 

V.  The  Little  Hymn  of  S.  James. 

VI.  La  Grande  Chanson  des  Pterins  de 

S.  Jacques. 

VII.  ThurkuTs  Vision. 

VIII.  Apocalypse  of  S.  Paul. 

IX.  FrauHolde. 

X.  A  Lyke-Wake  Dirge. 

XI.  El  Alma  en  Pena. 

XII.  Gallegan  Romance. 

XIII.  Purchas  his  Pilgrim. 

XIV.  Itineraries. 

1.  Aymery  Picaud's,  1120-40. 

2.  De  Caumont's,  141 7: 3. 

3.  Bought  in  Leon,  1525. 

4.  Villuga's  Reportorio,  1546. 

5.  Nicholas  Bonfons',  1583. 

6.  Pilgrim's  Guide,  1718. 

7.  Itinerario  EspaHol,  1798. 







I.  From  the  Description  of  Spain  by  the 
anonymous  Geographer  of  Almeria,  twelfth 
century.  Composed  before  the  Christians 
under  Alfonso  el  BataMador  retook  Saragossa 
in  1118: 

Among  the  cities  of  Spain  Saragossa  is 
great,  and  built  long  since.  They  say  it  was 
built  by  Constantine  in  the  time  of  Our  Lord 
Mohammed,  whom  may  God  bless  and  save. 
One  of  the  curious  things  is  that  it  is  entirely 
enclosed.  Its  wall  is  built  of  cut  stones  fitted 
one  into  the  other.  Without  the  city  the 
wall  is  forty  cubits  high,  more  or  less;  within, 
it  is  level  with  the  streets  and  lanes:  the 
greatest  difference  of  level  is  not  more  than 
five  cubits.  The  houses  project  upon  the 
ramparts.    It  is  called  the  white  city,  because 



A  ndnimo 
de  Almeria 




WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

it  is  whitewashed.  Above  it  is  a  white  light 
that  everyone  can  see,  day  and  night,  in  fair 
weather  and  foul.  The  Christians  say  the 
light  has  been  there  since  the  foundation. 
The  Musulmans  say  that  it  happened  since 
two  virtuous  men  were  buried  there,  Hanech 
es  Sana'ani  and  Faeqad  edi  Chanadji.  There 
are  doubts  about  one  of  them  but  certainly 
the  former  was  one  of  the  Companions  of  the 
Prophet  (whom  may  God  bless  and  preserve) ; 
he  went  into  Spain  the  year  of  the  Conquest, 
that  is  to  say  the  year  91,  with  Tarik.  The 
second  came  with  Musa  ben  Nesair  in  92,  as 
Ibn-el-Djezzar  says  in  The  Book  of  the  Marvels 
of  the  Country.  These  two  men  are  buried  at 
the  south-east,  outside  the  mosque  opposite 
the  tnihr&b.  That  is  made  of  a  single  block  of 
marble  carved  with  a  marvellous  and  extra- 
ordinary labour:  there  is  no  like  mihrdb  in 
all  the  inhabited  earth. 

Another  marvel  of  this  city  is  that  any 
reptile  or  any  serpent  that  enters  therein, 
dies  instantly.  Among  other  extraordinary 
things,  nothing  spoils,  neither  fruits  nor  corn. 
I  have  seen  wheat  more  than  a  hundred  years 
old,  grapes  that  have  hung  for  six  years  more 
or  less,  dry  figs,  prunes  (or  apricots  that  are 
dried)  plums,  cherries,  pears,  dried  peaches 



four  years  old  and  more.  You  may  see  the 
beans  and  chick-pease  of  twenty  years  old 
and  more.  There  are  so  many  cereals,  wines 
and  fruits  that  in  all  the  inhabited  earth 
there  is  no  land  more  fertile  in  fruits,  and  the 
inhabitants  mostly  eat  them  dried,  there  are 
so  many.  It  abounds  in  gardens,  flowers,  and 
goodly  buildings.  The  city  is  situate  on  the 
great  river  Ebro.  .  \  .  From  Rene*  Basset, 
Extrait  de  la  Description  de  I'Espagne,  i  tiro  de 
Vouvrage  du  Geographe  anonyme  d'Almeria, 
in  Homenaje  a  D.  Francisco  Carder  a,  pp. 

II.  From  Edrisi's  Description  of  Africa 
and  Spain: 

Saragossa  is  one  of  the  capital  cities  of 
Spain,  great  and  populous.  The  streets  are 
wide,  the  houses  very  goodly,  the  city  is  sur- 
rounded by  vine-garths  and  gardens.  The 
walls  are  of  stone,  very  strong;  the  city  is 
built  on  the  edge  of  the  great  river  called  the 
Ebro,  which  comes  in  part  from  the  land  of  the 
Christians,  in  part  from  the  mountains  of 
Calatayud,  and  in  part  from  about  Calahorra, 
and  the  branches  unite  above  Tudela.  Then 
the  river  flows  toward  Saragossa,  then  to  the 
fortress  of  Djibra  (Chiprana),  then  it  receives 
the  waters  of  the  Olive  river  (the  Cinca),  then 



Edrisi  on 


So  Ireland 




Fray  Lam- 
bert de 


WAY    OP    S.     JAMES 

it  flows  toward  Tortosa  and  at  the  east  thereof 
falls  into  the  sea.  Saragossa  is  called  also 
al-medina  al-braidhd  (the  white  city)  because 
most  of  the  houses  are  covered  with  plaster 
or  whitewash.  One  remarkable  peculiarity 
is  that  there  are  no  snakes  there;  if  you  bring 
in  any,  they  die  at  once.  At  Saragossa  there 
is  a  huge  bridge,  which  you  pass  to  enter  the 
city,  which  has  strong,  walls  and  superb 

Tortosa  is  a  city  built  at  the  foot  of  a 
mountain  and  girded  by  strong  walls.  There 
are  bazaars,  fine  buildings,  artisans  and 
workmen.  They  build  great  ships  with 
the  timber  from  the  mountains  round  about, 
which  are  covered  with  pines  uncommonly 
large  and  tall;  they  use  it  for  masts  and 
yards  of  ships.  It  is  reddish,  with  shiny 
bark,  resinous  and  durable,  and  insects 
will  not  touch  it.  It  is  far-renowned. — From 
Edrisi,  Description  de  VAfrique  et  I'Espagne, 
by  R.  Dozy,  and  M.  J.  de  Goeje,  pp.  230- 

III.    From  the  Teatro  Historico  of  Fray 

Lamberto  de  Zaragoza  condensed : 

S.  James  left  Jerusalem  in  36,  and  having 

preached  the  Gospel  in  Judaea  and  Samaria  he 

took  ship  for  Spain;  some  would  have  it  that 




he  disembarked  at  Carthagena  but  it  is  more 
likely  that  the  place  was  somewhere  about 
Tortosa.  He  came  up  the  banks  of  the  Ebro ; 
when  he  reached  Saragossa  he  spent  his  days 
in  expounding  and  his  nights  chiefly  in  prayer. 
Being  with  some  disciples  just  outside  the 
walls  he  saw  a  light  and  heard  singing  and 
perceived  a  multitude  of  angels  bringing  S. 
Mary  on  a  throne  from  Jerusalem  in  a  great 
glory,  and  by  her  a  wooden  image  of  her,  and  a 
column  of  jasper:  she  bade  him  build  her  a 
temple  there  where  with  her  name  his  should 
be  adored:  "for  this  place  is  to  be  my  House, 
my  right  inheritance  and  possession.  This 
image  and  column  of  mine  shall  be  the  Title 
and  Altar  of  the  temple  that  you  shall 
build. "  (pp.  4 1-44) .  When  the  Apostle  had 
built  the  church,  he  gave  it  the  title  of  S. 
Mary  of  the  Pillar.  He  gave  to  the  congre- 
gation of  the  faithful  there  an  organized 
church  and  see,  and  seeing  in  Athanasius  a 
disciple  eminent  in  the  faith,  in  wisdom  and 
zeal,  named  him  bishop  and  consecrated  with 
the  laying  on  of  his  hands;  and  in  Theodore 
another  disciple  not  inferior  in  the  same 
tokens,  ordained  him  priest,  designating  the 
former  to  the  office  of  pastor  of  the  Caesar- Au- 
gustan flock,  and  the  other  to  the  charge  of 



— for  Gua- 



The  Pillar 


panions of 
S.  James 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

the  cult  of  the  sacred  image  and  other  ex- 
ercises that  lead  to  ecclesiastical  discipline 
(p.  46).  S.  Athanasius  was  the  first  Bishop  of 
Saragossa ;  some  think  he  was  of  Greek  extrac- 
tion and  was  born  in  Toledo,  and  had  been  in 
Jerusalem  and  there  been  converted,  return- 
ing to  Spain  with  S.  James  (p.  49).  S.  Theo- 
dore the  disciple  of  S.  James  was  the  successor 
of  S.  Athanasius  in  the  see  (p.  59). 

All  the  intent  of  the  R.  P.  Risco  .  .  .  [says 
Fray  Lamberto]  is  to  deny  that  SS,  Atha- 
nasius and  Theodore  were  bishops  of  Sara- 
gossa, as  where  he  says  in  Espana  Sagrada,  vol. 
XXX,  p.  39,  §  8,  "as  it  is  known  by  ancient 
monuments,  the  Epistle  of  Leo  III,  and  the 
Instrument  of  Calixtus  II,  all  we  know  of 
them  is  that  they  were  in  Galicia  and  always 
stayed  there,  guarding  the  Sepulchre  of  their 
holy  Master,  till  they  both  died  and  were 
buried  one  on  the  left  and  one  on  the  right 
hand  of  the  Apostle's  body,"  but  in  truth  the 
Epistle  says  not  one  word  about  their  bishop- 
rics, neither  affirming  nor  denying.  .  .  . 
(pp.  273-275).    Et  cetera,  et  cetera. 

From  Teatro  Historico  de  las  Iglesias  del 
Reyno  de  Aragon,  tome  II.  By  the  R.  P. 
Fray  Lamberto  de  Zaragoza,  of  the  Order  of 
the  Capuchines,  1782. 



IV.  From  Risco,  EspaHa  Sagrada,  XXX, 
1775*    Condensed. 

The  piety  and  religious  devotion  with 
which  all  the  faithful  venerate  the  holy  image 
of  the  Column,  and  the  respect  with  which 
they  regard  the  temple  of  it,  is  a  solid  docu- 
ment for  proof  of  the  antiquity,  the  contin- 
uity, and  the  certainty  of  our  tradition,  for 
there  is  not  known  any  other  commencement 
of  a  cult  so  devout  and  so  widespread  through- 
out the  world.  ...  S.  Braul,  who  flourished 
in  the  seventh  century,  had  a  very  especial 
devotion  to  this  sanctuary.  The  ancient 
Breviary  of  Monte  Aragon,  and  a  volume  that 
served  for  the  Order  of  Jeronymites,  refer  to 
the  holy  bishop's  living  for  a  while  in  the  house 
of  the  Pillar.  It  is  certain  that  notwithstand- 
ing the  great  excellence  of  the  temple  of  the 
Saviour,  and  the  appreciation  in  which  he 
held  the  church  of  the  Innumerable  Martyrs, 
as  will  be  said  in  the  proper  place,  his  holy 
body  was  buried  in  this  sanctuary,  as  his 
Life  also  will  prove.  Aymon,  a  writer  of  the 
ninth  century,  in  the  midst  of  celebrating 
the  two  churches,  called  that  of  the  Pillar  the 
mother  of  all  the  churches  in  the  city.  .  .  . 
The  most  authentic  testimony  which  can  be 
brought  to  confirm  the  fame  and  dignity  of 



Fr.  Risco 

The  Pillar 



of  S.  Ber- 
nard, our 
great  lover 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

this  holy  image  throughout  the  Christian 
world,  and  the  esteem  in  which  it  was  held, 
is  the  bull  of  Pope  Gelasius  II,  issued  in  1 1 18 
and  the  encyclical  of  D.  Pedro  Librana,  first 
bishop  after  the  reconquest.  This  rejoices  in 
the  deliverance  of  the  church  of  the  Blessed 
and  Glorious  Virgin  Mary  [but  names  no 
Pillar  which  is  only  as  might  be  expected]. 
Doctor  Ferreras  pretends  that  the  image  of 
the  Pillar  is  as  modern  as  certain  very  learned 
Aragonese  aver,  who  say  it  was  brought  by 
some  Gascon  monks  at  the  time  of  the  Con- 
quest of  Saragossa  (pp.  75-79). 

The  oppression  that  the  Mozdrabes  of 
Saragossa  suffered  during  the  dominion  of  the 
Moors  was  not  always  the  same,  but  severer 
or  lighter  according  to  the  temper  of  the  pre- 
fects or  kings.  What  I  have  been  able  to 
collect  [says  Risco]  from  the  monuments  that 
I  have  read  concerned  with  this  time,  is  that 
the  servitude  of  the  Christians  in  this  city 
was  not  so  harsh  and  calamitous  as  what  they 
suffered  at  Cordova  and  in  other  towns  near 
that  court.  ...  In  848  this  church  enjoyed 
such  peace,  that  not  only  the  bishop  Senior 
but  also  the  prefect  of  the  Arabs  received 
benignly  the  Christians  who  passed  through 
Saragossa,  as  S.  Eulogius  and  Aymon  testify. 



.  .  .  From  these  notices  it  may  be  inferred 
that  the  Mozdrabes  of  this  church  enjoyed 
for  long  stretches  of  time  such  peaceable  and 
happy  existence  as  could  hardly  have  been 
expected  of  the  barbarity  of  the  Saracens 
.  .  .  they  were  however  poor,  what  with  the 
covetousness  of  the  Mohammedans  and  the 
continuance  of  wars  ...  so  that  Pope  Gela- 
sius  allowed  indulgences  to  those  that  gave 
any  alms  for  the  decoration  of  the  walls  of  the 
Pillar,  the  provision  of  ornaments  and  sacred 
vessels,  and  the  sustenance  of  the  clergy  there. 
There  seems  to  have  been  no  lack  of  instruc- 
tion in  the  city  during  the  time  called  of  her 
captivity,  nor  is  it  likely  that  the  Christians 
fell  into  any  error  from  living  with  such  bar- 
barous folk.  .  .  (pp.  208-210).  The  church 
of  the  Pillar  was  in  this  time  the  place  of  re- 
ligion and  sanctity  ...  as  Zurita  says  (p. 
207).  The  churches  which  the  Arabs  allowed 
to  the  faithful  were  that  of  the  Santos  Masas, 
now  S.  Engracia,  and  that  of  the  Pillar,  and 
they  turned  into  a  mosque  that  of  the  Saviour 
(p.  206). 

The  tradition  of  the  antiquity  of  the  cult 
of  the  Pillar  is  proved  by  the  Mass  which  of 
old  time  was  sung  in  the  holy  chapel  of  the 
Pillar,  with  the  codex  which  exists  in  the 







Later  than 
the  twelfth 


WAY    OF    S.     JAl^ES 

archives  of  that  church,  and  with  other  tes- 
timonies. The  Mass  was  given  up  in  the 
time  of  Pius  V,  to  bring  the  chapter  into  con- 
formity with  the  Roman  missal,  but  the 
chapter  still  sang  the  collect  in  the  daily  pro- 
cession to  the  chapel  of  Our  Lady,  and  the 
whole  substance  of  the  apparition  is  in  the 
collect.  In  a  copy  of  the  Morals  of  S.  Gregory, 
belonging  to  the  church  of  the  Pillar  which 
was  shown  at  Rome  in  evidence  as  five  hun- 
dred years  old,  the  story  of  the  apparition  of 
the  Virgin  to  S.  James  is  written  at  the  end 
with  all  the  traditional  circumstances  .  .  . 
nevertheless,  the  codex  is  not  so  old  as  some 
think,  but  it  embodied  an  ancient  tradition. 
.  .  .  The  writing  is  that  used  in  Spain  much 
later  than  the  time  of  Tajon,  and  even  later 
than  the  twelfth  century.  .  .  . 

In  1459  John  II  of  Aragon  conceding  singu- 
lar graces  and  prerogatives  to  this  church 
mentioned  the  admirable  apparition  of  the 
Virgin  to  S.  James  upon  the  marble  Pillar. 
On  May  9,  1471,  the  Chapter  of  the  Pillar 
ordered  that  on  the  octave  of  S.  James, 
though  it  was  a  double  first,  the  little  office 
of  the  Virgin  should  not  be  omitted  as  on 
other  octaves,  because  it  was  meet  and  right 
in  the  whole  festival  to  keep  a  memorial  of 



the  prodigious  apparition  that  the  sovereign 
Queen  vouchsafed  to  the  holy  Apostle  in  that 
city.  In  1504  Ferdinand  the  Catholic  in 
another  diploma  affirmed  that  the  said  tradi- 
tion was  so  celebrated  and  famous  that  none 
of  the  Catholics  of  the  west  were  ignorant 
thereof  (pp.  79-83). 

The  bull  of  Calixt  III,  given  in  1456,  may 
be  found  in  Espafia  Sagrada  III,  Appendix  11. 
It  declares  that  the  church  of  the  Pillar  is  the 
first  that  was  consecrated  and  dedicated  to 
the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  that  before  her 
Assumption  she  appeared  to  the  Apostle  S. 
James  in  Saragossa  on  a  column  of  marble, 
whence  the  church  took  its  name  of  the  Pillar, 
that  S.  James  by  her  orders  built  her  a  chapel, 
that  the  faithful  came  thither  with  great 
devotion,  and  that  God  in  his  mercy  worked 
an  infinity  of  miracles  there.  ...     (p.  85). 

The  whole  has  been  accepted  by  the  Roman 
curia,  Benedict  XIV,  and  the  Bollandists 

(p.  95)- 
V.    Prom    Florez,   EspaHa  Sagrada,  III, 

The  Arragonese  at  the  conquest  of  Seville 

founded  there  a  confraternity  under  the  ad- 
vocation of  Nuestra  SeHora  del  Pilar,  I,  253 
(p.  «5)- 



aged in 
the  early 

Borja  of 

they  found 
there  a 
Pillar  and 
a  Lady 




WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 



Printed,  from  The  Book  of  S.  James,  in  Acta 
Sanctorum,  July,  vol.  VI,  pp.  47  sqq. :  from 
which  they  are  here  summarized  in  the  original 
order,  omitting  the  division  into  chapters. 

I.  In  the  time  of  King  Alfonso  when  the 
Saracen  raged,  a  count  named  Ermengotus, 
taken  as  a  prisoner  into  Saragossa  and  calling 
on  S.  James,  saw  him  appear.  The  Apostle 
comforted  him,  took  him  out  to  the  city  gates 
which  opened  at  the  sign  of  the  Cross,  and 
carried  him  back  to  a  Christian  castle. 

II.  In  the  time  of  Bishop  Theodomir  a 
certain  Italian  had  sinned  so  greatly  that  he 
hardly  dared  confess  and  his  priest  dared  not 
absolve.  He  wrote  out  his  confession  and 
going  to  Santiago  laid  it  on  the  altar.  On  S. 
James's  Day,  when  the  Bishop  went  to  sing 
Mass,  the  scroll  was  blank.  [This  miracle  is 
told  of  Charlemagne  and  S.  Giles,  which  is, 
after  all,  within  the  same  cycle  or  current  of 



legends.  #  Where  Charlemagne  must  figure 
as  founder  and  saint,  it  is  wisely  transferred 
to  an  anonymous  Italian.] 

III.  In  the  year  1 108  a  Frefnch  couple  had 
no  children:  they  went  upon  the  pilgrimage 
and  afterwards  the  wife  was  pregnant.  [This 
is  the  opening  of  a  Romance.]  When  the  son 
thus  given  was  fifteen  years  old  they  took  him 
on  the  same  pilgrimage  and  in  the  mountains 
of  Oca  the  boy  died.  Then  the  mother  called 
upon  S.  James:  "You  gave  him  once:  restore 
him  now!"    S.  James  did. 

IV.  In  1080  thirty  soldiers  of  Lorraine  set 
out,  and  all  swore  to  stand  by  each  other 
except  one,  who  made  no  promises.  When 
they  reached  Gascony  and  the  Portatn  Clau- 
sam  (Port  de  Cize)  one  fell  very  sick  and  for 
two  weeks  lay  sick  there.  Twenty-eight  men 
went  on,  only  the  one  who  had  made  no 
pledge,  stayed  by  him:  the  two  kept  vigil  a 
night  at  the  village  of  S.  Michael  [S.  Miguel  in 
Excelsis]  and  started  again  on  foot,  but  the 
mountain  was  too  rough  and  the  sick  man 
died.  The  survivor  in  solitude  and  night, 
amid  mountains  and  Basques,  called  for  help 
on  S.James.  The  Apostle  appearing  on  horse- 
back, took  the  dead  in  his  arms,  and  the 
living  behind  him,  and  before  sunrise  the 








Our  Lady 
of  Villa- 
Volume  II, 
page  167. 



WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

twelve  days'  journey  was  made  and  the  pair 
set  down  on  the  hill  of  Mountjoy,  with  a 
promise  that  the  dead  man  should  be  buried 
by  the  Canons  of  Santiago.  [The  mingling 
here  of  folk-lore  and  actuality  is  the  quaintest, 
the  sweetest,  ever  savoured.] 

V.  In  1090  some  German  pilgrims  [Vin- 
cent of  Beauvais  says  French]  going  to  S. 
James,  came  to  Toulouse,  and  lodged  with  a 
rich  man  who  coveted  their  goods.  He  made 
them  drunk,  and  while  they  slept  heavily  hid 
a  silver  cup  among  their  goods:  then  came 
with  the  guard  at  cock  crow  to  arouse  and 
search.  He  dragged  two  of  them,  father  and 
son,  before  a  judge,  the  son  was  hanged,  the 
father  continued  the  pilgrimage.  Coming 
back  thirty-six  days  later  he  found  the  son 
still  alive,  for  S.  James  had  held  him  up  and 
fed  him.    The  wicked  host  was  hanged. 

VI.  In  1 100  when  Louis  was  King  of 
Prance  [he  was  not  king  until  1108]  the  land 
was  invaded  with  a  pestilence,  and  Count 
William  of  Poitiers  went  with  his  wife  and 
two  little  children  on  the  pilgrimage.  In 
Pampeluna  the  countess  died  and  the  host 
robbed  them  even  of  the  horse  that  carried 
the  children.  They  met  a  good  old  man  with 
an  excellent  donkey  and  finished  the  journey 



with  these.    Returning  to  Pampeluna,  they 
found  that  the  host  was  hanged,  the  old  man 

was  the  Apostle,  and  the  ass  was  an  angel. 
[Jacob  Sobieski  had  an  adventure  in  Pampelu- 
na that  begins  with  his  being  robbed,  but  ends 
with  the  Bishop's  repaying  the  lost  money  to 
save  the  innkeeper's  daughter  from  hanging.] 

VII.  In  i  ioo  when  a  Frisian  ship  of  Jeru- 
salem pilgrims  was  attacked  by  a  Saracen 
named  Avitus  [here  is  the  opening  of  a  Ro- 
mance] a  sailor  in  full  armour  fell  overboard. 
S.  James  pulled  him  out  and  put  him  back  on 

VIII.  In  1 1 02  a  pilgrim  returning  by  sea 
from  Jerusalem  was  sitting  on  the  bulwarks 
singing  to  a  psaltery,  and  was  washed  over- 
board. S.  James  saved  him,  and  brought  him 
safely  to  the  haven  where  he  would  be.  [In 
all  these  sea-faring  miracles  the  rescued  vows 
and  accomplishes  the  pilgrimage  to  Com- 

IX.  In  1 103  a  French  knight  stationed  at 
Tiberias  and  in  the  country  near  Jerusalem, 
being  in  danger  of  the  Turks,  vowed  the  pil- 
grimage and  escaped.  He  forgot  the  vow, 
fell  sick  unto  death,  and  was  visited  and  re- 
minded by  the  Apostle.  He  set  out.  The  ship 
was  endangered  in  a  storm  and  all  on  board 




VII  * 


viii    x 





The  Dios- 


x    * 





p.  36 


WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

vowed  the  pilgrimage.  S.  James  appeared 
among  them  in  human  form,  they  anchored 
safe  and  came  to  the  haven  where  they  would 
be,  in  Apulia. 

X.  In  1 104  a  pilgrim  returning  from  Jeru- 
salem fell  overboard,  called  on  S.  James,  and 
swam  after  the  ship  three  days  and  nights  till 
he  was  heard  and  taken  on  board. 

XI.  In  1 1 05  one  Bernard  of  Castelcorgano 
in  the  diocese  of  Modena  was  a  prisoner  ijti  a 
deep  dungeon,  loaded  with  chains.  To  him 
calling  on  S.  James,  the  Apostle  appeared  and 
said:  "Come,  follow  me  into  Galicia,"  then 
struck  off  his  chains,  and  took  him  up  to  the 
top  of  the  tower  whence  he  jumped  down 
without  the  least  harm. 

XII.  In  1 1 06  a  soldier  sick  in  Apulia  of  an 
affection  of  the  throat,  earnestly  desiring  to  be 
.touched  with  a  crusella  fetched  back  from 
Compostella,  was  cured  thereby  and  went 
on  the  pilgrimage.  [The  Bollandists  opine 
that  the  dog-Latin  here,  crusillam,  means 
a  little  cross  and  betrays  the  Spanish  word 
crucecilla,  and  the  Spanish  provenance  of  the 
miracle,  but  Osma  points  out  that  it  is  the 
concha  Venera,  and  in  the  Gallegan  version 
is  rendered  cuncha* 

XIII.  In  1 135  a  soldier  named  Dalmatius 




was  badly  beaten  by  a  peasant:  he  appealed 
to  S.  James  and  the  man's  arm  was  broken, 
but  on  penitence  and  intercession  was 

XIV.  In  1 107,  to  a  merchant  unjustly 
imprisoned  S.  James  appeared  and  led  him  to 
the  top  of  the  tower  whence  he  jumped  down 
safe,  and  carried  his  chains  to  the  church  of 

XV.  In  1 1 10  when  two  Italian  cities  were 
at  war,  a  soldier  in  danger  escaped  on  horse- 
back. Fulfilling  his  vow  he  came  with  the 
horse  to  Santiago  and  the  guard  would  not 
let  him  bring  the  latter  to  the  altar.  But  the 
gates  opened  of  themselves. 

XVI.  Three  soldiers  of  the  diocese  of 
Lyons,  going  on  pilgrimage,  met  a  little  old 
woman  who  begged  them  to  carry  her  bundle. 
One  of  them  did,  and  when  they  met  a  poor 
man  who  begged  a  lift,  he  gave  up  his  horse, 
and  so  went  afoot,  carrying  the  old  woman's 
bundle  and  the  beggar's  staff.  Then  he  fell 
sick,  and  was  assaulted  by  devils,  and  kept 
them  off  with  bundle  for  shield  and  staff  for 
spear,  and  died'  in  piety.  [Vincent  of  Beau- 
vais  tells  this;  notwithstanding,  it  is  pure 
folk-lore  up  almost  to  the  close.] 

XVII.  [Paraphrased  in  parts.]    One  Ger- 














Atys  type 

A  friend  of 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

aid,  a  furrier,  of  a  village  in  the  diocese  of 
Laon,  supported  his  widowed  mother  and 
could  not  afford  the  journey  to  Compostella. 
Apparently  he  could  not  afford  to  marry,  but 
he  loved  a  girl.  At  last  he  was  able  to  go  on 
the  pilgrimage  with  some  neighbours,  and  the 
devil  appeared  in  S.  James's  likeness  and  per- 
suaded him  to  despair  for  his  sin  against  chas- 
tity. He  drew  his  knife  and  punished  himself 
like  Atys  and  then  committed  hari-kari:  but 
before  the  funeral  was  over  he  came  back  to 
life  with  a  long  relation.  It  seems,  the  devils 
carried  off  his  soul  toward  Rome  and  he 
heard  the  howling  of  the  wretched  [the  dis- 
tance is  short  from  Rome  to  Hell].  When 
they  came  to  the  wood  between  the  city  and 
the  village  of  Labica,  S.  James  came  up 
behind  and  questioned  the  devils,  who  said 
the  soul  was  none  of  his.  S.  James  was  ruddy 
and  brown  and  comely  and  young.  So  they 
all  turned  aside  to  S.  Peter's  where  was  a 
Council  of  Saints,  the  Blessed  Virgin  presiding 
(she  was  of  middle  height  and  very  fair  to  see 
and  exceedingly  sweet-looking)  and  S.  James 
argued  his  case  before  her,  and  fetched  back 
the  soul  to  the  body,  and  the  wounds  healed 
but  the  scars  remained.  Hugh  of  Cluny, 
with  many  others  saw  and  touched  them. 




XVIII.  A  count  of  S.  Gilles  named  Pons 
went  to  Compostella  with  his  brother  for  a 
vow,  and  reached  there  after  the  doors  were 
closed.  The  warder  refused  to  open,  and 
they  opened  of  themselves.  Again  a  party 
came  with  torches,  and  they  opened,  and  all 
the  church  was  ablaze  with  lights.  [There 
lingers  a  trace  here  of  that  enchanted  cham- 
ber, lighted  and  perfumed,  that  is  also  to  be 
traced  in  Aymery's  account  of  the  crypt.] 

XIX.  A  Greek  Bishop  named  Stephen  left 
his  office  and  honours  and  lived  in  the  church 
in  a  vile  habit  in  a  straw  hut  ["intus  in  beati 
apostoli  basilica  "]  where  he  could  watch  the 
altar  over  against  him.  When  he  saw  the 
peasants  invoking  S.  James  as  a  good  soldier 
he  called  them  fools,  for  the  Apostle  was  a 
fisherman.  At  night  S.  James  appeared  in 
shining  armour  and  predicted  the  victory  of 
Coimbra  on  the  morrow  at  the  third  hour. 
[This  miracle  figures  large  in  Luke  of  Tuy.] 

XX.  Many  miracles  were  worked  for 
soldiers:  e.g.  there  was  a  great  war  between 
the  Count  of  Fontis  Calcariae  and  a  knight 
called  William :  his  soldiers  ran  away  and  he 
was  taken  and  about  to  be  beheaded  when  he 
called  upon  S.  James  and  became  impene- 
trable, neck  and  belly. 




The  great 




leled ex- 
cept on 
page  518 




1 134  and 




WAY    OP    S.    JAMES 

XXL  In  our  time  one  Guilbert  from  Bur- 
gundy, paralysed  for  fourteen  years,  travelled 
to  Compostella  slung  between  two  horses,  his 
wife  and  servants  accompanying  him.  Thir- 
teen days  in  the  church  cured  him.  [Our 
Lady  of  Villa-Sirga  was  especially  disposed 
to  appropriate  miracles  of  this  type.] 

XXII.  In  1 100  a  citizen  of  Barcelona 
came  and  prayed  never  to  be  a  captive, 
because  his  business  took  him  to  Sicily  and  he 
feared  the  Saracens.  He  was  taken  and  sold 
thirteen  times,  into  Carociana,  Jazaram  of 
Slavonia,  Blavia,  Turcopolis,  Persia,  India, 
Ethiopia,  Alexandria,  Africa,  Barbary,  the 
Desert,  Bugia,  Almaria:  then  the  saint  ap- 
peared and  said:  "Because  you  asked  in 
Santiago  deliverance  of  body  and  not  of  soul, 
these  dangers  have  befallen,  but  because  God 
is  sorry  for  you,  He  has  sent  me  to  take  you 
from  this  prison. "  The  merchant  carried  his 
chains  and  the  wild  beasts  fled  before  them. 
Coming  back  to  Santiago  with  them,  barefoot, 
between  Estella  and  Logrono  I  saw  him  and 
he  told  me  this.  [In  their  geography  the 
Bollandists  are  all  to  seek,  they  conjecture 
that  Estella  and  Logrono  may  be  the  names 
of  two  rivers  in  Italy.] 

XXIII.  In  1 13 1  [Vincent  of  Beauvais  says 



in  1 139]  when  Louis  was  King  of  France  and 
Innocent,  Pope,  a  man  called  Bruno,  of  S. 
Mary  Magdalen  of  VezeTay,  arriving  back 
from  S.  James  short  of  money,  fell  ill,  and 
being  ashamed  to  beg,  when  at  three  in  the 
afternoon  he  had  eaten  nothing  all  day,  he 
appealed  to  S.  James  where  he  lay  alone  under 
a  tree.  Then  he  fell  alseep,  and  dreamed  that 
the  Apostle  fed  him.  Waking,  he  found  at  his 
head  a  "loaf  that  he  lived  on  for  a  fortnight." 
Another  day  he  found  bread  in  his  wallet. 
[Another  miracle,  much  like  this,  was  worked 
for  three  returning  pilgrims  in  19 17.] 

XXIV.  Follow  some  miracles  that  pun- 
ished peoples  in  Spain  who  did  not  observe 
S.  James's  Day,  at  Tudela,  at  Albinetum 
in  Vasoongada,  and  that  in  the  diocese 
of  Bisontiensis  befell  one  Bernard  of 

These  belong  all  to  the  pilgrimage  propa- 
ganda, and  they  were  preserved  in  the  Book 
of  S.  James.  Just  what  Bishop  Berenguer 
would  have  added  and  omitted,  we  cannot, 
alas,  guess !  Caxton's  Golden  Legend  rehearses 
ten  of  these  again  Jso  prettily  that  it  is  hard 
not  to  copy  them  out]  dividing  one  of  them 
into  two,  and  adding  a  twelfth.  They  stand 
in  this  order,— IX,  IV,  V,  XVII  split  into 




1 139 








WAY    OP    S.     JAMES 

two,  and  somewhat  modified,  so  that  the 
young  man  from  Laon  [Caxton  says  Lyons] 
for  whom  Hugh  of  Cluny  vouches,  was  used 
to  go  on  the  pilgrimage  every  year,  VI,  XIV, 
XVI,  XXIII,  XXII.    The  last  is  this: 

It  happened  in  the  year  1238  in  a  castle 
named  Prate,  between  Florence  and  Pistoja 
[Pistoia  had  relics  of  S.  James  and  relations 
with  Santiago]  a  young  man  deceived  of 
simplesse  by  the  counsel  of  an  old  man,  set 
fire  in  the  corn  of  his  tutor,  which  had  charge 
to  keep  him,  because  that  he  would  usurp 
to  himself  his  heritage.  Then  he  was  taken, 
and  confessed  his  trespass,  and  was  judged  to 
be  drawn  and  burnt.  Then  he  confessed  him, 
and  avowed  to  S.  James.  And  when  he  had 
been  long  drawn  in  his  shirt  upon  a  stony  way, 
he  was  neither  hurt  in  his  body  nor  in  his 
shirt.  Then  he  was  bound  to  a  stake,  and 
faggots  and  bushes  were  set  about  him,  and 
fire  put  thereto,  which  fire  burnt  at  his 
bonds,  and  he  always  called  on  S.  James,  and 
there  was  no  hurt  of  burning  found  in  his 
shirt  nor  in  his  body,  and  when  they  would 
have  cast  him  again  into  the  fire,  he  was 
taken  away  from  them  by  S.  James,  the 
apostle  of  God,  to  whom  be  given  laud  and 




The  Epistle  of  King  Alfonso  III  to  the 
clergy  and  people  of  Tours  (EspaHa  Sagrada, 
XIX,  346-349)  was  printed  by  F16rez  from 
Andrea  Quercetano  in  Notts  ad  Bibliothecam 
Cluniacensam:  Cluny  being  indeed  just  where 
you  would  expect  to  find  it.  Towards  the 
close  the  King  states  that  the  Apostle's  tomb 
they  inquire  about  "is  certainly  known  to  be 
that  of  James  Zebedee  the  Apostle,  Boanerges, 
who  was  beheaded  by  Herod  .  .  .  and  many 
marvels  are  worked  at  the  Sepulchre,  demons 
are  cast  out,  the  .blind  receive  light,  the  lame 
walk,  the  deaf  hear,  the  dumb  speak,  and 
many  other  miracles  are  done,  that  we  know 
and  have  seen  and  the  pontiffs  and  clergy 
have  told  us." 

There  must  be  still,  moreover,  countless 
other  miracles  told  in  lonely  spots,  like  that 
of  S.  James's  Leap  related  in  explanation 
of  the  name  Cave  of  Santiago  in  the  Sierra 
Morena,  in  Estremadura.  This  belongs  to 
Santiago  Matamoros  and  to  the  Iberian 
horseman.  In  Aragon,  on  the  other  hand, 
when  at  Huesca,  1095,  the  Twin  Warriors 
fought,  S.  George  replaced  S.  James  on  the 
white  horse. 



S.  James's 

Bibi.  de 
Trad.  Pop. 
Esp.,  VI, 

S.  George 
in  Aragon 



Our  Lady 
of  Villa- 

WAY    OP    S.    JAMES 




I  (xxxi).  How  S.  Mary  took  the  bull-calf 
of  the  Segovian  peasant  who  had  promised  it 
and  did  not  want  to  give  it. 

This  is  a  miracle  of  her  who  is  called  the 
Virgin  of  Jesse,  in  her  church  which  is  at  Villa- 
Sirga  two  leagues  from  Carrion.  A  peasant 
lived  in  a  village,  whose  favourite  cow  died, 
and  some  other  cattle  were  lost,  or  eaten  or 
badly  bitten  by  the  wolves,  so  he  vowed  a 
bull-calf  to  S.  Mary.  And  the  bull-calf  grew. 
One  night  he  said  to  his  wife  that  he  was 
going  to  take  it  to  market,  he  could  not  afford 
to  give  it.  But  when  they  set  out  for  market 
the  bull-calf  galloped  off,  and  was  lost  entirely 
and  wandered  about  until  at  last  it  turned  up 
at  S.  Mary's.  And  the  moral  of  this,  and 
the  burthen  of  the  song,  is  that  some  animals 
have  more  sense  than  some  people. 

II  (ccxvii).    How  a  count  of  Prance  who 



went  to  Villa-Sirga  could  not  enter  into  the 
church  until  he  had  confessed  himself. 

The  burthen  is  that  no  man  may  enter  into 
the  Lord's  church  [which  means  Our  Lady's] 
if  his  mortal  sins  have  not  been  confessed 
before.  This  count  came  from  France  in 
rotneria  [it  is  not  stated  that  the  pilgrimage 
was  made  to  this  church]  and  wanted  to  enter 
the  church  like  the  rest,  but  he  could  not  get 
in.  He  had  ten  knights  with  him  and  they 
tried  by  main  force  to  carry  or  push  him  in, 
striving  so  that  blood  gushed  from  the  mouth 
and  nose,  and  could  not.  So  he  bethought 
him,  and  said  what  he  had  omitted  to  say, 
with  great  repentance,  and  then  a  man  might 
see  him  far  up  the  church,  singing  and  giving 

Ill  (ccxviii).  How  S.  Mary  cured  in 
Villa-Sirga  a  good  man  of  Germany  who 
was  paralytic. 

A  good  man  of  Germany  was  long  sick 
and  at  the  end  paralysed  and  poor;  he  saw  a 
great  pilgrimage  of  folk  in  his  country  going 
to  Santiago.  He  wanted  to  go ;  they  hesitated 
because  he  was  helpless  and  poor  but  at  last 
for  pity  they  took  him.  With  great  difficulty 
he  made  the  journey,  but  for  his  sins  God 
would  not  cure  him.    He  became  blind.    On 






Our  Lady 
of  Villa- 


WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

the  way  home  when  the  party  were  in  Carrion, 
they  pushed  on  to  Villa-Sirga,  and  left  him 
there,  knowing  that  there  was  a  hospice,  and 
went  on  home.  In  the  church,  abandoned, 
he  called  to  the  Mother  and  she  heard  his 
cries;  he  wept  and  called  her  Gloriosa;  and 
within  a  few  days  he  was  able  to  go  home. 
The  moral  is: 

11  We  are  of  Jesus  Christ 
Whose  are  all  pardons. 
And  He?    What  is  to  do?    Praise 
The  very  Good  Lady." 

IV  (ccxxvii).  How  S.  Mary  fetched  a 
squire  out  of  captivity  in  such  guise  that  the 
guards  saw  him  not. 

It  was  a  squire  of  Quintanilla  de  Osofia, 
who  went  every  year  to  Villa-Sirga  for  the 
August  feast,  but  being  at  Seville  was  taken 
prisoner  by  the  Moors;  and  lying  in  very 
great  misery,  every  night  and  every  day 
with  all  his  heart  he  prayed  to  the  Virgin 
S.  Mary  of  Villa-Sirga:  and  as  August  came 
on  the  Moors  asked  him  why  he  wept  so  with 
bowed  head  and  was  so  sad  and  sorry.  But 
when  he  told  them  of  the  great  feast  in  his 
land  on  that  day,  they  were  enraged  and 



threw  him  into  a  deep  dark  prison,  and  still 
he  prayed  the  more.  Then  the  Glorious  ap- 
peared, lighting  up  the  prison,  lovely,  and 
spoke  to  him.  His  fetters  fell  off  and  he 
went  out  into  the  midst  of  them  that  heard 
not,  and  passed  before  the  Moors  and  saw 
them  and  was  not  seen;  and  carried  to  the 
Virgin  S.  Mary  two  fetters  that  were  on  his 
legs  and  offered  them  there.  [This  story, 
with  its  precision  of  name  and  place — for 
there  was  never  a  good  lie  without  circum- 
stance, and  the  names  and  addresses  of  wit- 
nesses are  as  easy  to  get  in  this  century  for 
hysterical  rumour  as  in  the  thirteenth — 
this  story,  then,  stands  midway  between  the 
twenty-second  Miracle  of  S.  James,  and  the 
legend  of  Nuestra  Senora  del  Camino  which 
may  be  found  in  this  book.  That  is  so  close 
in  its  likeness,  except  for  the  normal  process 
of  amplification  in  the  centuries,  that  it  can 
only  be  supposed  that  when  S.  Mary  of 
Villa-Sirga  went  out  of  business  the  other 
Virgin,  a  little  way  up  the  Road,  took  it 

V  (ccxxix).  How  S.  Mary  kept,  at  her 
church  in  Villa-Sirga,  the  Moors  that  wanted 
to  wreck  it,  and  made  them  blind  and  para- 



Page  5 16 

Volume  II. 
page  282 



Alfonso  IX, 
date  too 



WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

When  King  Alfonso  of  Leon  brought  up 
Moors  to  invade  Castile,  at  the  church 
which  was  then  building  were  many  folk  of 
the  land  to  have  God's  pardon,  and  when 
they  saw  the  hosts  of  Moors  they  fled  to 
Carrion  and  left  the  church  alone.  Then 
the  Moors  went  in  and  wanted  to  destroy 
and  burn,  but  they  could  not  loosen  one 
single  stone  of  all  that  were  there,  and  could 
not  use  their  members  nor  see  out  of  their 

VI  (ccxxii).  How  a  knight  that  went 
hunting  lost  his  hawk,  and  when  he  could 
not  recover  it  took  a  waxen  hawk  to  the 
Virgin  S.  Mary,  and  then  he  recovered  it. 

It  was  lost  for  four  months  but  when  he 
got  home  from  Villa-Sirga  it  was  sitting  on 
the  perch  and  let  itself  be  caught. 

VII  (ccxxxiv).  How  S.  Mary  of  Villa- 
Sirga  made  a  deaf-mute  to  hear  and  speak 
because  he  kept  vigil  before  her  altar  one 

The  burthen  is  the  same  inverted  moral 
as  many  of  these  songs  have:  "She  who 
makes  sinners  repent  of  their  sins  can  well 
make  the  mute  and  deaf  to  speak  and  hear." 
1  'He  came  from  Saldafia  and  D.  Roderick 
brought  him  up,  and  once  he  wanted  to  go  to 




S.  Mary,  and  slept  a  night  before  the  altar, 
and  commanded  a  mass  next  morning,  and 
at  the  Consecration  his  tongue  was  loosed 
and  his  ears  opened."  [This  reads  like  one 
of  the  recorded  miracles  at  Lourdes.] 

VIII  (ccxliii).  How  some  falconers  who 
went  hunting  were  in  fear  of  death  in  a 
stream  and  called  on  S.  Mary  of  Villa-Sirga 
and  she  by  her  mercy  saved  them. 

Two  falconers  were  hunting  with  King  Al- 
fonso and  wanted  to  hunt  alone  and  solitary. 
The  water-fowl  got  under  the  ice  and  it  broke 
and  let  them  in.  They  called  on  the  Queen  of 
Villa-Sirga  and  got  out  alive  and  went  straight 
to  Villa-Sirga  and  gave  praise  to  S.  Mary  who 
is  Lord  of  all  Lords,  and  then  they  told  the 
king.    [This  must  have  happened  quite  near.] 

IX  (ccliii).  How  a  romeu  of  France  who 
was  boune  to  Santiago  paused  at  Villa-Sirga, 
and  could  not  take  away  thence  an  iron  staff 
that  he  carried  in  penance. 

He  lived  in  Toulouse  and  loved  the  Glorious. 
He  fell  into  sin  and  his  confessor  ordered  him 
to  go  on  pilgrimage  to  Santiago  carrying  a 
staff  that  weighed  twenty-four  pounds  and 
leave  it  there  before  the  altar,  of  "  San  Jame." 
He  came  to  Villa-Sirga  and  asked  the  folk 
what  manner  of  place  that  was  and  they  said 



Our  Lady 
of  Villa- 


Alfonso  X 



Our  Lady 
of  Villa- 


WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

a  marvellous,  in  which  the  holy  Virgin  Mary 
worked  many  miracles.  So  as  he  loved  her 
well  he  turned  aside  from  the  road  and 
prayed  to  her  in  her  church,  asking  pardon 
for  his  sins;  and  the  staff  oppressed  him  so 
that  he  laid  it  down  before  Her  Majesty. 
Then  it  broke  into  two  pieces  and  fell  apart 
and  nobody  could  lift  the  pieces,  not  even  the 
tyrou  of  the  church  [is  this  quite  literally  the 
bouncer?]  who  was  a  good  Christian  in  the 
matter  of  strength.  So  all  sang  Salve  Regina. 
He  did  however  continue  his  journey  to 
Santiago  in  fulfilment  of  the  vow,  and  then 
went  home. 

X  (cclxviii).  How  S.  Mary  cured  in 
Villa-Sirga  a  noble  lady  of  France,  who  was 
entirely  paralysed. 

She  was  dragged  around  in  a  sort  of  little 
cart  to  pilgrimages,  until  pilgrims  returned 
from  Santiago  told  her  of  S.  Mary  of  Villa- 
Sirga,  so  she  wept  and  prayed  and  was  drawn 
thither  and  placed  close  to  the  altar.  So  she 
was  cured  in  all  her  members.  [The  parallel 
with  Lourdes  again  obtrudes  itself,  especially 
for  those  who  have  lived  through  the  long 
and  terrible  days  of  Zola's  novel  and  remem- 
ber that  other  Frenchwoman  of  rank  and 
fashion  who  was  carried  thither  in  a  sort  of 




basket,  with  her  pitiful  pale-coloured  ribbons 
and  laced  pillows.1  Here,  it  may  be  noted, 
for  the  first  time  S.  Mary  really  cuts  out  S. 

XI  (cclxxix).  How  a  good  lady  of  France 
who  was  blind  came  to  Villa-Sirga  and 
watched  there  and  was  cured  and  recovered 
light,  and  on  her  way  home  met  a  blind  man 
boune  to  Santiago  and  advised  him  to  go  by 

She  had  been  to  Santiago  herself,  and  on 
the  way  home  as  they  stopped  at  Carrion 
she  said  to  her  daughter  they  should  push  on 
and  lodge  a  bit  further  along  the  road.  As 
they  came  to  Villa-Sirga  with  great  anxiety 
she  entered  the  church  and  before  the  altar 
made  her  blind  prayer  blindly,  and  she  was 
healed,  and  blessed  the  Virgin.  And  the 
next  day  she  went  along  on  her  road,  and  so 
going  met  a  blind  man,  boune  to  Santiago, 
and  counselled  him  to  go  by  Villa-Sirga  if 
he  wanted  to  get  his  sight  again,  and  added 
her  own  history.  The  blind  man  believed 
her  and  hurried  to  Villa-Sirga  and  the  Virgin 
did  not  wait  long  to  heal  him. 

XII  (ccci).  How  S.  Mary  of  Villa-Sirga 
took  a  squire  out  of  prison  where  he  lay  in 
Carrion  for  killing. 







S.  James, 
Miracle  xi, 
»v,  pp. 
512.  5x3 


S.  Elmo's 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

He  lay  in  heavy  irons  and  chains  in  Carrion 
yet  never  ceased  praying  to  her:  his  sentence 
was  just  yet  he  prayed  her  mercy  that  he 
should  be  pardoned,  and  promised  thereafter 
to  keep  from  folly.  When  she  heard  him, 
the  Queen  of  Heaven  appeared  with  a  great 
company  of  angels,  and  took  him  out  of  his 
fetters  and  bade  him  go  out  of  the  dark 
prison.  He  went  straight  to  Villa-Sirga 
where  many  saw  him  in  the  church,  carry- 
ing his  fetters  which  he  laid  before  the 

XIII  (cccxiii).  How  S.  Mary  of  Villa- 
Sirga  delivered  a  ship  in  peril  of  the  sea. 

A  ship  was  in  peril  of  the  sea  and  those 
who  were  in  it,  after  calling  on  the  Lord  God, 
on  S.  Peter,  S.  James,  S.  Nicholas,  S.  Matthew 
and  many  other  saints  who  are  male  and 
female  called  on  S.  Mary  of  Villa-Sirga,  and 
then  the  storm  subsided.  As  a  clerk  sang 
Salve  Regina  a  poomba  [a  ball  or  bubble  of 
light?]  came  white  into  the  ship  as  snow  falls, 
and  they  all  were  filled  with  charity  and  the 
sea  went  down.  So  they  came  to  a  safe  port. 
[This  will  be  S.  Elmo's  fire,  stolen  from  San- 
tiago.] They  gave  her  a  chalice,  which  the 
clerk  carried  to  Villa-Sirga. 

XIV  (ccclv).    How  S.  Mary  delivered  a 




man  from  the  gibbet  that  he  should  not  die, 
for  he  gave  a  stone  to  her  church. 

This  was  a  young  man  of  Mansilla  de  las 
Mulas,  whose  history  may  be  read  in  full 
at  that  place.  The  story  is  the  best  of  the 
set,  racy  and  convincing,  crammed  with 
human  nature. 

These  Miracles  are  written  in  the  Cantigas 
de  S.  Maria,  by  Alfonso  X  el  Rey  Sabio, 
and  the  number  of  each  Cantiga  is  prefixed 



S.  James, 
Miracle  v, 
page  510 




Legend  of 
S.  James 



WAY     OF    S.     JAMES 



Ad    honorem    Regis    summi,    qui    condidit 

Venerantes  jubilemus  Jacobi  magnalia, 
De  quo  gaudent  celi  cives  in  suprema  curia 
Cuius  festa  gloriosa  meminit  Ecclesia. 

Super  mare  Galilee  omnia  postposuit; 
Viso  rege,  ad  mundana  redire  non  voluit: 
Sed  post  ilium  se  vocantem  pergere  disposuit 
Et  precepta  eius  sacra  predicare  studuit. 
Hermogiai  et  Phileto  Christi  fidem  tribuit, 
Et  Josiam  baptizavit,  et  vim  egro  praebuit. 

Olim    Jhesum   transformatum    vidit    patris 

Pro  quo  mortem  ab  Herode  sumpsit  fuso 

Cuius  corpus  sepelitur  in  terra  Galecie 
Et  petentes  illud  digne  sumunt  vitam  glorie. 



Jam    per    totum    fulget    mundum    divinis 

Qui  viginti  viros  olim  soluit  ab  ergastulis. 
Scedulaque  peccatoris  deleta  apparuit; 
Matris  natum    jam    defunctum    ad    vitam 

Hie  defunctum  urbi  sue  a  Cisera  detulit, 
Quern  bis  senas  per  dietas  una  nocte  contulit. 
Hie  suspensum  post  triginta  dies  vite  reddidit, 
Et  Frisonum  f  erro  tectum  de  abysso  emit, 
Presulemque  mari  mersum  in  navi  instituit. 
Vim  vincendi  Turcos  viro  apostolus  tribuit. 
Peregrinum  mare  mersum  per  verticem  tenuit 
De  excelsa  arce  saltans  vir  sanus  ereptus  est; 
Per  crusille  tactum  miles  saluti  redditus  est; 
Sanitati  post  vindictam  Dalmatius  datus  est; 
A  prostrata  arce  sane  mercator  egressus  est. 
Militemque  custodivit  a  suis  sequentibus; 
Liberavit  virum  egrum  pressum  a  demonibus ; 
Peregrino  pictavensi  asinumque  tradidit, 
Interfectum  a  se  ipso  ad  vitam  restituit, 
Et  altaras  valvas  clausas  comiti  aperuit 
Stephanoque  servo  Dei  ut  miles  apparuit 
Virum   captum   comes   spatha  laedere  non 

Hie    contractum    membris    raptum    erexit 

Vinculatum  solvit  virum  tredecies  dulciter. 



Miracles  of 
the  Com- 



WAY    OP    S.     JAMES 

Hec  sunt  ilia  sacrosancta  divina  miracula, 
Que    ad    decus    Christi    fecit   Jacobus   per 

Unde  laudes  Regi  regum  solvamus  alacriter. 
Cum  quo  leti  mereamur  vivere  perenniter. 
Fiat,  Amen,  Alleluia,  dicamus  solemniter, 
£  ultreja  e  sus  eja  decantemus  jugiter. 

By  Aymery  Picaud.     From  HisUrire  LiUe- 
raire  de  la  France,  XXI,  276-7. 




Dum  pater  familias 

Rex  universorum, 

Donaret  provincias 

Jus  apostolorum; 

Jacobus  Hispanias, 

Lux,  illustrat,  morum. 
Primus  ex  apostolis 
Martir  Jerosolimis, 
Jacobus  egregio 
Sacer  est  martirio. 

Jacobi  Gallecia 
Opem  rogat  piam; 
Glebe  cujus  gloria 
Dat  insignem  viam, 
Ut  precum  frequentia 
Cantet  melodiam. 

Herru  Sanctiagul 

Grot  Sanctiagu  I 


A  march- 
ing song 




WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

£  ultreja,  e  sus  eja! 
Deus,  adjuva  nos. 

Jacobo  dat  parium 
Omnis  mundus  gratis; 
Ob  cujus  remedium 
Miles  pietatis 
Cunctorum  presidium 
Est  ad  vota  satis. 

Primus  ex  apostolis  .  .  . 


Jaoobum  miraculis, 
Que  fiunt  per  ilium, 
Arctis  in  periculis 
Acclamet  ad  ilium 
Quisquis  solvi  vinculis 
Sperat  propter  ilium. 

Primus  ex  apostolis  .  .  . 

0  beate  Jacobe, 
Virtus  nostra  vere, 
Nobis  hostes  remove, 
Tuos  ac  tuere, 
Ac  devotos  adhibe 
Nos  tibi  placere. 

Primus  ex  apostolis  .  .  . 




Jacobo  propicio, 
Veniam  speremus; 
Et,  quas  ex  obsequio 
Merito  debemus, 
Patri  tam  eximio 
Dignas  laudes  dermis. 

Primus  ex  apostolis 
Martir  Jerosolimis, 
Jacobus  egregio 
Sacer  est  Martirio. 

Helru  Sanctiagu! 

Grot  Sanctiagu! 

£  ultreja,  e  sus  eja! 

Deus,  adjuva  nos. 



By  Aymery  Picaud.  From  Fita,  Recuerdos 
de  un  Viaje,  p.  45.  Also  in  Dreves,  Analacta 
Hymnica,  xvii,  213-214,  he  reads  Got  Sanc- 
tiagu, and  Deus  ai  a  Nos. 



WAY     OF    S.     JAMES 

Alivio  de 



Quand  nous  partimes  de  France 

En  grand  desir, 
Nous  avons  quitte*  pere  et  mere 

Trist*  et  maris: 
Au  coeur  avions  si  grand  desir 

D'aller  a  Saint  Jacques, 
Avons  quittes  tous  nos  plaisirs 

Pour  faire  ce  voyage. 


Nous  prions  la  Vierge  Marie, 

Son  fils  Jesus, 
Qu'il  plaise  nous  donner 

Sa  sainte  grace, 
Qu'en  Paradis  nous  puissions  voir 

Dieu  et  Monsieur  Saint- Jacques. 





Quand  nous  fumes  en  la  Saintonge, 

He*las!  mon  Dieu; 

Nous  ne  trouvames  point  d'eglises, 


Pour  prier  Dieu; 

Les  Huguenots  les  ont  rompues 

Par  letir  malice, 

C'est  en  depit  de  Jesus-Christ 

Et  la  Vierge  Marie. 

Quand  nous  fumes  au  port  de  Blaye, 

Pres  de  Bordeaux 

Nous  enframes  dedans  la  barque 

Pour  passer  1'eau. 

11  y  a  bien  sept  lieues  par  cau, 

Bonnes  me  semble, 

Marinier  passe  promptement 

De  peur  de  la  tourmente. 

Quand  nous  fumes  dedans  les  Landes 

Bien  6tonnes, 

Avions  de  l'eau  jusqu'  a  mi-jambes 

De  tous  cotes; 

Compagnons  nous  f aut  cheminer 

En  grandes  journees 



538  WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

La  Grande 

Pour  nous  tirer  de  ce  pays 
De  si  grandes  rosees. 


Quand  nous  fumes  a  Bayonne, 

Loin  du  pays, 
Nous  fallut  changer  nos  couronnes 

En  fleurs  de  lys; 
C'e*tait  pour  passer  le  pays 

De  la  Biscaye, 
C'£tait  un  pays  rude  a  passer 

Qui  n'entend  le  langage. 


Quand  nous  fumes  a  Sainte-Marie 

H£las!  mon  Dieu! 
Je  regrettois  la  noble  France, 

De  tout  mon  cceur; 
Et  j'avais  un  si  grand  d£sir 

D'etre  aupres, 
Aussi  de  tous  mes  grands  amis, 

Dont  j'en  suis  en  malaise. 

Quand  nous  fumes  a  la  montagne 

Au  cceur  me  vient  une  pensee 

De  mes  parens; 




Et  quand  ce  vient  au  departir 

De  cette  ville, 
Sans  dire  adieu  a  nos  amis, 

Ftmes  a  notre  guise; 


Entre  Peuple  et  Victoire 

Fumes  joyeux 
De  voir  sortir  des  montagnes 

Si  grande  odeur, 
De  voir  le  romarin  fleurir, 

Thym  et  lavande, 
Rendtmes  graces  a  J6sus-Christ 

Lui  chantames  louanges. 

Quand  nous  fumes  a  Saint-Dominique, 

H61as!  mon  Dieu, 
Nous  entrames  dedans  l'eglise 

Pourprier  Dieu; 
Le  miracle  du  pelerin, 

Par  notre  adresse; 
Avons  oui  le  coq  chanter, 

Dont  nous  fumes  bien  aise. 

~    « to 

Quand  nous  fumes  a  Burgue,  en  Espagne, 
H^las!  mon  Dieu, 


540  WAY    OP    S.    JAMES 

La  Grande 

Nous  entrames  dedans  reghse 

Poor  prier  Dieu, 
Les  Augustms  nous  out  montre* 

Un  grand  miracle, 
De  voir  le  Crucifix  saerv 

Rien  de  plus  veritable. 


Quand  nous  fames  dedans  la  viDe 

Nominee  Leon, 
Nous  chantames  tons  ensemble 

Cette  chanson; 
Les  dames  sortoient  des  maisons 

En  abondance, 
Pour  voir  chanter  les  pelerins, 

Les  enfants  de  la  Prance. 



Quand  nous  fumes  hors  de  la  ville, 

Pres  de  Saint-Marc, 
Nous  nous  asslmes  tous  ensemble 

Pres  d'une  Croix. 
II  y  a  un  chemin  a  droite 

Et  l'autre  a  gauche; 
L'un  mene  a  Saint-Salvateur 

L'autre  a  Monsieur  Saint- Jacques. 






Quand  nous  fumes  au  Mont-Etuves, 

Avions  grand  froid, 
Ressentimes  si  grande  f  roidure, 

Que  j'en  tremblois. 
A  Saint-Salvateur  sommes  alles; 

Par  notre  adresse, 
Les  reliques  nous  ont  montre\ 

Dont  nous  portons  la  lettre. 


Quand  nous  fumes  au  Pont  qui  tremble, 

Bien  £tonnes, 
De  nous  voir  entre  deux  montagnes 

Si  oppresses, 
D'ouir  les  ondes  de  la  mer 

En  grande  tourmente; 
Compagnons  nous  f aut  cheminer 

Sans  faire  demeurance. 


Quand  nous  fumes  dans  la  Galice, 

A  Rivedieu, 
On  voulait  nous  mettre  aux  galeres, 

Jeunes  et  vieux; 
Mais  nous  nous  sommes  deiendus 

De  notre  langue. 



WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

La  Grande 

Avons  dit  qu'e'tions  Espagnols, 


Et  nous  sommes  de  Prance. 


Quand  nous  fumes  a  Montjoie, 

Fumes  joyeux, 

De  voir  une  si  belle  eglise 

En  ce  saint  lieu, 

Du  glorieux  ami  de  Dieu, 

Monsieur  Saint- Jacques, 

Qui  nous  a  tous  preserves 

Durant  ce  saint  voyage. 



Quand  nous  fumes  a  Saint- Jacques, 

Grace  a  Dieu, 

Nous  entr&mes  dedans  l'eglise 


Pour  prier  Dieu, 

Aussi  ce  glorieux  martyr, 

Monsieur  Saint- Jacques, 

Qu'au  pays  puissons  retourner 

Et  faire  bon  voyage. 

From  Alexis  Soccard,  Noels  et  Cantiques 

Imprimis  &  Troyes  depuis  le  X  Vllme  Steele 

jusqu'a  nos  Jours,  pp.  22-24. 








In  the  Bishopric  of  London,  in  the  village 
called  Stidstede,  there  was  a  simple  rustic 
named  Thurkill,  industrious  at  his  work 
and  given  to  hospitality  so  far  as  his  means 
allowed  him.  It  happened  that  after  the 
hour  of  Vespers  on  the  vigil  of  S.  Simon  and 
S.  Jude,  which  was  then  a  Friday,  he  was 
trenching  his  little  field  which  he  had  sown 
on  the  same  day,  in  order  to  drain  off  the 
waters  of  a  flood  of  rain.  Suddenly,  raising 
his  eyes,  he  sees  a  man  a  long  way  off  coming 
up  to  him.  And  he  had  even  then  just  begun 
to  repeat  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  he  wondered 
to  see  the  man  instantly  stand  before  him 
and  the  stranger  bade  him  finish  his  prayer: 
and  then  they  began  to  talk  together.  The 
stranger  asked  where  he  could  pass  the  night; 
and  Thurkill  began  to  name  this  or  that 
neighbour,  but  ended  by  proffering  his  own 



So  a  man 
dreams  in 


October  27 


S.  Julian 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

hospitality.  Then  the  stranger  answered, 
"Thy  wife  has  already  received  two  poor 
women:  and  I  do  not  yet  seek  to  be  housed, 
for  I  am  bound  for  the  province  of  Danesei. 
And  I  shall  return  thence  tonight: — and  then 
will  I  visit  thee  and  lead  thee  to  thy  Lord  S. 
James,  to  whom  thou  hast  already  turned  in 
prayer.  I  am  Julian  the  Harbourer:  and  I 
am  sent  to  fetch  thee  and  to  show  thee 
secret  mysteries.  Hasten  home,  then,  and 
make  ready  for  thy  journey.  '*  And  with 
that  he  vanished.  Thurkill  went  .home  at 
once:  and  he  washed  his  head  and  his  feet 
though  against  the  will  of  his  wife,  the  day 
being  a  Friday,  and  he  found  the  two  women 
lodged  in  his  house.  Then  he  lay  down  in  a 
bed  outside  his  bedroom,  which  he  had  already 
used  for  a  month,  and  fell  asleep.  And  when 
all  were  asleep  in  their  beds,  S.  Julian  stood  by 
Thurkill,  and  awoke  him,  saying:  "It  is  time 
to  depart."  And  when  Thurkill  began  to 
rise,  the  saint  said,  "  Let  thy  body  rest  here 
awhile,  only  thy  Soul  will  depart  with  me. 
But  that  thy  friends  may  not  think  thee 
dead,  I  will  send  a  breath  of  life  into  thee." 
And  so  saying  he  breathed  into  ThuririlTs 
mouth:  and  then  both,  as  it  seemed  to  the 
man,  left  the  house,  and  set  forth  straight 



towards  the  east.  And  thus  for  two  days 
and  nights  the  body  of  the  man  lay  senseless 
and  motionless,  as  if  it  were  sunken  in  a  deep 
sleep.  .  .  .  Thurkiirs  Spirit,  being  now  freed 
from  the  flesh,  followed  S.  Julian  in  the  like- 
ness of  his  body,  clad  in  its  usual  clothes. 
He  only  remarked  one  change  in  himself, 
that  he  breathed  quicker  than  usual.  They 
journeyed  toward  the  east,  as  far  as  the 
middle  of  the  world.  Here  they  entered  a 
Basilica,  the  pediment  of  which  was  sup- 
ported by  only  three  columns  [Cf.  Aymery 
Picaud's  chapter  on  the  three  pillars  of  the 
world].  The  Basilica  was  large  and  fine,  but 
without  any  solid  walls,  the  sides  being 
arched  like  a  monastic  cloister.  [Cf.  the 
Basilica  of  Auriz  which  we  call  Eunate.] 
But  against  the  northern  side  there  stood 
an  outer  wall,  though  not  more  than  six  feet 
high.  There  was  a  fabric  in  the  midst  of  the 
Basilica  which  looked  like  a  vast  fount:  and 
out  of  it  arose  a  great  flame,  not  heating  the 
place  but  lighting  it  up  throughout  with  the 
splendour  of  noonday.  This  illumination 
proceeded  from  the  tithings  of  the  Just. 
[Cf.  the  Ark  in  the  midst  of  Santiago.]  Here 
S.  James  wearing  a  mitre  [as  Metropolitan 
and  Primate]  received  Thurkill  as  his  pilgrim, 




S.  James 


S.  Domin- 
go de  la 

Like  birds 
in  autumn 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

and  calling  up  S.  Dominick,  the  warden  of 
the  Basilica  [S.  Domingo  de  la  Calzada,  as 
Ward  points  out]  he  bade  him  join  S.  Julian 
and  show  to  this  man  his  pilgrim,  the  habi- 
tations of  the  wicked  and  the  good,  and 
having  said  so,  he  vanished.  ' '  This  Basilica, ' ' 
said  S.  Julian,  "is  the  assembling  place  of  all 
departed  Spirits,  founded  at  the  intercession 
of  The  Virgin  [the  Good  Lady]  and  dedicated 
to  her,  and  it  is  called  the  Congregation  of 
Souls  [hence  it  is  not  far  to  the  Paradise  of 
Souls].  Within  it  the  man  saw  many  white 
Souls  with  youthful  faces  [cf.  Gallegan  lore 
of  Murguia]  and  their  feet  never  wore  nor 
withered  the  green  grass  that  formed  its  floor 
[cf.  the  feet  of  Christ  in  the  tympanum  and 
the  souls  in  the  green  leafage,  of  the  Gloria]. 
But  outside,  when  he  was  afterwards  led 
beyond  the  northern  wall,  he  saw  many 
spotted  souls  striving  to  reach  the  wall,  and 
the  whiter  they  were,  the  closer  they  would 
come  to  it:  and  in  the  distance  he  saw  many 
souls  that  were  black  all  over.  Now  there 
was  a  pit  near  this  wall,  and  it  vomited  a 
stifling  smoke,  fed  by  tithings  of  the  Unjust: 
and  twice,  as  Thurkill  passed  the  pit,  he  was 
stung  by  the  smoke  so  that  he  coughed  in 
great  pain.    And  twice,  at  the  same  hour, 



the  body  that  he  had  left  behind  him  coughed, 
as  those  who  were  watching  around  it  testi- 
fied. "Methinks,"  quoth  S.  Julian,  "thy 
crops  are  not  fully  tithed. ' '  Thurkill  pleaded 
his  poverty,  but  the  Saint  replied  that  full 
tithings  bring  full  harvests. 

From  the  east  end  of  the  Basilica  he  saw 
two  walls  stretching,  with  fierce  purgatorial 
flames  between  them.  This  fiery  passage 
leads  to  an  immense  pool  and  here  all  the 
souls  that  have  just  emerged  from  fire  are 
plunged  into  the  coldest  and  saltest  of  all 
waters.  Last  comes  a  long  bridge,  bristling 
with  stakes  and  nails,  which  every  soul  must 
cross  before  reaching  the  Mount  of  Joy. 
[Cf.  S.  Marcos,  at  Mount  joy,  in  view  of 
Santiago.]  And  high  aloft  upon  this  Mount 
there  stands  a  wonderful  church  that  seems 
large  enough  to  hold  all  the  people  in  the 

But  now  let  us  return  to  the  Basilica.  So 
Dominick  sprinkled  the  souls  there  with 
holy  water  and  they  were  even  whiter  than 
before.  And  lo,  almost  the  first  hour  of  the 
dawning  Saturday,  Michael  the  archangel 
appeared  together  with  S.  Peter  and  S.  Paul. 
And  S.  Michael  led  the  white  souls  along  a 
narrow  grassy  path  [this  is  the  Causeway, 



S.  Gines 




WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

la  Calzada,  the  Camino  francSs]  between  the 
flames  and  across  the  pool,  and  over  the 
bridge,  and  up  to  the  Mount  of  Joy.  .  .  . 

The  "  weighing  of  the  Souls  lasted  from  the 
first  hour  of  the  Saturday  down  to  the  ninth 
hour.  And  whilst  it  was  still  going  on,  S. 
Julian  led  Thurkill  unhurt  over  the  grassy 
path  between  the  purgatorial  flames.  .  .  . 
The  next  episode  is  that  a  fiend  came  gallop- 
ing a  black  horse  over  stock  and  stone  amid 
shouts  of  triumph  from  a  crowd  of  his  brother 
fiends.  [Cf.  Santiago  Matamoros  on  a  great 
white  horse  at  Clavijo  and  Simancas,  near 
la  Calzada,]  This  is  the  soul  of  one  of  the 
Barons  of  England  who  had  died  the  night 
before  without  confession.  Then  S.  Dominick 
takes  him  to  see  the  games,  in  something 
quite  too  surprisingly  like  a  bull-ring,  being 
derived,  presumably,  like  that,  from  the 
Roman  Arena.  There  was  one  at  Ntmes  and 
one  at  Verona,  that  pilgrims  might  have 
known.  That  at  Sagunto  is  set  in  the  slope 
of  a  hill  like  this.  The  souls  sitting  round  on 
seats  in  every  yard,  recall  the  old  prints  of 
Ntmes  choked  up  with  houses.  And  above 
them  there  were  other  seats,  fixed  into  the 
walls,  where  the  fiends  sat  grinning  as  if  at 
some  merry  show.    The  wretched  souls  enact 



a  sort  of  Morality  pageant :  types  are  punished 
typically.  And  now  when  the  Sunday  was 
dawning  upon  earth,  the  saints  brought  Thur- 
kill  back  to  the  Basilica.  He  took  no  count 
of  time  himself,  but  he  learned  the  hour  from 
the  Saints.  S.  Dominick  received  his  asper- 
sorium  again  on  entering,  and  sprinkled  the 
new  Congregation  and  the  souls  were  whiter 
than  before.  Then  Thurkill  was  led  over 
the  grassy  path,  past  the  fires  and  the  pool, 
and  over  the  bridge,  and  up  the  Mount  of 
Joy,  till  he  reached  the  forecourt  of  the 
Church  upon  its  summit.  The  beautiful 
Gate  of  the  West  front  stood  always  open 
[the  Gloria  had  been  in  place  nearly  twenty 
years]:  and  through  this  Gate  S.  Michael 
led  the  pure  white  souls.  But  in  the  fore- 
court stood  the  Souls  who  had  completed 
their  purgatorial  penances,  each  eagerly  wait- 
ing for  his  own  turn  of  admission.  Going 
around  the  church,  Thurkill  found  on  the 
south  side  the  wearied  souls  who  waited 
upon  the  prayers  of  the  throng;  and  on 
the  north  side  they  lay  on  their  faces  with 
their  arms  outstretched  toward  the  Church 
grovelling  upon  sharp  flint  stones,  swept  by 
the  blast  of  a  dismal  wind.  And  S.  Michael 
allowed  the  man  to  visit  the  church  and  he 



.  .  .  as  it 
began  to 
dawn  to- 
ward the 
first  day  of 
the  week 



The  Great 

page  204 

WAY    OPS.     JAMES 

saw  throngs  of  pure  white  souls;  and  looking 
up  the  steps  toward  the  East  end  [here  lingers 
the  memory  of  that  earlier  staircase,  like  that 
at  Le  Puy  and  that  at  Heliopolis]  he  saw  them 
whiter  and  whiter  still.  And  here  the  souls 
abide:  and  every  day,  at  certain  hours  [the 
Canonical]  they  hear  the  music  of  heaven,  and 
this  music  is  their  food.  The  saints  gather 
their  votaries,  in  order  to  present  them  here- 
after before  the  throne  of  God.  Then  S.  Mi- 
chael brought  Thurkill  back  once  more  to  the 
purgatorial  pool.  And  the  whole  place  was 
drained :  and  the  steps  to  the  bed  of  the  pool, 
that  had  made  the  water  lie  in  different 
depths,  were  now  dry  and  clean,  and  the 
Souls  stood  on  their  appointed  steps  as  if 
they  were  at  church,  for  the  Angel  S.  Uriel, 
whose  name  means  the  Fire  of  God  and  who 
watches  over  all  the  souls  in  Purgatory  lest 
evil  spirits  could  increase  their  torments;  this 
angel,  I  saw  opening  a  certain  sluice  after  the 
ninth  hour  of  every  Saturday,  that  the  Souls 
may  be  left. in  peace  throughout  the  Sunday. 
But  when  Monday  dawns,  he  opens  another 
sluice  towards  the  north,  and  the  pool  is  soon 
filled  to  the  brim  with  the  cold  salt  water.  .  . . 
And  now  the  Saints  and  Thurkill  left  the 
pool  again  and  passed  the  Church.     And 



proceeding  eastwards  [the  symbolism  here, 
which  is  that  of  Vincent  of  Beauvais,  deter- 
mines all  the  orientation :  the  south  is  merciful, 
the  north  bitter,  ex  oriente  lux],  they  reached 
a  pleasant  dale,  glowing  with  flowers  and 
herbs,  and  watered  by  a  bright  fountain. 
And  four  springs,  each  of  a  different  kind  and 
colour,  gushed  out  of  the  fountain  and  ran 
far  away,  until  they  joined  again  in  one  full 
stream.  And  above  the  fountain  stretched 
a  vast  and  vigorous  tree,  that  bore  every  sort 
of  flower  and  fruit,  and  beside  the  fountain 
reclined  a  man  of  gigantic  form  and  noble 
aspect,  decked  in  a  many  coloured  garment 
from  his  feet  up  to  his  breast.  And  he  seemed 
to  laugh  with  one  eye  and  to  weep  with  the 
other.  [Cf.  Protevangel  of  James.]  "This 
man,"  said  S.  Michael,  "is  the  first  parent 
of  the  human  race,  even  Adam.  ..." 

And  now  going  a  little  farther  on,  they 
came  to  a  temple  of  gold  having  a  gate  set 
with  precious  stones.  And  this  temple  ex- 
celled all  that  they  had  seen  in  beauty  and 
brilliance.  And  within  it  was  a  shrine  where 
three  virgin  martyrs  were  enthroned,  and 
their  names  were  S.  Catharine,  S.  Margaret, 
and  S.  Ositha.  [Cf.  altar  to  S.  Zita  at  Caca- 
belos.]    "But  now,  when  Thurkill  was  most 



A  sentence 
gives  birth 
to  legend 

Vol.  II. 
page  364 


WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

eagerly  gazing  at  their  beauty,  suddenly  S. 
Michael  said  to  S.  Julian,  "Take  this  man 
back  to  his  body;  or  the  cold  water  which 
those  around  him  are  pouring  into  his  mouth 
will  choke  him  to  death."  And  lo  at  once 
he  was  in  the  body  again,  he  knew  not  how, 
and  sitting  up  in  bed  he  said,  "Benedicite! " 

The  Vision  of  Thurkill  written  probably 
by  Ralph  of  Coggeshall,  printed  from  a  MS. 
in  the  British  Museum  and  edited  by  H.  L. 
D.  Ward.  The  translation  is  his — Journal  of 
the  British  Archaeological  Association,  xxxi, 
pp.  420-459. 





And  I  looked  and  saw  and  beheld  one  of 
the  sons  of  men  fallen  nigh  unto  death; 
And  the  angel  said  unto  me:  This  is  a  just 
one  and  righteous  in  all  his  works.  And  I 
saw  everything  which  he  did  for  God  standing 
before  him,  in  the  hour  of  his  departure  from 
the  world.  Then  I  Paul  perceived  that  he 
was  righteous  who  was  now  dying:  and 
he  found  for  himself  rest  even  before  dying. 
And  there  approached  him  wicked  angels 
(when  a  righteous  one  departs,  they  do  not 
find  a  place  by  him)  and  these  good  angels 
ruled  over  that  righteous  one.  And  they 
drew  out  of  him  the  soul,  while  alluring  it 
with  rest;  and  again  they  restored  it  to  him, 
while  inviting  it  and  saying:  "0  soul,  be 
assured  as  for  this  thy  body,  O  holy  one, 
thou  wilt  return  into  it  in  the  resurrection ;  and 
thou  wilt  receive  the  promises  of  the  living 
God  with  all  the  saints. ' '  Then  was  that  soul 
carried  from  the  body;  and  they  enquired 



Syrian  lore 


As  on 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

after  its  health,  as  though  it  had  grown  up 
with  them;  and  they  took  delight  with  it  in 
love;  and  they  said  unto  it:  "Blessed  art 
thou,  O  happy  soul,  which  every  day,  did 
perform  the  will  of  God,  and  now  takes 
delight  in  pleasures."  And  there  came  to 
meet  it  he  who  was  its  guardian  in  life,  and 
said  to  it:  "O  soul  of  mine,  be  of  good  cour- 
age, and  be  joyful,  and  I  will  rejoice  over 
thee,  that  thou  hast  done  the  will  of  our 
Lord,  all  the  days  of  thy  life;  and  I  carried 
thy  good  works,  by  day  and  by  night,  before 
God."  And  again  I  [it?]  turned,  and  said  to 
my  soul:  "Do  not  fear,  in  that  behold  thou 
seest  a  place  thou  hast  never  seen."  And 
while  I  was  beholding  these  things,  that 
spirit  was  lifted  up  from  the  earth,  that  it 
might  ascend  to  heaven.  And  there  went 
out  to  meet  it  wicked  powers,  those  that 
are  under  heaven.  And  there  reached  it  the 
spirit  of  error,  and  said:  "Whither  dost 
thou  presume,  O  soul?  And  art  thou  run- 
ning that  thou  mayest  enter  heaven?  Stop, 
that  we  may  see ;  perhaps  there  is  in  thee  some- 
thing that  belongs  to  us,  that  we  may  narrate 
a  little."  And  that  soul  was  bound  there, 
and  there  was  a  fight  between  the  good 
angels  and  the  evil  angels.    And  when  that 



spirit  of  deception  saw,  it  bewailed  with  a 
loud  voice,  and  said:  "Woe  unto  thee,  O 
soul,  that  we  have  found  in  thee  nothing  of 
ours!  and  lo,  all  the  angels  and  the  spirits 
are  helping  thee  against  us;  and  behold,  all 
these  are  with  thee;  thou  hast  passed  out 
from  us."  And  there  went  forth  another 
spirit,  the  spirit  of  the  Tempter,  and  of  forni- 
cation; and  they  came  to  meet  it;  and  when 
they  saw  it  they  wept  over  it,  and  said: 
"  How  has  this  soul  escaped  from  us?  It  did 
the  will  of  God  on  earth,  and  behold,  the 
angels  help  it  and  pass  it  along  from  us." 
And  all  the  principalities  and  evil  spirits 
came  to  meet  it,  even  unto  it;  and  they  did 
not  find  in  it  anything  that  was  from  them; 
and  they  were  not  able  to  do  anything  to 
it;  and  they  gnashed  their  teeth  upon  that 
soul,  and  said:  "  How  hast  thou  escaped  from 
us?"  And  the  angel  which  conducted  it  in 
life  answered  and  said  unto  them :  "  Return,  O 
ye  mortified  ones;  ye  have  no  way  of  access  to 
it;  with  many  artifices  ye  enticed,  when  it 
was  on  earth,  and- it  did  not  listen  to  you." 

And  after  that  I  heard  the  voice  of  myriads 
of  angels,  praising  God  and  saying:  "Re- 
joice and  be  glad,  O  soul,  be  strengthened  and 
do  not  fear."    And  they  marvelled  much  at 



As  at  Pisa 
in  the 
of  Death 


So  at 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

the  soul,  when  they  saw  it  holding  the  seal 
of  the  living  God  in  its  hand.  And  thus  they 
were  giving  it  heart  and  saying:  "We  all 
rejoice  over  thee,  that  thou  hast  done  the 
will  of  thy  Lord."  And  they  carried  it  and 
placed  it  before  the  throne  of  the  living  God, 
while  they  all  rejoiced  with  it.  And  there 
was  a  great  pause  afterwards;  silence  reigned 
for  a  considerable  time.  And  afterwards  the 
angels  ceased  —  to  wit,  those  angels  that 
worshipped  before  the  footstool  of  God  with 
that  soul  .  .  .  (pp.  191-193). 

And  I  followed  the  angel  and  he  took  me 
and  caused  me  to  fly,  and  carried  me  up  to  the 
third  heaven.  Then  he  placed  me  at  a  door; 
and  I  looked  upon  the  door,  and  saw  the 
likeness  of  fine  gold;  and  before  it  two  posts, 
like  adamant;  and  two  tablets  of  gold  above 
them;  and  they  were  full  of  writings.  And 
the  angel  who  was  with  me  turned  and  said 
unto  me:  "Do  not  fear,  Paul,  to  enter  this 
door;  for  every  man  is  not  permitted  —  only 
those  in  whom  there  is  great  purity  and  in 
whom  evil  dwells  not. ' '  And  I  inquired  of  the 
angel  who  was  with  me,  and  said  unto  him: 
"Whose  are  the  names  inscribed  on  these 
tablets?"  .  .  .  And  when  we  entered  within 
through  the  gate  into  the  city,  there  came 



forth  an  angel  unto  us,  whose  face  was  shining 
like  the  sun  .  .  .  this  [was]  Enoch,  the 
scribe  of  righteousness.  Then  I  entered 
within  that  place;  and  I  beheld  there  great 
Elijah,  coming  toward  us;  and  he  drew  near 
and  gave  me  a  salutation,  rejoicing  and 
delighted  ...     (p.  197). 

And  I  saw  in  the  centre  of  the  city  a  great 
altar,  which  was  very  high ;  and  I  saw  standing 
on  the  side  of  the  altar  an  aged  man,  great 
and  honoured;  and  his  face  shone  as  the 
sun  in  the  firmament:  and  he  held  in  his  hand 
a  harp  and  said  " Hallelujah!  "  and  the  whole 
city  was  astonished  at  his  voice;  and  together 
they  shouted — those  that  were  above  the 
towers,  and  all  said  "Hallelujah!"  .  .  . 
This  [was]  David,  the  king  and  prophet,  who 
sings  in  the  Jerusalem  of  Christ.  As  he 
sang  on  earth  so  sings  here  David  in  spirit, 
and  all  the  saints  are  engaged  with  him  with 
the  voice  of  shouting;  and  David  the  prophet 
goes  forth  singing  first,  while  all  the  saints 
after  him  respond  "Hallelujah!  "  (p.  201). 

From  The  Revelation  of  the  Blessed  Apostle 
Paul  translated  from  an  ancient  Syriac  man- 
uscript by  the  Rev.  Justin  Perkins  and  pub- 
lished in  the  Journal  of  the  American  Oriental 
Society,  1866. 



Enoch  and 





The  Good 


WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 



Holda  and  Bertha,  or  Perchta  as  she  is 
called  in  Southern  Germany,  are  identical 
with  Freyja;  and  in  Aargau  another,  but 
nameless,  representative  of  the  same  supreme 
goddess  is  known  as  a  kind  and  bounteous 
lady  with  golden  hair,  who  has  her  dwelling 
in  the  interior  of  the  Schlossberg.  A  vaulted 
passage,  through  whose  roof  the  stars  are  seen 
leads  into  a  hall  of  apparently  boundless 
extent,  glittering  with  thousands  of  lights 
where  many  old  men  sit  fast  asleep  before 
an  iron  trough.  Before  an  oaken  trough,  in 
another  vault  well  lighted  with  candles,  sit 
thousands  of  sleeping  youths  and  maidens. 
And  in  a  third  hall,  filled  with  a  milky,  pal- 
pable light,  there  is  an  oaken  trough  con- 
taining a  countless  multitude  of  sleeping 
children.  These  are  the  unborn.  The  white 
lady  of  the  mansion  feeds  them  with  anem- 
ones and  snowdrops,  flowers  of  wondrous 



virtue,  the  stalks  of  which  placed  in  the 
mouth,  supply  for  many  a  day  the  place  of 
.  every  other  kind  of  food.  If  there  are  parents 
that  want  a  child,  the  white  lady  opens  the 
trough  with  a  golden  key,  takes  out  a  babe 
and  gives  it  to  the  midwife.  Should  it  die 
unbaptized,  it  comes  back  to  the  mountain 
and  is  replaced  in  the  same  trough.  But  if 
several  weeks  elapse  before  its  death,  or  if 
the  white  lady  takes  it  back  because  mankind 
have  not  been  worthy  of  it,  then  it  is  placed 
in  another  trough  nearer  the  heart  of  the 
mountain,  and  fed  there  with  honey,  which 
the  bees  of  the  village  deposit  every  time  they 
swarm  in  the  oaks  of  the  Schlossberg. 

From  Walker  K.  Kelly,  Curiosities  of  Indo- 
European  Tradition  and  Folk-Lore,  pp.  128- 



So,  S. Juan 
de  Ortega. 
Vol.  I., 
page  408 




of  the  soul 

The  end  of 
the  great 
S.  James 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMBS 



In  a  MS.  of  the  Cotton  Library,  contain- 
ing an  account  of  Cleveland  in  Yorkshire, 
in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  there  is  a 
passage  which  illustrates  this  custom.  It 
has  been  quoted  by  Sir  Walter  Scott  in  the 
notes  to  the  Minstrelsy  of  the  Scottish  Border, 
and  runs  thus:  "When  any  dieth,  certaine 
women  sing  a  song  to  the  dead  bodie,  reciting 
the  journey  that  the  partye  deceased  must 
goe,  and  they  are  of  beliefe  (such  is  their 
fondnesse)  that  once  in  their  lives  it  is  good 
to  give  a  pair  of  new  shoes  to  a  poor  man, 
for  as  much  as  after  this  life  they  are  to  pass 
barefoote  through  a  great  launde,  full  of 
thorns  and  furzen,  except  by  the  meryte  of 
the  almes  aforesaid  they  have  redemed  the 
forfeyte;  for  at  the  edge  of  the  launde  an 
oulde  man  shall  meet  them  with  the  same 
shoes  that  were  given  by  the  partie  when 
he  was  ly  ving,  and  after  he  hath  shodde  them, 




dismisseth  them  to  go  through  thick  and  thin 
without  scratch  or  scalle."  The  dirge  in 
question  continued  to  be  sung  in  Yorkshire 
until  the  year  1624,  and  is  as  follows: 

This  ae  night,  this  ae  night, 

Every  night  and  alle, 
Fire  and  fleet  and  candle  light, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

When  thou  from  hence  away  dost  pass, 

Every  night  and  alle, 
To  Whinny  Moor  thou  comest  at  last, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

If  ever  thou  gave  either  hosen  or  shoon, 

Every  night  and  alle, 
Sit  thee  down  and  put  them  on, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

But  if  hosen  or  shoon  thou  never  gave  nane, 

Every  night  and  alle, 
The  whinnes  shall  prick  thee  to  the  bare  bane, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

Prom  Whinny  Moor  that  thou  mayst  pass, 

Every  night  and  alle, 
To  Brig  o'  Dread  thou  comest  at  last, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 



The  North 
of  England 

here  is  lost 


WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

From  Brig  o'  Dread,  na  braider  than  a  thread, 

Every  night  and  alle, 

To  Purgatory  fire  thou  comest  at  last, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

If  ever  thou  gave  either  milke  or  drink, 

Every  night  and  alle, 

The  fire  shall  never  make  thee  shrink, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

But  if  milk  nor  drink  thou  never  gave  nane, 

Every  night  and  alle, 

The  fire  shall  burn  thee  to  the  bare  bane, 

And  Christ  receive  thy  saule. 

From  Kelly,  Curiosities,  pp.  115-117;  also 

in  Scott,  Minstrelsy  of  the  Scottish  Border,  II, 

361 ;  and  in  Aubrey,  Remaines  of  Gentilisme 

•  • 

and  Judaisme,  pp.  30-31. 




APPEN  dix 





One  just 

En  camino  de  Santiago 

born,  being 

iba  un  alma  peregrina, 

una  noche  tan  escura 

que  ni  una  estrella  lurfa: 

por  donde  el  alma  pasaba, 

la  tierra  se  extremecia. 

Arrim6se  un  caballero 

a  la  ventana  y  decia: 


—  Si  eres  cosa  del  demorgo, 

de  aquf  te  esconxurarfa; 

si  eres  cosa  deste  mundo, 

dir&sme  lo  que  querfas. 

—  Non  soy  cosa  del  demorgo, 

conxurarme  non  debias; 

soy  un  alma  pecadora 

que  para  Santiago  iba ; 


hallara  un  rio  muy  fondo 

y  pasarlo  non  podfa. 

—  Arrimate  k  los  rosarios 

que  rezaste  en  esta  vida  .  .  . 




WAY    OP    S/    JAMES 

i  Ay  de  mi,  triste,  cuitada 

que  ninguno  non  tenia! 

—  Arrimate  a  los  ayunos 

que  ficiste  en  esta  vida  .    . 

i  Ay  de  mi,  triste,  cuitada, 

que  nunca  ayunado  habia ! 

— Arrimate  a  las  limosnas 

que  ficiste  en  esta  vida  .  .  . 

i  Ay  de  mi,  triste,  cuitada, 

que  ninguna  fecho  habia! 

So,  for  an 

—  Las  velas  de  la  Victoria 


yo  te  las  emprestaria; 

pray,  while 

las  velas  de  la  Victoria 

the  hachera 

que  en  mi  casa  las  tenia. — 

is  alight 

P6nsolas  a  la  ventana, 

tanto  como  el  sol  lucian; 

pdnsolas  a  la  ventana 

y  el  alma  sigui6  su  via. 

Volviendo  la  misma  noche 

de  la  Santa  Romeria, 

venia  el  alma  cantando, 

desta  manera  decia: 

"Oh,  dichoso  el  caballero, 

mas  dichoso  non  podia; 

que  por  salvar  a  mi  alma, 

salv6  la  suya  y  la  mia." 

—  Dirasme,  alma  pecadora, 

lo  que  por  Santiago  habia? 




—  Perd6neme  el  caballero, 
decfrselo  non  podia; 
que  tengo  el  cuerpo  en  las  andas, 
voy  a  la  misa  del  dia. 

From  J.  Menendez  Pidal,  Coleccidn  de  los 
Viejos  Romances  que  se  Canton  par  los  As- 





The  Lost 

flome  say 
A  If  omo  «/ 
ended  so 


WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 



A  ond'  ir£  aquel  romeiro, 
Meu  romeiro  a  dond'ira? 
Camiflo  de  Compostela 
Non  sei  s'  ali  chegard. 
Os  p£s  leva  cheos  de  sangre 
E  non  pode  mais  andar; 
Mai  pocado!  probe  vello! 
Non  sei  s'  ali  chegard. 
Ten  longas  e  brancas  barbas, 
Olios  de  doge  mirar, 
Olios  gazos,  leonados 
Verdes  com'  augua  d'  o  mar. 

—  A  dond'  ides  meu  romeiro, 
A  dond'  ides  meu  vellifio? 

—  Camiflo  de  Compostela. 

i  A  ond'  ides  vos  soldadino? 

—  Compostela  mifla  terra 
Sete  anos  fai  que  marchei, 
Non  coidei  volver  a  ela. 
Dlgame,  diga  6  seu  nome. 




Collase  a  min  meu  vellifio 

The  kind 

Repare  que  non  ten  forzas 


Para  seguir  6  camino. 

is  S.  James 

—  Eu  chamome  D.  Gaiferos, 

Gaiferos  de  Mormaltan, 

S'  agora  non  tefio  forzas 

Meu  esprito  mas  dara. — 

Chegaron  a  Compostela 

£  foron  a  Catedral, 

Desta  maneira  falou 

Gaiferos  de  Mormaltan: 

—  Gracias  meu  Sefior  Santiago 

A  vosos  p6s  me  t6s  xa, 

Se  queres  tirarm*  a  vida 

P6desma  Sefior  tirar, 

Por  que  morrerey  contento 

Nesta  Santa  catedral. 

Y  6  vello  d'  as  barbas  longas 

Caiu  tendido  no  chan. 

Cerrou  os  seus  olios  verdes, 

Verdes  com'  augua  d*  o  mar. 

0  obispo  qu'  esto  veu 

Ali  6  mandou  enterrar. 

Asi  morren  meus  sefiores 

Gaiferos  de  Mormaltan 

Est'  6  un  d'  os  moitos  milagros 

Que  Santiago  Apostol  fay. 

— Prom  Murgula,  Galicia,  p.  423. 






WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 



Here  beginneth  the  way  that  is  marked, 
and  made  with  Mount  Joiez  from  the  Lond 
of  Engelond  unto  Sent  Jamez  in  Galis,  and 
from  thennez  to  Rome,  and  from  thennez  to 
Jerusalem:  and  so  againe  into  Engelond,  and 
the  namez  of  all  the  Citeez  be  their  waie, 
and  the  manner  of  her  governaunce,  and 
namez  of  her  silver  that  they  use  be  alle 
these  waies. 

In  the  Name  of  the  Fader  that  seteez  in  trone, 

And  of  Jhu  his  oonly  blesset  Sone, 

And  of  the  Holy  Gost,  this  blesset  Trine'te, 

And  also  of  our  Ladie  S.  Marie: 

And  of  all  the  Seintez  of  the  Court  of  Heven. 

I  make  this  mynde  wit  milde  Steven: 

Wiclj  waye  I  went  I  schall  you  telle, 

And  how  be  the  waie  I  dide  dwelle. 

Ferst  to  Plummouth  to  see  went  I, 

And  landet  in  the  Trade  of  Bretany, 




There  we  rested  daies  too, 

And  thrugh  the  Race  then  did  we  go 

To  Burdewez,  to  that  faire  Citee: 

And  there  was  I  daies  thre. 

And  so  from  thennez  to  Bayon, 

For  so  the  that  is  a  faire  toune. 

And  from  thennez  to  Petypont  St.  Jenouhe, 

S.  Jean 

The  ferst  toune  of  Naveron,  sicurly: 


Up  in  a  hee  hull  hit  is  faire  sette, 




And  ther  men  schall  make  her  tribett, 

For  every  pice  of  Gold  trust  me  well, 


Thou  schalt  swere  upon  the  Evangele: 

And  there  Jakkez  ferst  most  thou  have, 


And  thee  lust  thy  Gold  to  save. 

Wymmenz  araie  upon  there  heved, 

Like  to  Myterez  they  ben  wheed: 

A  raie  Man  tell  they  were  upon 

And  foule  wymmen  mony  oon. 

Then  to  the  Dale  of  Rouncevale  hit  is  the 



A  derk  passage  I  der  well  saie: 

Witelez  there  ben  full  necessary, 


For  in  that  passage  my  mouthe  was  dry. 

Beyond  the  hull  upon  hee, 

Is  a  Mynster  of  our  Ladee: 

Of  Chanounez  of  the  Order  of  St.  Austyn, 

And  the  well  of  Rouland,  and  Oliver  therein. 

From  thennez  even  to  Pampylyon, 




Up  the 





la  Reyna 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

The  chef  Citie  of  the  Reme  of  Naveron : 

A  faire  Cite  and  a  large, 

Thereto  commeth  bothe  Bote  and  Barge. 

And  from  thennez  to  the  tonne  of  Keer, 

Is  xxx.  miles  long,  and  hongery  heer. 

Then  to  the  Gruon  in  Spayne, 

That  is  the  last  toune  certaine, 

Of  the  Realme  of  Naveron: 

And  then  into  Spayne  feare  ye  schon, 

Jakkez  ben  ther  of  little  prise: 

For  there  beginneth  the  Marvedisez. 

Alle  is  brasse,  silver  is  none  In, 

And  the  Grote  of  Spayne  is  silver  fyn. 

iiii.  score  for  a  Coron  schal  thou  have, 

Of  the  Marvedise  of  master  and  knave. 

Then  from  the  Grime  to  Sent  Dominico 

Thou  hast  tenn  long  miles  for  to  go. 

And  from  thennez  to  Grunneole, 

Much  pyn  men  ther  thoole. 

Hit  ston  upon  a  hull  on  hyy, 

And  Jewez  ben  Lordez  of  all  that  contray. 

Ther  most  thou  tribute  make  or  thou  passe, 

For  alle  thi  gud  bothe  mor  and  lasse: 

Of  that  tribute  they  be  full  fayn; 

For  thei  hyeer  hit  of  the  King  of  Spayne. 

From  thennez  thou  most  to  Pount  Roie, 

That  passage  ther  hit  kepeth  a  boie: 

A  gud  contraie,  and  evell  wyn, 




And  witelez  ther  ben  bothe  gud,  and  fyn. 

And  so  forthe  to  Pount  Paradise. 

At  that  passage  thou  most  paie  thriez. 

And  so  forthe  from  thennez  to  Borkez  that 

A  faire  toune  and  a  muche  sicurly. 
And  from  thennez  to  Hospitall  de  Reyne, 
To  passe  that  River  thou  schalt  be  fayne. 
And  so  forthe  to  Sent  Antony: 
And  ever  ther  gothe  the  Marvedy. 
From  thennez  even  to  the  citie  of  Lyones: 
Betweene  hem  ben  mony  praty  tounez. 
In  that  cite  ther  schalt  thou  paie 
Passage  or  thou  goe  awaie. 
By  younde  the  Brugge  on  thi  right  hand, 
To  Sent  Salvator  the  waie  is  liggand, 
Where  ii.  pottez  may  thou  se, 
In  the  wiche  water  turnet  to  vyn 
.  .  .  at  Architriclyne. 
And  mony  other  reliquez  ben  there, 
But  the  mountez  ben  wonder  he,  &  fere. 
Wymmen  in  that  Land  use  no  vullen, 
But  alle  in  lether  be  thei  wounden: 
And  her  hevedez  wonderly  ben  trust, 
Standing  in  her  forhemed  as  a  crest, 
In  rowld  clouthez  lappet  alle  be  forn 
Like  to  the  prikke  of  a  N  'unicorn. 
And  men  have  doubelettez  full  schert, 

Bridge  of 





Cana  of 
The  Mar- 


page  190 


La  Faba,  or 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

Bare  legget  and  light  to  stert. 

A  Knight,  a  boie  wit  out  hose, 

A  sqwyer  also  thei  schull  not  lose. 

A  Knave  bere  iii.  dartez  in  his  hand. 

And  so  thei  schull  go  walkand: 

Here  wyn  is  thecke  as  any  blode, 

And  that  wull  make  men  wode. 

Bedding  ther  is  nothing  faire, 

Mony  pilgrimez  hit  doth  apaire: 

Tabelez  use  thei  non  of  to  ete, 

But  on  the  bare  flore  they  make  her  sete: 

And  so  they  sitte  alle  inf ere, 

As  in  Irlande  the  same  manere. 

Then  from  the  citee  of  Lyonz  so  fre, 

On  thi  lyft  hand  the  waie  schalt  thou  see, 

At  that  Brugge  that  I  of  have  saide, 

Over  an  heethe  to  Astergo  is  layde. 

That  is  a  cite  and  faire  is  sette, 

There  the  gret  mountaines  togeder  be  mette: 

And  so  forthe  to  Villa  Frank  schalt  thou  go, 

A  faire  countraye,  and  vinez  also. 

The  Raspis  groeth  ther  in  the  waie. 

Yf  thee  lust  thou  maie  asaie. 

From  thennez  a  deepe  dale  schalt  thou  have, 

Up  unto  the  Mount  of  Fave: 

He  hullez,  and  of  the  Spanyse  see  a  cry: 

That  noyse  is  full  grevose  pardy. 

And  so  forth  even  to  Sent  Jamez, 




AHe  waie  Pylgrimez  suche  havez, 
And  then  to  Mount  nostre  Dame, 
The  Prior  ther  hath  muche  schame. 
And  then  so  forthe  to  Luaon, 
Other  Villages  ther  be  mony  oon. 
And  then  to  Sent  Jamez  that  holy  place; 
There  maie  thou  fynde  full  f aire  grace. 
On  this  side  the  toune  milez  too, 
By  a  Chappell  schalt  thou  go: 
Upon  a  hull  hit  stondez  on  hee, 
Wher  Sent  Jamez  ferst  schalt  thou  see, 
A  Mount  Joie,  mony  stonez  there  ate, 
And  iiii.  pilerez  of  ston  of  gret  astate: 
A  C.  daiez  of  pardon  there  may  thou  have 
At  that  Chappell,  and  thou  hit  crave. 
Then  at  Sent  Jamez  wit  in  that  place. 
To  telle  the  pardon  hit  askes  space. 
Hit  is  a  gret  Mynstor,  large,  and  long, 
Of  the  hold  begging  hit  is  strong: 
Glason  windowez  there  are  but  few, 
Wit  in  the  Mynstor  in  nowther  rew: 
Viii.  Cardinalez  chosen  there  be, 
For  Confessourez,  that  is  verry, 
And  have  plaine  power  fully  to  here, 
And  penaunce  to  yef  in  alle  manere: 
And  to  assoyle  the  of  alle  thing, 
That  is  the  Popys  graunting. 
Now  of  the  pardon  telle  I  shall 



S.  Cross 



The  origin- 
al pillar 
and  altar? 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

In  what  place  thou  maie  it  calle: 

At  the  Northe  side  of  that  place, 

There  is  pardon  and  muche  faire  grace. 

In  the  Chappell  on  the  rizt  hand  among  the 

iii.  C.  daiez  of  pardon  thou  havest. 
Forthermore  at  the  hee  autere 
A  iii.  daiez  alle  time  in  the  yere. 
Under  the  hee  autere  lithe  Sent  Jame, 
The  table  in  the  Quere  telleth  the  name: 
At  alle  the  auterez  so  by  and  by, 
xl.  daiez  to  pardon  is  grantet  to  the. 
At  the  iii.  derrez  benethe  the  Quere, 
Is  plenor  remission  onez  in  the  yere: 
And  at  alle  tymes  xl.  daies, 
The  table  written  so  hit  saies. 
On  the  South  side  behinde  the  Derre, 
A  grete  of  ston  fyndest  thou  there: 
At  nine  of  the  Bell  the  Derre  up  is  sett, 
And  a  Bell  rongen  a  gret  f et. 
Ther  men  maie  se  of  Sent  Jamez  the  lesse, 
His  heed  in  Gold  araied  freche: 
To  the  wiche  Pilgrymez  her  offeryng  make, 
For  the  more  Sent  Jamez  sake. 
And  there  by  a  nauter  there  is, 
Wher  Sent  Jame,  dud  Mase  yuis, 
A  iii.  daies  ther  maie  thou  have, 
Of  remission,  and  thou  hit  crave. 



More  pardon  is  nonzt  in  that  place 
That  in  that  table  mynde  hase. 
Then  from  thennez  to  Patrovum, 
Wher  the  Sent  londet  the  ferst  toun 
iiii.  xx.  myles  longs  from  Sent  Jamez, 
Coron  ne  vin  non  men  there  havez. 
And  then  to  Pont  Wederez  went  I, 
L.  long  miles;  that  waie  is  dry: 
Jewes  and  Sarasynez  ben  there  mony  on, 
A  plentiful  contraye  as  man  maie  gon. 
From  thennes  a  vale  faire,  and  clere, 
Where  wynez  groethe  of  all  manere, 
Unto  the  toun  of  Corpe  Sante, 
Alle  manere  fruyte  at  man  maie  haunt. 
The  See  cometh  thether  at  alle  tide, 
And  fisth,  and  coron  on  alle  side. 
Wymmen  be  araied  like  to  men, 
Men  maie  nouzt  well  nouther  ken: 
There  thei  life  un  gudely, 
Namely  men  of  holy  Chirche  pardy. 
And  Bugell  flesch  is  there  full  rive, 
In  alle  that  contraie  hit  is  ther  lif : 
And  Corpe  Sant  is  the  last  toun. 
In  Galise,  and  stondeth  the  See  upon. 









WAY    OP    S.    JAMES 



The  writer  began  by  transcribing  all  the 
following  seven  Itineraries  with  Purchas's 
and  then  making  out  the  modern  names  and 
the  correct  distances,  except  where  earlier 
editors  had  already  done  this.  It  was  a 
pleasant  game,  but  left  nothing  for  the 
reader.  Therefore  it  has  seemed  best  to  print 
them  as  they  were  encountered,  where  in 
three  instances  the  admirable  labours  of 
French  editors  will  give  him  example  and 
assistance,  all  that  he  needs  of  either,  for 
the  winter  nights  with  books  and  maps. 

i.    Itinerary  of  Aymery  PiCAtJD 


Portus  Asperi  Somport 

Hospitale  s.  Christinae  S.  Cristina 
Canfrancus  Canfranc 

Jacca  Jaca 





A  ragonus,  flumen           Passage  of  the  A  ragon 


Thermas                        Tiermas 

Mons  Reellus             Monreal 

Pons  Reginae              Puente  la  Reyna 


Villa  S.  Michaelis      S.  Michel 

Portus  Ciserei                Port  de  Cize 

Hospitale  Rotolandi      Ibaneta 

Villa  Runcievallis          Roncevaux 


RELLUS)                              VlSCARRET 

Resogna                         Larrasoana 

Arga  et  Runa,  fl.            Passage  of  the  Arga 

Pampilonia                   Pampeluna 

Pons  Reginae             Puente  la  Reyna 


Rivus  Salatus                 Passage  of  the  Salado 

Stella                          Estella 

A  iega,  ft.                        Passage  of  the  Ega 

Arcus                             Los  Arcos 

Grugnus                         Logrofio 

Ebra,  fl.                         Passage  of  the  Ebro 

Villa  Rubea                   Villaroya 

Nagera                         Ndjera 




WAY    OF 

S.     JAMES 


Sanctus  Dominicus 

S.  Domingo  de  la  Cal- 




Rprier>i1lA  Hftl   Pj»minn 


Franca  villa 


Nemus  Oquae 

Montes  de  Oca 








Hornillos  del  Camino 



Pons  Fiteriae 

Itera  del  Castillo 


Passage  of  the  Pisuerga 




Carri6n  de  los  Condes 

Sanctus  Facundus 



Passage  of  the  Cea 


Mansilla  de  las  Mulas 


Passage  of  the  Esla 


Passage  of  the  Porma 


Passage  of  the  Torio 



Bernesgua,  fi. 

Passage  of  the  Bernesga 


Puente  Orbigo 




Rabanal  del  Camino 

Portus  Montis  Iraci 

Puerto  Irago 

Sicca  Molina 

Molina  Seca 





Ponsferratus                  Ponferrada 

Sil,  fl.                            Passage  of  the  SU 

Carcavellus                   Cacabelos 

Cua,  fl.                          Passage  of  the  Cua 

VlLLAFRANCA                       VlLLAFRANCA 

Burdua  (Burbia?)          Passage  of  the  Burbia 

Vallis  Careens               Valcarcel 


Castrum  Sarracenicum 

Villa  Us 

Villa  de 

Hospitale  in  cacumine 


montis  Pebruarii        Hospital? 

PortusmontisFebruarii  Monte  Cebrero 

Linar  de  Rege                Linares 

Triacastella                Triacastela 

Villa  S.  Michaelis 


Barbadellus                    Barbadelo 

Pons  Mineae 

Sala  Reginae                  Sala  Regina 


Palatium  Regis           Palaz  de  Rey 

Campus  Levurarius       Leboreiro 

S.  Jacobus  de  Boento    Boente 


Villanova                       Villa  nova 

Ferreras                         Ferreiros 

S.  Mamed 
de  Cas- 


COMPOSTELLA                     SANTIAGO  DE  COMPOS- 


From  B6dier,  Les  Chansons  Epiques,  III,  pp. 








WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

11.    From  db  Caumont  :  Voiatge  A  S.  Jaques 


et  d  Nostre  Dame  de  Finibus  Terre,  en  Van 

Ensuit  se  ung  autre  voiatge  que  je  Nopar 
seigneur  de  Caumont,  de  Chasteau  Neuf,  de 
Chasteau  Cullier  et  Berbeguieres,  ay  fait 
pour  aler  a  monseigneur  saint  Jacques  en 
Compostelle,  et  a  Nostre  Dame  de  Finibus 
Terre.  Et  fu  le  viij  jour  du  mois  de  juillet 
que  je  parti  de  mon  chasteau  de  Caumont, 
lran  mil.  cccc.  xvij.  Et  fuy  de  retour  a  Cau- 
mont le  tiers  jour  de  setembre  apres  venant, 
lfan  susdit:  ou  il  est  le  nomme  des  pais  et 
le  nombres  des  lieues  de  lieu  en  autre, 

Le  chemin  de  monseigneur  Jacques  en 
Compostelle  et  de  Nostre  Dame  de  Finibus 
Terre,  ou  est  l'un  chief  du  monde,  qui  est  sur 
rive  de  mer  en  une  haulte  roche  de  montainge. 

Premieremant,    de    Caumont    a    Roque- 
ffort.  ix.  lieues. 


De  Roqueffort  au   Mont  de 
Marssan iij  lieues 




Du  Mont  de  Marssan  a  Saint 

De  Saint  Seve  a  Hayetman i j  lieues 



De  Sauvaterre  a  Saint  Palays..    ij  lieues 

De  Saint  Palays  a  Hostanach ...    i j  lieues 



De  Hostanach  a  Saint  Jehan  de 

De  Saint  Jehan  de  Pedes  portz 

De  Capeyron  roge  a  Nostre 

Dame  de.  Ronssevaux  et  au 

Borgetquiestpresd'aqiii.. . .  iiij  lieues 



De  le  Rosonhe  a  Pampalone. . .  iij  lieues 

De  Pampalone  au  Pont  leRoyne   v  lieues 

Du  Pont  le  Royne  a  Lestelle. .  *    iiij  lieues 


Los  Arcos 






Los  Arcos 



del  Card  no 

Castro  jeriz 

WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 


Dels  Arcos  Grunh v  lieues 

Du  Grunh  a  Navarret ij  lieues 

De  Navarret  a  Nagere iij  lieues 

Et  davant  ceste  place,  ha  un  grant  champ 
moult  lone  et  ample  ou  le  Prince  de  Gales, 
due  de  Guienne,  fils  du  bon  roy  Edoart,  qui 
avoit  en  sa  compaignie  de  moult  belle  cheval- 
lerie  et  escuierie  de  Guascons,  et  d'autres 
d'Angleterre,  gueagne  le  bataille  et  esconffit 
le  roy  Enric;  et  mist  en  possession  le  roy 
Pedro  de  tout  le  royaume  d'Espagne,  comme 
roy  droyturier. 

De  Nagere  a  Sain  to  Domingo  de  le  Calssade 
iiij.  lieues,  auquel  lieu  avint  une  foix  jadis 
ung  grant  miracle:  Et  encore  ha,  en  l'eglize, 
ung  coli  et  une  jeline  de  le  nature  de  ceulx 
qui  chanterent  en  Taste  davant  le  jutge;  et  je 
lez  ay  veux  de  vray  et  sont  tout  blancs. 

De  Sainto  Domingo  a  Vile- 
franque vij  lieues 

De  Vilefranque  a  Burgos viij  lieues 


De  Burgos  a  Pormelhos iiij  lieues 

De  Pormelhos  a  Castrosiris.. . .  iiij  lieues 







las  Mulas 


De  Leon  au  Pont  de  l'Aygua. .  vj  lieues 

De  Pont  de  l'Eue  a  Astorgue. .  iij  lieues 



De  Ravanello  a  Pont  Ferrado  .viij  lieues 

De  Pont  Ferrado  a  Cacanelhos  .  iij  lieues 


De  Cacanelhos  a  Travadello.. . .  iiij  lieues 



De  Porto  Marin  a  Palays  de 

De  Duas  Cazas  a  Saint  Jaques. .  iij  lieues 


De  Saint  Jaques  a  Salhemane 

pour  aller  a  Nostre  Dame  de 







WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 

De  Salhemana  a  Martenhas. . .  iij  lieues 

De  Maronhas  a  Nostre  Dame  de 
Finibus  terre viij  lieues 

lequelle  est  au  port  de  le  mer,  et  de  la  en 
avant  Ten  ne  trouve  plus  de  terre;  auguel  lieu 
fait  de  beaux  miracles  et  y  a  une  grant 
montaigne  ou  est  un  hermitatge  de  Saint 
Guilhames  du  desert. 


De  Finibus  Terre  a  Noye ix  lieues 

De  Noye  al  Patron iiij  lieues 

C'est  ung  lieu  auquel  monseigneur  saint 
Jaques  arriva  d 'outre  mer,  ou  lez  Sarrazins 
couppe  le  teste;  et  vint  en  une  nef  de  pierre  le 
chief  et  le  corps  separes  Tun  de  l'autre,  tout 
seul,  sans  autre  chouse,  et  j'ay  veu  le  nef  a  le 
rive  de  le  mer. 


Du  Patron  a  Saint  Jaques 

De  Saint  Jaques  a  Perreyres.. . 

De  Perreyres  a  Melid 

De  Melid  a  Porto  Marin 

De  Porto  Marin  a  Sarrie 

De  Sarrie  a  le  Fontfria 

iiij  lieues 
v  lieues 

iiij  lieues 
ix  lieues 

iiij  lieues 

vij  lieues 




Pe  Pontfria  a  Travadello viij  lieues 

De  Travadello  a  Cacanelhos. . .  iiij  lieues 

De  Cacanelhos  a  Molines iiij  lieues 

De  Molines  a  Rayanello. vj  lieues 

De  Ravanello  a  Astorgua v  lieues 

De  Astorgua  au  Pont  de  1' Aygua  iij  lieues 
Du  Pont  de  l'Aygua  a  Leon. . .  vj  lieues 

De  Leon  a  Borinelho vij  lieues 

De  Borinelho  a  Saffagon iiij  lieues 

De  Saffagon  a  Carrion viij  lieues 

De  Carrion  a  Fromista iiij  lieues 

De  Fromista  a  Castro  Siris v  lieues 

De  Castro  Siris  a  Burguos viij  lieues 

De  Burguos  a  Vilefranque viij  lieues 

De  Vilefranque  a  Vileforat ij  lieues 

De  Vileforat  a  Santo  Domingo  iiij  lieues 
De  Santo  Domingo  a  Nagere...  iiij  lieues 

De  Nagere  a  Gronh v  lieues 

Du  Gronh  als  Aroos v  lieues 

Dels  Arcos  a  Lestelle v  lieues 

De  Lestelle  au  Pont  le  Royne..  iiij  lieues 
Du  Pont  le  Royne  a  Pampalone    v  lieues 

De  Pampalone  au  Borguet viij  lieues 

Du  Borguet  au  Capeyron  roge  iiij  lieues 
Du  Capeyron  roge  a  Saint  Jehan 

de  Pedez  portz iij  lieues 

De  Saint  Jehan  a  Hostanach....iiij  lieues 
De  Hostanach  a  Sauvaterre iiij  lieues 


The  return 
varies  the 




So  wrote 




WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 



De  Sauvaterre  a  Hortes iij  lieues 

De  Hortes  a  Saut  de  Noalhas..    ij  lieues 

De  Saut  a  Orgons iiij  lieues 

De  Orgons  a  Duffort ij  lieues 

De  Duffort  a  Roqueffort v  lieues 

De  Roqueffort  a  Caumont ix  lieues 

Pinito  libro  sit  laus  gloria  Cris- 
ta.   A.  M.  E.  N. 

Qui  scripsit  istum  librum  ad  Deum  vadat 
unum  eternum  ubi  laus  et  gloria  in  seculorum 
cantantur  secula. 

Perm  Caumont. 

hi.  Lb  Chbmin  db  Paris  A  Sainct- Jacques  bn 
Galicb  dit  Compostelle;  et  Combien 
il  y  a  db  Lieues  de  Ville  en  Ville. 
Este  libro  costo  un  diner o  en  Leon  pot 
Septiembre  de  1535,  y  el  ducado  vale  $70 

De  Paris  au  bourg  la  Royne 1 1.  L. 

De  Sainct  Jehan  de  Lux  a  Saincte 

Marie  de  Heurin 2. 

Nota.  Est  la  fin  du  royaulme  de 
Prance  a  une  riviere  qui  est 
deca  la  dicte  nostre  Dame  de 
Hurin  pres  fon  arrabye. 



De  Saincte  Marie  de  Hurin  a  Ar- 
nani 3. 

D'Arnania  VilleneufVe 2. 

De  VilleneufVe  a  Toulousette 2 . 

De  T.  a  Villefranque 3. 

De  V.  a  Segure...., 4. 

De  S.  au  Mont  Sainct  Adrien 2. 

Qui  est  assez  hault,  passez  parmy 
le  trou  de  St.  Adrien  a  Saldon- 
don 2. 

De  S.  a  Saluatiere 2. 

De  S.  a  Victoire 3. 

Ville  de  Victoire  a  Peuple 3. 

De  P.  a  Nurende 3. 

De  N.  a  Pencorbe 3. 

De  P.  a  Verbiesque.... 4. 

De  V.  a  Castille* 1. 

De  C.  a  Monasterio 1. 

De  M.  a  Bourgues 5. 

De  B.  a  Tardaiges 2.  L. 

De.  T.  a  Horvilles 2. 

D'Orvilles  a  Fontaines 2. 

De  P.  a  Quatre-souris 2. 

De  Q.  a  Ponterose 2. 

De  P.  a  Boseville 2. 

De  B.  a  Pormende 1. 

*  That  is,  the  frontier  of  Castille. 








Puerto  de 
S.  Adrian 


La  Puebla 

de  Bbro 



de  Rodilla 


Tarda j  os 






WAY    OP    S.     JAMES 




de  Campos 

Ville  de  Ravanire  a  Population 

.  i. 



Ville  de  C.  a  Casedille 






El  Burgo 



De  Bourgue  a  Religoux 





S.  Miguel 
del  Cam i  no 


Puente  de 



De  Fontaines  au  pont  de  l'Aigue... 



Espital  del 




D'E.  a  Lhospital  Scte.  Katherine.. 








Nota  que  cy  est  Tentree  du  pays 
del  Galice,  et  la  fyn  du  pays 
d'Espaigne  et  les  bons  vins. 

I.  L. 



del  Vierzo 


De  P.  a  Lhospital  de  la  Contessa. . 







De  T.  a  Villemisere 4. 

De  V.  a  Pontz  Marin 4. 

De  P.  a  Saincte-Jame  le  Vieil 4. 

De  Saincte-Jame  a  Sainct- Julian . .  2. 

De  S.  a  Chantleurier 3. 

De  Ch.  a  Arcerouze,  dit  Ville  neu- 

fue. 3. 

De  Ville  brulee  [Arziia]  a   Ville 

rouge 3- 

De  V.  a  Saincte  Montioye 2. 

De  S.  a  Monseigneur  Set.  Jaques  1. 

grande  lieue  comme  de  Paris  a 

Saint  Denys. 

Somme.  de  Paris  a  Set.  Jaques  en 
Galice  ccc.  1.  neuf  lieues. 

From  Harrisse,  Biblioteca  Colombiana. 

iv.  Reportorio  de  Todos  los  Caminos  de 
Espana:  Hasta  Agora  Nunca  Visto 
en  el  Quel  Allaran  Qualquier  Viaje 
que  quieran  andar  muy  provechoso 
Por  Todos  LOS  Caminantes.  Com- 
puesto  por  Pero  Juan  Viluga  Valen- 
ciano.  ano.  de.  m.d.  xlvj.  con  pri- 
vilegio  Imperial 

U  Ay  de  Santiago  a  san  juan  del  pie  del 
puerto clii. 







Manzoi  or 
Mount  joy 




590  WAY    OF    S.    JAMES 



a  san  marco j. 

ala  vacula j. 

almenar ij. 

a  ferreros j. 

a  axqua j. 

a  mellid iij. 

ala  puente  campana iij. 

alegundi ij. 

a  goncar ij. 

a  puerto  marin ii. 

a  gujada j. 

a  sarria iij. 

a  mutan ij. 

a  triacastela ij. 

A  fuenfria ij. 

al  espital j. 

a  cebreyro ij. 

a  lafava j. 

a  libera  de  valcacar  hasta  la  vega ij. 

a  villafranca iiij. 

a  campo  de  naraya j. 

a  cacavelos ij. 

a  ponferrada ij. 

a  molina  seca j. 

a  riego ij. 

al  azebo j. 

ala  venta j.  y  media. 

a  fuen  cevadon j.  y  media. 




al  ravanal j, 

al  espital  del  ganso. j. 

a  palacios  de  valduerno iij. 

a  estorga ij. 

a  sante  Juste j. 

al  a  calcada j. 

a  la  puente  dorbigo j. 

a  villadancos ij. 

a  san  miguel  del  camino j. 

a  val  verde j. 

a  nuestra  senora  del  camino j. 

a  trabjo media. 

A  leon media. 

a  villarent iij. 

a  mansilla j. 

a  reliejos j. 

al  burgo ij. 

al  brecianos ij. 

a  sahagun ij. 

a  san  nicolas j. 

a  moratinos media. 

a  ledigos ij.  y  media. 

a  las  tiendas j. 

a  calcadilla j. 

a  carrion ij. 

a  villa  martin. ij. 

a  flomesta ij. 

a  la  puente ij. 









WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

a  castro  xeriz ij 

a  hontanas j 

a  hornillos j 

a  rabe j 

a  tardajos : .  j 

a  Burgos ij 

A  nuestra  sefiora  la  blanca  de  Burgos. 

a  carbadel ij, 

a  ybeas j, 

a  san  dueldo ij, 

a  val  de  huentes j, 

a  Villa  Franca  de  montes  doca ij, 

a  todos  santos j. 

a  villorado j, 

a  villa  miesta j, 

a  redesilla media, 

a  granon j, 

A  san  to  domingo  de  la  cal$ada j, 

a  cafra iij, 

a  najara j 

a  navarrete.* iij 

A  logrono ij 

a  viana j.  y  media 

a  los  arcos iij 

a  estella iiij 

al  aldea ij 

a  la  puente  la  reyna ij 

a  la  austia  de  remiega ij 





a  pamplona... ij. 

a  villalua media. 

a  rasnay ij.  y  media. 

a  subiri ij. 

a  burguete iij. 

a  roncesvalles ij. 

a.  s.  juan  del  pie  del  puerto iiij. 

^[  Ay  de  san  Juan  de  pie  del  puerto  a 

fuente  rabia viii. 

astajos i. 

a  rejeria iii. 

a  fuente  rabia iiij. 

1f  Ay  de  fuente  rabia  a  san  Sebastian. . .  iij . 

al  pasaje j. 

a  renteria j. 

a  san  Sebastian j. 

f  Ay  de  san  Sebastian  a 

laredo xxvii.  y  media. 

a  morrio iii. 

a  sarrans i. 

a  guetarja i. 

a  cumaya i. 

aytciar ii. 

a  deva media. 

a  motrico j. 

a  ergoybar j. 

aybar j. 

a  sabdibar j. 


594  WAY     OF     S.     JAMES 

Itineraries         a  durangO ij. 

iv  a  la  venta ij.  y  media. 

a  villon ij.  y  media. 

a  salsedon v. 

a  laredo iij. 

f  Ay  de  laredo  a  victoria.... xij.  y  media. 

a  guecus ij. 

a  san  josollo .ij. 

a  requalde j.  y  media. 

a  loquendo j. 

a  mono j. 

a  mesagua ij. 

a  victoria iij. 

H  Ay  de  Victoria  a  Burgos.xxiij.  leguas. 

a  la  venta  cibay ij.  y  media. 

a  la  puebla j.  y  media. 

a  las  ventas  destalvillo j. 

a  miranda  de  ebro j.  y  media. 

a  horon j. 

a  mehingo j.  y  media. 

a  pancorvo j. 

a  cufieda ij. 

a  grisanella media. 

a  birviesca j.  y  media. 

a  pradanos j. 

a  castillo  de  plones media. 

al  monasterio  de  rodilla j.  y  media. 

a  quintana  palla ij. 





a  rubena j. 

a  bilnuna media. 

a  Burgos ij.  y  media. 

H  Ay  de  leon  a  logrofio lv. 

a  villa  rente iij. 

a  mansilla i. 

a  reliejos ij. 

al  burgo ij. 

a  brecianos ij. 

a  sahagun ij. 

a  san  nocolas j. 

a  moratinos media. 

a  ledinos ij.  y  media. 

a  lastiendas 

a  calcadilla 

a  carrion rj 

a  villa  martin ij 

a  flomesta ij 

ala  puente ij 

a  castro  xeriz ij 

a  hontanas j 

a  hornillos 

a  rave j 

a  tardajos j 

a  Burgos ij 

a  castafiares j 

a  ybeas j 

S.  Martfn 
del  Camino 





WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 



rep  as 


a  san  dueldo ij. 

a  valde  huentes j. 

a  villa  franca  de  montesdoca ij. 

a  todos  sanctos j. 

a  villorado j. 

a  la  venta  de  buradon j. 

a  villa  de  pun j. 

a  granon j. 

a  sancto  domingo  de  la  calcada j. 

a  cafra iij. 

a  najara j. 

a  navarrete iij. 

a  logrofio ij. 

v.  nowelle  gvide  des  chemins.  paris, 
par  Nicolas  Bonfons  ruE  Neuue 
Nostre  Dame,  A  l'Enseigne  S.  Nicolas, 


Le  bourg  la  Roine ii  1. 

Le  pont  Antony i  1. 

Longjumeau ii  1. 

Montlehery  v ii  1.  R. 

Chastres,  sous  Montlehery,  v i  1. 

Torfou,  au  haut  du  Tartre i  1.  d. 

La  forest  de  Torfou  pour  le  jourd'huy 
Estrechy  le  larron i  1.  d. 

L 'hermitage,  ancienne  briganderie. 



Estampes,  v.  ch ii  1.  g. 

Villesauvage  m.  [maison] i  1. 

La  Beausse  commence. 

Monterville  a  main  dextre ii  1. 

Engerville  la  gaste ii  1. 

Cham  a  lorry iij  1.  d. 

Toury  v.  ch i  1.  d.  R. 

Chasteau  gaillard ii  1. 

Artenay  b ii  1. 

La  Croix  briquet, i  1. 

Langenerie i  1. 

Sercotes i  1. 

Pave"  jusques  a  la  ville. 

La  croix  de  la  montjoye i  1.  d. 

Nostre  Dame  des  aydes d.  1. 

Orleans  v.  e.  un ii  1.  g. 

Sainct  Mesmin,  abb ii  1. 

Clery  v.  Pelerinage ii  1. 

A  main  dextre  de  la  riviere  de  Loire  est 
la  ville  de  Meun,  ou  Ton  peiche  des 
pluyes  de  Loire,  qui  est  poisson  rare, 
et  fort  excellent. 

Pond  pertuis,  a  coste*  destre,  au  bout 
delaplaineetyabonvin i  1. 

Passe  un  ruisseau. 
Les  trois  chemin^es ii  1. 

A  main  dextre  de  la  riviere  boy  Baugency . 













Dame  de 


598  WAY     OF    S.     JAMES 




Perry  at 
Ferry  at 
Bac  de 


Sainct  Laurens  des  eaux ii  1. 

Nouan  b ii  1. 

Mande  b i  1. 

Sainct  Dier  b i  1. 

A  main  gauche,  Ton  voit  le  chasteau  de 
Chambourg  eMiAe"  par  le  feu  roy 

Montlivaut  b i  1. 

Noiseux  b i  1. 

Blois  v.  ch.  conte\    Sur  la  riviere  de  Loire 


Chousy,  a  coste*  dextre iij  1.  R. 

Passe  le  pont  de  la  riviere  de  Gisse, 
qui  tombe  en  loire,  ayant  passe*  le 

Escures  b ii  1. 

Vesve  b i  1. 

Le  mare i  1. 

Le  haut  chantier i  1.  g. 

Commencement  de  la  Touraine. 

La  Pillaudiere i  1. 

Amboise  v.  ch i  1. 

Passe  le  Loire  sur  les  ponts  d 'Amboise, 
pour  le  meilleur,  et  qui  veut  on  va 
passer  au  port  de  Montlouy,  ou  au 
pont  de  Clisse  pour  aller  d 'Amboise 
a  Tours,  de  Tautre  coste*  de  la  riviere. 
Bleray  sur  le  Cher ii  1. 



Le  Pau  sur  Inde iij  1. 

Mantelan iij  1. 

Semesacost6dextre q  R. 

La  Selle ii  1. 

Le  port  de  pille  sur  Creuse q. 

Les  hommes  sainct  Martin i  1. 

Dangers,  sur  Vienne i  1. 

Ingrande,  sur  Vienne  v.  ch i  1. 

Chasteleraut  sur  Vienne,  v.  du i  1. 

Passe  la  garenne  du  Roy,  et  haut  bois. 

La  Tricherie iij  1. 

Iaulnays i  1. 

Chassenoeil i  1. 

Le  Pont  des  anses i  1. 

Poictiers  v.  e.  un.  pari i  1. 

Coulombiers iij  1. 

Luzignanv.  Sur  la  riviere  Sevre ii  1. 

Y  a  grandes  foires. 

Cheuaix  b iiij  1. 

Cherry  b i  1. 

La  Barre i  1.  g. 

Sainct  leger  de  mesle i  1. 

Laisse  Mesle  bonne  ville,  a  main  dextre 
un  quart  de  lieue  au  dela. 

Brion,  b ii  1.  R. 

La  ville  dieu  d'aulnois ii  1. 

Aulnois  b i  1. 



Le  Fau  or 

Sepmes   •' 


Les  Ormea 



Forest  of 














WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 





and  Blaye 

Paillets i  1. 

Bricleu ii  1.  p. 

Laisse   Busambourg,    bonne   ville,    a 
main  gauche. 

Escoyaux i  1. 

Veneran i  1. 

Saintes,  v.  e i  1.  R. 

Ville  capitale  de  Xaintonge. 

L'hospital  neuf q. 

La  maladerie d.  q. 

Ponts q. 

Recose i  1. 

Sainct  Gervais i  1. 

Pressac  b i  1.  R. 

La  Tenaille  b.  abb i  1. 

Sainct  Duisan i  1. 

Mirambeau d.  1. 

Petit  beaunois i  1. 

Plaine  seve ii  1.  g. 

Sainct  Aulbin  b ii  1. 

Le  bois  Franc  en  la  comt6  de  Blaye. 

Lepaysdefenestres i  1. 

Estauliers i  1. 

Gigot ii  1.  R. 

La  Garde,  ou  Darde  de  Roland,  duquel 

lieu  Ton  dit  que  Roland  jetta  une  lance 

jusques  dans  la  mer  de  Blaye. 




Blaye  v.  ch i  1. 

Frontiere,  port  de  mer. 

Comte*  souz  l'EveschS  de  bordeaux; 

Passe  un  brachs  de  mer  venant  de  la 

A  Blaye  on  monte  sur  l'Anguille  qui  est 

un  certain  bare  petit  et  grand,  lequel 

d'une  maree  conduict  selon  le  vent 

jusques  a  Bordeaux,  ou  il  y  a  sept 

lieues  de  pays. 
Monte  sur  ledit  brachs  de  mer  et  sur 

l'Anguille  susdicte,  par  les  lieux  qui 


Roched'estaux i  1. 

Laisse  a  ville  du  bourg  a  main  gauche. 
Le  bee  d'Ambois,  passage  dangereux, 

qui  est  d'un  pont  et  d'une  Isle  entre 

deux  mers,  que  verres  a  main  gauche. 

Montf errant... ii  1. 

Sur  la  coste  de  la  mer  a  main  gauche. 

Macaut,  a  main  dextre. 

Le  pays  de  M&Iqc,  dont  on  voit  places 

et  chasteaux  a  main  dextre. 
Blanc  et  fort,  a  main  dextre,  chasteau 

Lermont,  port  de  mer,  a  main  gauche. 

Bordeaux  v.  arch i  1.  R. 

Port  de  mer. 






Monf  er- 


lot,  priory 

t'ust  before 

Post  2  Idi- 
Le  Muret 



La  Harie 

de  Tirosse 








WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

Le  petit  Bordeaux ii  1. 

L'hospital iiij  1.  R. 

La  tricherie ii  1. 

Le  mutat ii  1. 

Pontel ii  1.  g. 

Herbe  fanee ii  1. 

L'hospital  sainct  Antoine ii  1. 

La  ferme ii  1.  R. 

L'esperon ii  1. 

Castel ii  1. 

Matticque ii  1.  g. 

Sainct  Vincent iij  1. 

Hondres , iij  1. 

Bayonne  V.  ch ii  1.  R. 

Bons  tranche-plumes. 

Sainct  Jean  de  Lux v.  1.  g. 

Saincte  Marie  de  Hurin ii  1. 

Fin  du  royaume  de  France  a  une  riviere 
deca  Huria,  pres  de  Fontarabie. 

Arnani iij  1. 

Villeneuve i  1.  R. 

Toulouzette ii  1. 

Villefranque iij  1.  g. 

Segare iiij  1. 

Mont  sainct  Adrien,  bien  haut.. . .  ii  1.  R. 
Passe  par  le  trou  sainct  Adrien. 




Chaldondon ii  1. 

Salvatierra  v.  ch iij  1.  g. 

Victoire iij  1. 

Peuple iij  1.  R. 

Nutande iij  1. 

Pencorbe iij  1.  g. 

Verbiesque iiij  1. 

Castille  v.  ch ii  1. 

Meilleur  langage  d'Espaigne. 

Monasteno i  1.  R. 

Burges  v.  ch v  1. 

Tardaignes ii  1.  g. 

Homilies ii  1. 

Fontaines ^. ii  1. 

Quatre  souris,  ou  Castre  sortiz  . . .  ii  1.  R. 

Ponte  roso iiij  1. 

Boseville ii  1.  g. 

Formande i  1. 

La  Ravanarie  v i  1. 

Paublation,  ou  Population ii  1. 

Canon  v ii  1.  R. 

Capadille  v iiij  1.' 

Sainct  sagon iiiij  1.  g. 

Brisanne ii  1. 

Burgo i  1. 




La  Puebla 

de  Ebro 



Castil  de 



Tarda  j  os 

del  Camino 








de  Campo 


6o4  WAY    OF     S.     JAMES 

las  Mulas 

San  Miguel 
del  Camino 
Robledo  de 
de  Orbigo 







del  Vierzo 








del  Camino 
or  Samos 

Peligoux i  1.  R. 

La  Moucelle ii  1. 

Lyon  d'Espaigne,  ou  Leon,  v.  ch..iij  1.  g. 

Sainct  Miphel iij  1. 

Fontaignes ii  1.  R. 

Le  pont  de  Laigue ii  1. 

Estorgues i  1. 

L 'hospital  saincte  Catherine iij  1.  g. 

Ranoeil ii  1. 

Villeneuve iiij  1.  R. 

Molins ii  1. 

Caux i  1. 

Pont  ferrat i  1.  g. 

Fin  d'Espaigne,    entree   du  pays  de 
Galice,  bons  vins. 

Pavies iiij  1. 

Villefranque ii  1.  R. 

Finiterre,  que  Ion  dist  estre  en  la  fin 

de  l'Europe ii  1. 

L 'hospital  de  la  comtesse ii  L  g. 

Tricastel iij  1. 

Ville  Misere iiij  1. 

Pont  marin iiij  1. 

Sainct  Jame  le  viel iij  1.  g. 

Sainct  Julian i  1. 



Chauleurier iij  1.  R. 

Arse  touse,  dicte  Villeneuve iij  1. 

Ville  bruslee ii  1. 

Ville  rouge iij  1.  g- 

La  saincte  Montjoye,  qui  est  haut  mon- 
taigne  en  rocher. 

Compostelle,  v.  ch i  1.  R. 

From  Bonnault  d'Houfet,  PUerinage  d'un 
Paysan  Picard,  pp.  175-183. 

vi.    Pilgrims'  Guide.     From    Chansons 


de  Paris  A  S.  Jacques  le  Grand 

De  Paris  au  Bourg-la-Reine.. .  .une  lieue. 

Longjumeau 3 

Monthlery 2 

Caste* 2 

Mortevelle 2 

Amerville  le  gate 3 

Tournai 3 

Arenzy 2 

Languette 4 

Sarcotte 2 

Orleans 3 

Notre-Dame  de  Cleri 4 

Saint  Laurent-des-Faux 6 

Blois 8 






Monte  de 



Anger  ville 





St.  Laurent 
des  Baux 

606  WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 










lot  just  be- 
fore Beliet 
Cne  de 
Le  Muret 



Clermont 8 

Monthleri 5 

Tours-aux-Chateaux 1 

Montezo 6 

Ste.  Catherine  de  Fierebois 7 

Algrade 2 

Chatellerault 2 

La  Trenerie 8 

Poitiers 3 

Lusignan 4 

Le  Cheval 4 

Melle 4 

La  Ville  Dieu 3 

Escournua 3 

S.  Eutroupe  de  Vanines 5 

Plassat 4 

Mytuban 2 

Toclier 5 

Blaye 1 

De  Blaye  on  passe  la  Garonne 
7  lieues  pour  aller  a  Bor- 
De  Bordeaux  au  petit  Bordeaux  2  lieues. 

L'Hdpital 3I. 

La  Tricherie 2  1. 

Le  Meret 2  1. 

Le  Ponter 2  1. 

L'Herbe  fan£e 2  1. 




L'H6pitaldeS.  Antoine 3  1. 

Notez  qu'a  TEperon,  qui  veut  tirer  a 
Navarre, faut  prendre  a  main  gauche, 
et  passer  la  Biscaye. 

DTEperonaOrly 2lieues. 

Matique 2  1. 

Saint  Vincent 1 1. 

Hongres 3  1. 

Bayonne 3  1. 

Saint  Jean  de  Luz 3  1. 

Sainte  Marie  deHuran 2  1. 

Ici  est  la  fin  du  Royaume  de  France. 
De  sainte  Marie  de  Huran  a 

Handem 1  lieue. 

Villeneuve 2 

Toulouzette 2 

Villefranque 3 

Fegnat 4 

Le  Mont  saint  Adrien 2 

Desidodum  a  Salvaterie 2 

Victoire 3 

Peuple 3 

Marailde 4 3 

Pencorbe 3 

Saint  Dominique 3 

Castille 2 

Monasterie 2 

Burges 5 

Chapel  le 
S.  Antoine 





de  Tirosse 











La  Puebla 


de  Peones 




Tarda  j  os 
del  Catnino 




de  Campo 

El  Burgo 


las  Mulas 

Robledo  de 








WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 

Tartadur 2  1. 

Sarville 81. 

Fontaine 2  1. 

Quatre-Souris. 2  1. 

Panterose 2  1. 

Mamnade 2  1. 

La  Ravoquerie 3  1. 

Population 4 1. 

Curion 2  1. 

Curandille 2  1. 

Saint  Lupens 9 1. 

Brisance 3  1. 

Burgos 2  1. 

Pericoc 5  1. 

La  Moc 2  1. 

Leon .4I. 

De  Leon  a  saint  Michel 2  1. 

Fontaines 2  1. 

Le  Pont  de  Laines 2 1. 

Essorgues 2  1. 

L'Hdpital  de  Ste.  Catherine. . . 5  1. 

Du  Reveil 3  1. 

Villeneuve 3  1. 

Pont-Salvat 3  1. 

Villefranque 3  1. 

Fumeterre 2  1. 

L'Hdpital  de  la  Comtesse 2  1. 

Triscatte 3  1. 



Villeneuve 4  1. 

Pont  sainte-Marie 4  1. 

Saint  Lomme  le  Vieil 2  1. 

Saint  Julien 1  1. 

Gablevier 2  1. 

Alserance,  dit  la  Villeneuve.. . . 2  1. 

Ville  bruise 3  1. 

Ville-rouge 3  1. 

Sainte  Mont-joie 5  1. 

De  Paris  a  S.  Jacques 340  1. 

A  Saint  Salvateur  en  Espaignc 

Voyage  singulier,  duquel  Ton  diet,  qui 
a  este*  a  sainct  Jaques,  et  n'a  este*  a 
sainct  Salvateur,  a  visite*  le  serviteur, 
et  a  laisse*  le  seigneur. 

Lyon,  ou  Laon,  en  Espaigne,  au  chemin 
de  Sainct  Jaques  cy  dessus. 

La  pola  de  Gordonne vj  1. 

Boicia i  1.  R. 

Le  mont  saincte  Marie iiij  1.  g. 

Cette  montaigne  est  en  partie  de  roche- 
creuse  par  dedans,  et  y  va  Ton  plus  de 
deux  lieues  en  long  et  leans  on  trouve 
force  fleuves  qui  traversent. 

La  paille i  1. 

Le  pont  de  les  sieres ii  1. 





San  Julian 
del  Camino 


Monte  de 

La  Voyza 
de  Gordon 
de  Arvas 






Only  one 
given  here 

WAY    OF     S.     JAMES 

Oviedo vj  1. 

En  cette  ville  est  l'Eglise  de  sainct 
Salvateur,  od  y  a  de  la  Couronne 
d'Espines,  du  Laict  nostre  Dame,  de 
la  peau  sainct  Barthelemy,  et  plusi- 
eurs  autres  saincts  Reliquaires. 
From  Bonnault  d'Houet,  PUerinage  d'un 
Paysan  Picard,  pp.  185-188,  183. 

vii.    Itinerario  Espanol,  o  Guia  db  Cam- 
inos,  Para  ir  Desde  Madrid  A  Todas 


de  Espana,  y  Para  ir  de  unas  Ciudades 
A  Otras,  y  A  Algunas  Cortes  db  la 
Europa.  Anadido  y  Corregido  en 
Esta  Quinta  Impresion.  Con  Licen- 
cia  :  en  Alcal  A :  mdccxcviii.  En  la  Im- 
prenta  de  d.  isedro  lopez.  dondb  sb 
HallarA,  y  en  Madrid  en  su  LibrerU 
Calle  de  la  Cruz  Num.  3 

Finibus-Terre,  Astorga,  y  Orense  por  dos 
Caminos;  y  para  Pontevedra,  y  otras  Villas. 

Camino  de  Ruedas  hasta  Villafranca. 

Se  ha  de  guiar  por  el  Cam.  de  Castilla 

que  esta  al  fol.  53  hasta  llegar  & 
Tordesillas,  leg 32 



R.  Duero.  Pte 2 

La  Vega  de  Valde-Troncos 1 

La  Mota  del  Marques 1 

38  Villar  de  Frades 2 

Vta.  de  Almaraz 1 

42  Villalpando 3 

Cerecinos 1 

La  Puente  de  Castro  Gonzalo,/?.  Esla  2 

46  Benavente 1 

Villabrazaro 1 

Puente  Lavizana 2 

La  Nona 1 

S.  Juan  de  Torres 1 

R.  y  Puente  de  Orbigo 

52  La  Bafteza 1 

54  Los  Palacios  de  Valduerno 2 

La  Venta  del  Monte  de  la  Matanza  2 

San  Martin  del  Valle 2 

Pedredo,  Rio  Juta 1  m 

E.  Ravanel 

Fuen-Cevadon 1  m 


El  Acevo 

Riego  del  Camino. 

Molina  Seca 

R.  Boesa,  Puente. 

68  Ponf errada 2 

Cacabelos,  R.  P 1 




Bridge  hill 

Here  the 





WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 



3,450  feet 

slept  here 
coal  mine 

No  good 

good  folk 

good  wine 

Campo  de  Narraya 

72  Villafranca  de  el  Bierzo,  R.  P.. 



Ambas  Mestas 

Herrerias  de  Valcarze 

Comienza  el  Reyno  de  Galicia. 

La  Faya 

78  Villa,  y  Puerto  del  Cebrero. . . . 



81  Fonfria 



San  Fiz 




93  Puerto  Marin 

Rio  Miflo,  Puente. 




Palas  de  Rey 

Puente  de  Campafta 





Bridge  Rio  Ulla,  Puente. 

evil  folk  Leboreiro 




Turetos m 

R.  Ameca,  Puente. 

Mellide i 

Arzua 3 

Rio  Sar,  Puente. 

Dos  Casas 2 

San  Marcos 1 

106  Santiago 1 

Puente  de  Mafeda 3 

Segua 3 

Las  Barreras 1 

Mon-Jesus 2 

Puente  de  Albarados 2 

Villa  de  Sese" 3 

122  Finibus  Terre 2 

PAMPLONA  para  Burgos. 

Camino  Frances  de  Ruedas. 

La  Venta  del  Perdon 2 

La  Puente  de  la  Reyna 2 

7  Estela 3 

Los  Arcos 3 

13  Viana 3 

14  Logrono 1 

Rio  Ebro,  Pte. 

Navarrete 2 

18  m  Nagera 2 

Rio  Nagera,  Pte. 





Mount  joy 
The  Shrine 








WAY    OF    S.     JAMES 



white  fowls 


'Entrar  de 
prisay  salir 

de  luxe" 

Azofra i 

22  m  Sto.  Domingo%  de  la  Calsada. . .  3 
Rio  Glera,  Pte. 

Grafi6n 1 

Redecilla 1 

Villambistia m 

Velorado,  R.  P 1 

Todos  Santos 1 

Villafranca  de  Montes  de  Oca 1 

Zalduendo 3 

San  Medel 3 

35  Burgos 1 

VITORIA  para  Bayona  de  Francia. 

Camino  de  Ruedas. 

Ulivari  de  Gamboa 3 

Salinas  de  Guipuzcoa 1  m 

Mondragon,  R 2 

Oflate  Puente 2 

Villa  Real 2  m 

Villafranca 2  m 

Tolosa 3 

Hernani 3 

Oyarzun 2 

Iran 2 

S.  Juan  de  Luz 2  m 

Vidarte 2 

30  Bayona 2 




PAMPLONA  para  San  Juan  de  Pie  de 
Puerto,  y  Bayona  de  Francia. 

Camino  de  Ruedas. 

Villava  y  Ugarte i 

Zabaldica,  y  Iroz i  m 

Anchoriz m 

Larrasoana i 

Urdanfz m 

Zubiri m 

Viscaret i 

Espinal i 

Burgete i 

1 1  Ronces  Valles 3 

15  S.  Juan  de  Pie  de  Puerto 4 

Mendiondo 4 

23  Bayona 4 

Qualquiera  de  estos  Caminos  de  Bayona 
mirados  al  rev£s  sirven  para  ir  a 
Santiago  de  Galicia. 
De  Pamplona  a  Burgos,  de  Burgos  a 
Leon,  de  Leon  a  Astorga  y  a  Santiago, 
f.  126,  128,  105,  y  61. 

BURGOS  para  Leon. 

Camino  Francis  de  Ruedas. 

Tardajos 2 




with  regret 

616  WAY    OF     S.     JAMES 




the  wood 
by  the 
road  side 


Rabe i 

Hornillos i 

Hontanas i 

Castro  Xeriz i 

La  Puente  del  R.  Pisuerga 2 

Fromista 2 

Villa  Martin 2 

Carrion,  Rio  Arion,  Pte 2 

Calzadilla,  Rio  Cea 2 

Las  Tiendas 1 

Ledigos. 1 

Morativos 2  m 

S.  Nicolas m 

Sahagun,  R.  Esla 1 

Brecianos 2 

El  Burgo 2 

Reliegos. .    2 

Mansilla 1 

Villarent 1 

32  Leon 2 

OVIEDO  para  Santiago. 

Camino  de  Herradura. 

La  Puente  de  Gallegos 1 

Escamplero 1 

Atahoces,  Pormono,  y  la  Aspra 1 

Grado 1 





El  Fresno  y  Doriga 1 

Cornelian,  R.  P 1 

Salas 1 

V.  de  la  Espina 1  m 

La  Pereda m 

Pedrejal m 

Tineo,  y  Gera 2  m 

Miraya,  y  la  Venta  de  Arganza. ...      m 

El  Pueblo  Retuerto,  y  Corias 1  m 

Cangas  de  Tineo m 

San  Julian  de  Arbas 3 

ElBuron 2 

Castroverde 4 

27  Lugo 4 

Santa  Eulalia 3 

Sobrado 4 

San  Gregorio 4 

42  Santiago 4 



618  WAY     OF     S.   JAMES 







620  WAY    OF    S.JAMES 





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•  # 




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662  WAY    OF    S.JAMES 







In  order  to  save  space,  the  names  of  authors  and  of  places,  with  but 
few  exceptions,  appear  in  the  Index  only  when  in  the  text  proper, — 
the  Notes  and  the  Appendix  being  conveniently  disposed  for  those 
who  are  interested. 

Aa,  Pieter  van  der,  II-457 
Abdias,  1-56,  61 
Abderraman,  1-397,  n-219 
Abgar  (King),  m-337,  343 
Abohalid,  11-123,  142 
Abn-Edhari,   III-203,   336, 

Acci,  IU-291 ;  v.  Guadix 

Accitani,  III-294,  295 

Acuna,  Luis  de,  11-33,  35, 

36,  39,  43,  5i,  57 
Adad,m-307, 321, 322, 327, 

338,  348,  356;— axe,  m- 

338 ;— cypress,  m-328  ;— 

beardless,  IH-333,  363 
Addai,  m-336, 337 
JEneas  Sylvius,  II-38 
Africa,  I-5,  III-286, 302 
Agen    (bishop   of),    I-147; 

diocese  of,  m-96 
Agreda,  III-290 
Aguas  Santas,  S.   Marina 

de,  JI-364 
Aguilar,  I- 105;  del  Campo, 

Aix,  DI-96 
Alarz6n,  I-93 
Albelda,    I-99,    364,    375, 

382,    397;    Chronicle    of 

( Chronicon      A  Ibeldensej , 

1-59,  397 
Albert  (of  Paris),  I-43 

Albertus  Magnus,  I-43,  II- 

Albi,  I-306,  403 
Albigensian,  I-265 
Alcala,  1-359,  ni-197 
Alcobia,  I- 198 
Aleman,  Rodrigo,  II-248 
Alexandria,  II-201 
Alfonso  II  (the  Chaste),  I- 

53,  59,  ni-36,  67,  357; 

letter  to  Tours,  IQ-482 
Alfonso  m  (the  Great),  I- 

98,  n-97,  136,  294,  296, 

in-37,  42,  67,  380,  385, 

Alfonso  IV,  II-124 

Alfonso  V,  II-187,  203 
Alfonso  VI,  I- 1 00,  103,  106, 
400,  411,  412,  n-5,  29, 
60,99,  119,  125,128,  131, 
134,  144,  189,  206,  245, 
385,  m-418; — friend  of 
Cluny,  II-220;  wives,  II- 
127, 189;  death,  II-206 
Alfonso  VII,I-ioi,  315, 374, 
414,11-113, 135, 193,220, 
454;  crowned,  III-98, 102, 




Alfonso  VIL- -Cont'd 

107,  118,  122,  126;  char- 
acter, 133 

Alfonso  Vm,  I-iii,  147, 

Alfonso  IX,  I-85,  II-ioo, 
204,  226,  227,  231,  237, 

249,312, 359, 423 
Alfonso  X  (el  Sabio),  I-281, 

401,  n-14,   73,  93,   167, 
246,  m-250;  Siete  Parti- 
das,  I- 1 05;   Cantigas,  I- 
281,  n-13,  94,  95,  473, 
in-276,  516-525 
Alfonso  XI,  H-18,33 
Alfonso  XIIIy.III-i5,  30 
Alfonso  of  Aragon,  (el  Ba- 
tallador),  I-67,   192-201, 
264,  291,  295,  306,  314, 
346,  n-91,  99,  r35,  294, 
in-30,  98-101,  106,  151, 
Alfonso  II  of  Aragon,  II-91 
Al-Ghazal,  I-97,  m-43 
Ali-ben-Yussuf,  I- 107 
Alkacer,  I-110 
Allariz,  1-86 
Almaccari,  I-98 
Almanzor,   I-28,    59,    197, 
397,11-124, 125, 139, 142, 
180,  187,  205,  244,  296, 
370,  m-43,  139,  203,  380 
Almaz&n,  H-74,  495-6 
Alonso  of  Carthagena,  I-15, 

437,  n-33,  36,  37-8,  41 
Altamira,  Rafael,  I-20 
Alvarez,  Manuel  Anibal,  II- 

Alvaro    de    Luna,   II-317, 

Aly scamps,  I-28,  74 

Amador  de  los  Rios,  II-38, 

Ambrose  of  Milan,  S.,  m- 

312,  365 

Ambulatory  and  chapels,  I- 
12,216,284,11-33-4, 145, 
240,  ni-49,  405;  a  face, 

Amiens,  I-n;  II-58,  104, 

Ammidab,  chariot  of,  II- 1 1 5 

Anatolia,  I- 170,  317,  322 

Ancestral  ghosts,  IH-21, 
232,  239,  251,  256;  v.  las 

Andalusia,  I- 10,  II- 122 

Andorra,  IH-391 

Andre  le  Chapelain,  m-267, 

Andreo,  Pedro,  I-356 

Andres  and  Nicolas,  Mas- 
ters, I-403,  418,  II-298 

Andres  de  Najera,  Master, 
I-418,  419-21,  426,  429; 
stalls,  417,  418;  called 
Andres  de  S.  Juan,  I-418 

Andres  de  Soria,  I-250 

Angers,  III-394 

Angevine,  II-20,  146 

Angouldme,  II- 106,  ni-62, 
442;  bishop  of,  I- 1 47 

Angoumois,  III-445 

Animas,  las,  IH-32,  235, 
272 ;  offerings  to,  232, 234; 
will  wake  you,  235 ;  wan- 
dering, 236,  237;  on  pil- 
grimage, 242,  272 

d'Annunzio,  Gabriel e,  m- 

An6nimo  of  Almeria,  III- 
252, 361, 493;  of  Sahagun, 
II-126,  127,  204 



Anseis  of  Carthage,  1-34, 

128,  II-72,  290 
Ansur,  II- 124,  164 
Anton  Perez  de  Carridn,  II- 

Antonine  Itinerary,  1-8  7 

Antoninus  Martyr,  HI-338 

Antwerp,  I-403 

Apocalypse  II-54,  104,  III- 

72,  86, 265,  375,  389,  393, 

438. 445  „ 
Apocrypha,    IH-250,    264; 

Acts  of  Apostles,  334;  of 
Andrew  and  Matthew, 
250,  307.  343;  of  Philip, 
344-5, 354»  358 ;  of  Thom- 
as, 334;  Protevangel  of 
Tames,  III-309;  Apoca- 
lypse  of    Paul,   ni-265, 

375,  549 
Apollo,  III-282,  300,   301, 

363;    v.    Helios,  sun-god 
Aponte,  Vasco  de,  II-480, 

Apostles,  ni-335,  340,  343- 

347;  as  twins,  343-4 
Apostolado,  1-353,  H-53, 88, 


436. 446 

Apostolus  Peregrinus,  III- 

Aquitaine,    III-413;    Aqui- 

tanians,  I-297 
Arabs,  I-5;  style,  II-36,  48 

learning,  I-298,  HI-271 
Arachas,  IQ-330 
Aragon,  I-7,  153,  345,  388, 

425,11-135, 155, 343,  ni- 

99,   391,  443;   Order  of 
Holy  Sepulchre  in,  I-315 
Aragon  (kings  of):  Alfonso 
I,  v.  Alfonso  el  Batalla- 

dot;  Garda  ffiigxiez,    I- 
IQ2;  Peter  I,  I-182,  212, 
lfl-91;  Peter  II,   U-204; 
Ramiro  I,  I-59,  96,   161, 
172,  II-222;  Ramiro    II, 
el    Monje,    I-250,    H-91, 
134;  Sancho  el  Mayor,  I- 
100,  181,  263,  269,  398, 
H-77,  133,  166,  295;  San- 
cho Ramirez,  I- 162,  193, 
211,  295,  326,  330;  Mar- 
tin the  Humane,  I- 154 

Arconada,  II-82 

Aristotle,  I-5 

Aribau,  L.  Giner,  II-283 


Arlanza,  S.  Pedro  de,  II- 
218;  Abbot  Peter  of,  II-3 1 

Arlanz6n,  I-440,  II-63 

Aries,  I-320,  340,  343,  H- 
190,   m-101,    349,    384, 

Armenia,  I-i  13 ;  Armenians, 

m-339, 368 

Armentfa,  S.  Andres  de,  II- 
201,  ni-150,  386,  390, 
412,  413,  432,  43&-44J 
bishop  Fortunio,  HI-436 

Arnald  of  Barbazan,  1-270, 

Arnao  de  Flandes,  II-50, 52 

Arnaut  del  Monte,  I-41, 45, 

Arriaga,  IQ-327 

Arras,  I-99 

Artajona,  I-377,  n-107 

Artois,  I-239 

Arzua,  11-479,  480,  482; 
Santiago  de,  485;  cattle- 
mart,  487 

Ashburnham  (Pentateuch), 
I-28 1 



Asia  Minor,  I-3,  4,  10,  287, 
322,  H-183,  m-387 

Assisi,  1-403,  m-164,  165, 
167,  168 

Astorga,  I-15, 32, 35,  36,  98, 
411,  n-42,  237,  262,  288, 
291,  292,  293-303,  304, 
312,  314,  315,  330,  344, 
362,  HI-98,  407,  410; 
walls,  II-300;  Roman,  II- 
293, 300,  III-310;  history, 
II-294-9;  cathedral,  297; 
stalls,  II-297-298;  French 
canon,  II-298;  S.  Fran- 
cisco, 301 ;  S.  Julian,  301 ; 
Conventus  Asturum,  HI- 
287;  bishop,  II-314;  bis- 
hops Ferdinand,  11-137, 
Ordofio,  217,  Tovar,  299, 
Lope,  305,  Amadeus,  309, 
Osmund,  358,  364,  366; 
mountains  of,  II-39 

Asturias,  1-8,  82,  II-78, 152, 
237,  241 ;  Asturian,  I-163, 
182,  II-180,  408;  type, 
m*39»  67;  romance,  II- 
242;  folk-lore,  m-247 

Ataecina,  m-295,  297,  303, 
485;  cult-epithet  Libera, 

Atapuerca,  I-400;  HI- 100 

Atares,  Pedro,  I-177 

Atargatis,  m-307,  321,  347, 
348,  356,  357;  Hons,  329, 
354;  v.  Syrian  Goddess 

Atlantic,  II-383,  m-9,  191, 

Athys,   ni-311,    314.    315, 

Auch,  m-108;  diocese,  96; 

archbishop  of,  I-264 

Augsburg,  II-58 
Augustus,   I-289,    III-289; 

Soter,  308;  cult  of,  304, 

Augustinian   order,  I- 146, 

H-215;  canons  regular,  I- 

263,  436;  at  Astorga,  II- 

Aulnay,  I-188,  190,  303,  II- 

35,   189,  431,  432,  459, 

476,   m-409,    413,    445, 

d'Aulnoy,  Madame,  n-64 
Aurillac,  II-394 
Autun,  I-228,  II-62,  70, 106, 

m-397;  Honorius  of,  II- 

Auvergne,  I-161,   168,  II- 


Auxerre,  I-215,  II-241 

Avignon,  I- 17,  II-73,  m- 

329;  bridge  of,  I- 1 01 

Avila,  I-14,  15,  164,  356,  II- 

273,  m-382,  397;  bishop 

of,   m-57;   glass,   n-52; 

S.  Vicente  of,  I-14,  164, 

225,  III-70 ;  copied  Autun, 

m-397;     Avallon,     397; 

Vezelay,  ni-397;  narthex, 

axe,  Adad's,  m-338;  Mi- 

noan  double — ,  fll-290 
Aybar,  I-237;  Dona  Caya, 

Aymerico  de  Anteiaco,  I- 

Aymery  Picaud,  I- 19, 21, 43, 

64,  73,  76,  79,  n-491; 
cited,  I-101,  146,203, 228, 
329,  n-71,  184,  220,  282, 

310,  365,  386,  426,  ra- 

5ii  57,  58,  116,  14*,  l63, 



Aymeiy  Picaud — Cont'd 
248,  249,  349,  366,  396, 
512,  528,  531 

Aymeiy  the  Chancellor,  I- 


Back-wash,  I-7,  II- 108, 258, 


Baalbek,  m-330,  337,  347. 
351.  364,  367;  v.  Heliopo- 

Babylonia,  m-307,  349 

Badajoz,II-226;  Juan  de,  I- 
16,  II-248,  249,  270;  at  S. 
Isidore,  248;  S.  Zoyl,  248; 
Rodrigo  de,  IQ-406 

Baeza,  battle  of,  I-54,  II- 
221,  222 

Bale,  Council  of,  I-i  5,  H-36 

Baleaiic  Isles,  IH-360;  Port 
Mahon,  III-314;  v.  Ma- 

Bamberg,  III-2 1 4 

Banda,  Baflos  de,  1-8  7 

Barbadelo,  II- 192, 412,  426, 
m-413;  Santiago  de,  II- 
416,  460;  cats  at,  II-430 

Barbastro,  I-425 

Barbarossa,  III- 192 

Barcelona,  I- 123,  296,  298, 
n-201;  pilgrim  from,  I- 
I3i»  367,  fil-512;  Muse- 
um, III- 149;  cathedral 
of  S.  Eulalia,  III-163;  S. 
Cugat,  m-346 

Ban,  I-302,  322,  m-387, 
304;  Terra  di  Ban,  I-322 

Barletta,  S.  Sepulcre,  III- 

Basque,  I-73,  II- 156,  III- 

Bastiani,  Lazzaro,  III-80 

Battle  of  Lake  Regillus,  m- 

Bayeuz,  n-277 
Bayonne,   I-83,    200,  271, 

284,  n-240,  259,  HI-96, 

108,  429 
Beatrice  of  Suabia,  II-31, 

55,  257 
Beaulieu,  I-228,  242 
Beaumetz,  Jean  de,  I- 16 
Beaumont,  D.  Juan  de,  I- 

Beckford,  II-170 
Bede,  the  Venerable,  I-41, 
45;    Penitentials,   I- 120; 
Commentary    on    Can- 
ticles, II-i  15 
Bedier,  I-29-31,  36,  37,  70, 

Bedous,  I-141 

Bees,  I-437-8,  n-230,  m- 

238-9, 240, 281 
Beleth  (master),  I-48 
Belfort,  II-297 
Belgium,  HI-425 
Belfn,  I-28,  32,  75 
Bell,  G.  Lowthian,  I-322 
Bell-founder,  HI- 140 
Belorado,  II-99 
Bembibre,  I-87 
Benavente,  II-311;  counts 

of,  n-100,  324,  325,  338, 

Benedetto  Antelami,  I-320, 

ni-386,  392,  395 

Benedictine,  I- 1 08, 147, 2 1 1 , 

II-394,   417;  foundation, 

H-77,    131,    355,  HI-37, 
211;  style,  I-169,  II-105, 


Benevfvere,  I-353,  II- 105, 

112,  498,  DI-408,  410 



Benjamin  of  Tudela,  III- 

Berdun,  I-203 

Berenguel  (archbishop),  I- 

Berenguela  (queen),  I- 195, 

H-12,  31,  223,  249,  257, 

Bermudez,    Cean,    I-223, 

249,  415,  418,  423,  424, 

435,  H-33,  39 
Bernard  of  Angers,  I-39 

Bernard  the  Elder,  EB-45, 


Bernard,  Archbishop  of  To- 
ledo, I-108,  II-ioo,  119, 
126, 129, 220,  237,  m-91, 
107,  118,  119 

Bernard  the  Younger  (treas- 
urer), HI-45,    116,    127, 


Bernardette,  1-23,  II-219 

Bernardo  del  Carpio,  I- 128, 
H-60,  70,  124,  210,  291 

Berruguete,  I- 157, 420, 421 

Berry,  duke  of,  I-16;  es- 
tates in,  II-253 

Bertauz,  I-n,  14,  271,  273, 
disputed,  I-230 

Betanzos,  I-50,  87,  347,  II- 
472,  III-34, 401 ;  S.  Maria 
de  Azogue  in,  III-404 

Beyreut,  ni-332,  337,  338, 

34i,  343,  357 
Beziers,  I- 147 
Biscay,  II-155,  m-307 
Bitonto,  I-322 
Bivar,  II-62 
Black  Prince,  I-297,   381, 

382, 389, 390,  m-41 8, 578 
Black  sea,  1-245,  III-416 

Blanche  of  Castile,  I-195, 

II-12,  257,  261 
Blaye,I-2i,  28,  38,  75,  240, 

m-417,  428 
Blazquez,  1-88 
Boente,  II-480 
Bony,  Guillermo,  I-213 
Bohemia,  I-147;  coin  of,  I- 

Bojardo,  ni-272 

Bollandists,  II-218,  IQ-503 

Bologna,  1-298,  HI- 196 

Bonfons,  Nicholas,  n-282, 


Bonnault  d'Hoiiet,  1-8 1 

Book  of  S.  James,  I-29,  39, 
41-46,  60,  n-454,  m-47, 

Book  of  the  Miracles  of  S. 
Faith,  I-39,  99 

Book  of  the  Miracles  of  S. 
Isidore,  II-223 

Books  borrowed,  I-401 ;  re- 
ceived, DI-141-2 

Boorde,  Andrew,  II- 154 

Borassa,  IH-346 

Bordeaux,  I-28,  37,  73,  75, 
109,  164,  240,  284,  II- 
192,  293,  431,  ni-326, 
443 ;  archbishop  of,  I- 147 ; 
cathedral,  II-256,  III-62; 
S.  Seurin,  I-75,  164,  II- 
108,  255,  258,  m-402, 
428;  S.  Croix,  II-476,  m- 
79;  S.  Michel,  m-423 

Borgo  S.  Donnino,  I-322, 
in-388,  390,  395,  440 

Borgofia,  Juan  de,  II-48; 
Felipe  de,v.  Vigamy 

Borja,  I-3 1 5,  III-289 

Bosco  R.  Velasquez*  n-i 4 5, 



Bota  Fumeiro,  ni-25,  26 

Bourges,  I-243, 377, 11-241, 
253,  376 

Braga,  I-108,  11-254,  293, 
IH-91,  03,  108,  113,  118; 
archbishop,  III- 1 14 ;  coun- 
cil, 232;  conventus  Bra- 
carensis,  HI-287 

Braisne,  S.  Yved,  II-34,  m- 

Brehier,  m-326 

Breton,  II- 1 2  7 ;  church,  214; 

knights,  147,  297;  coast, 

m-246,   272;  fishermen, 

m-272,  273,  274 
Brick  architecture,  II- 1 19 
Bridge  of  Dread,  m-259, 

264,  265,  271,  276,  280, 

Brou   (church  of),   II- 115, 


Bruges,  I-i  19,  296,  332,  III- 

Brunette  Latini,  HJ-449 
Bull  as  totem,  ni-323;  on 

coins,  288-292,  309,  324; 

Apis,    292;   b.  god,  297, 

322,  323,  347.  354,  36i, 
364,  488;  at  Heliopolis, 
32 1 ;  worshipped  in  Spain, 

324,  364 
Buonafede,  II-378,  HI- 194, 


Burchard  of  Mount  Sion, 

m-330, 333, 3^>,  364 
Burgos,  I-32, 78, 83, 99, 124, 

332,  n-3-70,  29,  61,  98, 

166, 243, 246,  m-99,  416; 

cathedral,  I-242, 284, 285, 

367,   n-32-59,   34,    107, 

238,    242,   m-402,    407, 

416;   doors,  west,  II-37, 

55;    north,    52;    south, 
54;    pellejerfa,    43,    57; 
chapel  of  visitation,  37- 
40,  51;  Presentation,  40; 
Conception,  41,  52,  57; 
constable,   163;  chapter, 
15;   maestrescuela,   429; 
architect,  47;  bishop,  13, 
16,  43;  Maurice,  13,  30, 
31,  33,  54,  274;  glaziers, 
50-52;     figure-sculpture, 
52-59;  Hospital  del  Rey, 
7,  26,  416;  Las  Huelgas, 
10-28;    capitals,    30;   S. 
Maria  la  Blanca,  I-80; 
S.  Gadea,  II- 128;  Augus- 
tinian  Council  of  B.,  II- 
64,  132;  workmen  of,  I- 
419,    II-298;     BurgaJese 
sculpture,     1-419,     424; 
men,  419,  420,  IJ-42,  43, 
300;  Andres  de  Ndjera, 

Burgundy,  II-135,  m-349; 
style  of,  I-15,  278,  II- 
438,  m-45,  69,  380,  397, 
410,  411;  narthex,  £Q- 
69-70,  397;  workman  of, 
I-419,  II-150,  238;  duke 
of,  I-16,  no;  Burgun- 
dians,  I-295,  II-127,  130 

Butler,  H.  C.  (his  Mission), 

Butler,  Pierce,  I-446 

Byblus,ni-33i,  332 

Byron,  I-33, 407,  III-429 

Byzance,  I-4,  II-200,  m- 
332,  367 ;  workman  from, 
III-398;  v.  also  Constan- 

Byzantine,  influence,  I- 170, 
340,  n-191,  375;    style, 



Byzantine — Cont  'd 

136,  202,  m-147,  149, 
384,  389,  444;  art,  II- 
I9I»  376;  mosaics,  477, 
16-384,  442;  tradition, 
II-263;  use,  227,  III- 

Cabrera,  1-86 

Cacabelos,  II-361,  366,  III- 

93,  304,  328 

Caceres,  province,  III-314 

Cacubelos,  IH-304 

Caesarea,  HI-333 

Cahors,  I-241,  265,  II- 106, 
199,  m-62,  96 

Cairo,  II- 182 

Calahorra,I-397, 399,11-1 81 , 
190,  234,  m-37;  bishop, 
I-414,  n-16,  m-432,  433; 
coins,  m-288,  292;  twins, 
II-190,  III-299,  304 

Calataflazor,  I-397 

Calatayud,  I-198,  319,  m- 
289;  Order  of  S.  Sepul- 
chre, 1-3 1 5-3 1 7 

Caldas  de  Reyes,  m-276, 
287,  299,  469,  481 

Caldas  de  Vizella,  m-298 

Calderon,  m-263 

Camarinas,  1-88,  III-216; 
ria  de  C,  m-207 

Cambrai,  I-119 

Cambre,  S.  Maria  de,  III- 

Camerino,  ni-283 

Camino  de  Santiago,  I-21, 
138,  285,  295,  n-309,  ra- 
3,  241,  319,  378;  shooting 
star,  m-241 

Camino  frances,  I-22,  32, 

39r  85, 105, 266, 361,  n- 

310,  320,  341,  414,  ra- 
il, 414, 426 

Camino  real,  II-388,  465; 

king's  highway,  I-90,  II- 

168,  388 
Campo  (the),  I-73 
Campomanes,  II-85, 433 
Candes,  II-21, 108, 498 
Candlemas,    III-242,    269, 

Canfranc,  1-144, 147,  192 
Cantabria,    I-397;    Canta 

brian  hills,  1-88,  II-179; 

C.  sea, I-84 
Cantar  de  Garci  Fernandez, 

Canterbury  ,1-95;  S.Thomas 

of,  1-119,11-299 
Car  of  Ezekiel,  II- 1 15,  498 
Carballido,  E.  A.,  II-477 
Carboeiro,  II-458,  111-382, 

401,  408,  411 
Cardena,  II-131 ;  Abbot  Pe- 
ter, m-88 

Carderera,  I-424,  II-91,  116 
Carmona,  III-320 
Carolingian,  I-9,  214,  281, 

n-54,  191 
Carracedo,  II-305,  350,  360 
Carrion  (river) ,  II-7 1 ,  83, 1 1 3 
Carrion  of  the  Counts,  I- 
32,  34,  88,  320,  353,  n- 
62,  81,  82,  94,  96-101, 
166,  361,  III-99,  100,  10 1, 
213,  265,  281,  386,  393, 
414,  445;  councils  of  C, 
II- 1 00, 362 ;  Hospital ,  1 02 ; 
Santiago,  102;  S.  Maria 
del  Camino,  101,  105, 
108,  III-412;  S.  Zoyl,  n- 
78,  105,  248,  m-106,  302, 
393, 408, 409 




Cartagena,  III-320 
Casanova,  F.,  lfi-374 
Cascante,  1-414,  415,  III- 

Cascante,  Rodrigo,  II-234, 

Castafiola,  1-79,  II-482 
Castile,  II-85,  96,  98,  155, 
176;  old  county  of,  1-8; 
Count  Garcia  of,  II-207- 
214;  confines  of,  I-368; 
two  C,  I-16,  42,  98;  Old 
C,  III-297;  style  of,  II- 
105;  Kings  of — Henry  I, 
13,  m-188;  Juan  I,  II-16; 
Juan  II,  fi-317;  Sancho 
Ord6fiez,  II-83;  Sancho 
V  el  Deseado,  I-400,  436, 

n-385        , 
Castillo,  D.  Angel  del,  I-78, 

II-396,  422,  III-472 
Castillo  de  Onfs  (S.  Pau), 

Castle-church,  111-190,  191, 

Castor,  m-179,  299,  488; 

and  Pollux,  EQ-284,  298; 

v.  also  Dioscuri 
Castrelo,    II-308,    IH-113, 

Castro  de  los  Judfos,  I-72 

Castrojeriz,  I-36,  363,  II- 
71,  75,  98,  IH-ioi,  106; 
church,  II-72 ,  ni-4 1 2 ; 
miracles,  II-73-75 

Castro,  Rosalia  de,  II-452 

Castrum  Saracenum,  II-386 

Catacombs,  IQ-80 

Catalan  art,  III- 149,  346; 
architecture,  I-347;  fron- 
tier, 208;  Catalans,  II- 
333,  336,  337 

Catalonia,  1-8,  13,  16,  198, 
339,  HI-391;  order  of  S. 
Sepulchre  in,  I-3 15 

Catholic  Kings  (Ferdinand 
and  Isabel),  I- 168,  331, 
II-16,  101,  116,  151,  183, 

34?,  359,  395,  454,  HI- 

315;  Ferdinand,  n-3, 100; 

Isabel,  I-436-7 
Cats,  n-430, 431, 433-4 
Caumont,  Chevalier  de,  I- 

79,  m-576 
Caxton    (Golden   Legend), 

1-47,    378,    446-7;    Life 
of  Charlemagne,  II- 

Cea,I-28,  134,  399,  n-117, 

122,  135,  365 

Cebrero,  II-388, 390-5 ;  mir- 
acle, 392 

Cebrian,  Peter,  H-245,  249, 

253,  254 
Celadilla,  II-289 

Celanova,  1-318,434,11-453, 
III-43,  113,211 

Celtiberian  horseman,  v. 
Iberian;  coins,  11-234, 
IQ-288-9,  298;  religion, 

Celtic  character,  m-280; 
cults,  297;  Esus-Mercury, 
320,488;  Proserpine,  269, 
295;  Mothers,  314;  ele- 
ments, m-80,  234,  241, 
268,  269,  272,  280 

Cerratense  (Martin),  Ht- 
229;  Cerro  de  los  Santos, 

Chaise-Dieu,  II-5 

Chalons,  I-392 

Champagne,  I-239, 249, 278, 



Chanson  de  Roland,  1-25, 
31,  33,  261,  322,  n-130, 

m-335, 451 

Chansons  de  Gestes,  1-31, 
128, 358-9, 382 

Chansons  des  Pelerins,  I- 
82,  H-186,  III-262,  263, 
272;  Grande  Ch.,  I-91, 

Chantier,  I-13,  21,  39,  178, 
187,  356,  n-42,  49,  103, 
104,  253,  ni-47,  379-85, 

Chapbook  of  Abbot  John, 
II-370;  of  the  chemin  de 
S.  Jacques,  I-80,  IH-582 

Charite'-sur-Loire,  la,  I-24 1 , 

Charlemagne,  1-23,26-9, 3 1 , 
tI-60,  117,  ni-417,  450, 
451;  Saint  C,  I-39;  capi- 
tulary of,  I- 1 20 

Charles  V,  I-367, 423,  II-29, 
44,  67;  the  Bad,  I-277, 

278,  333,  353;  the  Noble, 
I-249,  250,  270,  271,  275, 

305,  333,  334,  336;  his 
tomb,  301 
Chartres,  I-15,  39,  242,  244, 
374,  n-58,  177,  178,  269, 
ni-67,  70,  84,  195,  217, 
382,  385,  389,  390,  395, 
396»  397;  school  of,  I- 
236,  320,  n-106,  m-85, 
385,  397;  windows,  1-38, 
11-241,  252,  376;  rood 
screen,  I-235;  porches, 
II-253,  264,  269;  S. 
George,  256;  pride,  270; 
S.  Pere  de  C,  I-i  10;  dean 
of,  1-337;  Jean  de,  I-i  18 

Chaucer,   I-95,    400,   II-8, 

132,  407 

Chaves,  I-87,  n-180 

Chemin  de  S.  Jacques,  II- 
106;  v.  Way  of  S.  James 

Chevet,  III- 171,  449 

Chickens,  white,  I- 1 30,  430, 
n-50,  in-578 

Chrestien  de  Troyes,  HI- 
267,  272 

Christina  of  Norway,  I- 116, 

Chronicle  of  Albelda,  I-59, 
II-123;  of  archbishop  Be- 
rengual,  I-65;  of  Luke  of 
Tuy,  II-224;  of  Pelayo,  I- 
1 00,  II-2 1 7 ;  of  archbishop 
Roderick,  II-7,  31,  222; 
of  Sebastian,  I-59;  of  Tur- 
pin,  I-26,  31,  34,  45,  60, 
67,  70,  Coronica  general, 
II-98,  219,  224,  227,  229, 
291,  294 

Chthonian  aspects,  m-230, 
236,  249,  297,  298,  301, 
304, 488;  Etruscan  Hades, 
298;  ch.  twin,  346 

Church  and  Synagogue,  I- 
272,  280,  II-267 

Cid,  I- 1 06,  154,  200,  II-62, 
63, 129, 205,  m-283,  418 

Cira,  ni-114 

Cirauqui,  I-324,  II-473 

Cisneros,  I-207, 306, 334 

Cistercians,  I- 1 47,  213,  238; 
style,  I-292,  363,  III-407, 
409,  411,  414;  rule,  II- 
19;  abbot  William,  II- 1 1 ; 
abbot  Guy,  II- 11 

Ciudad  Rodrigo,  I-54,  II- 
225;  bishop,  II-137 

Cividale,  III-415 



Civray,  II-145,  375,  ni-445 
Claudel,  Paul,  I-54 
Clavijo,  I-53,    9$,    II-222, 

ni-37,  301 
Clermont,  Council  of,  III- 

97,  107 

Clermont-Ferrand,  11-241, 

Cloak  (magic),  n-97,111-339 

Cluny,  m-88,  95,  96,  130; 
power  of,  H-118,  126, 
136,  218;  in  Spain,  II- 
132,  237,  m-89,  91,  133, 
410;  sent  knights,  II- 130; 
sent  monks,  I-211,  402, 
n-97,  126,  144,  215,  218, 
369,  III-94;  rule  of,  I-181, 
263/359;  customs  of,  II- 
1 26, 2 1 5 ,  III-94 ;  church  of, 
n-142,  145,  253,  m-45; 
Hugh  of,  II-126,  133, 
IH-96,  97;  Marcellinus, 
II-126;  Pons,  111-97,  108; 
Stephen,  III-112 

Cnidos,  m-296 

Coca,  m-281 

Cock,  Enrique,  1-371,  II- 5, 
9,  63,  83 

Codex  Calixtinus  (the  MS.)* 
I-29,  38,  39,  4i,  64,  70; 
date,  66-68 

Coffin  shaped,  I-48,  II-394, 
474,  III-204 

Coimbra,  m-118,  192 

Collis  Paradisi  Amoenitas, 

Cologne,  I-15,  37,  392,  II- 

Colonia,  II-43;  Hans  de,  I- 
16,  n-35,  36,  41;  Simon, 
II-41,  42,  59;  Francisco 
de,  I-15,  II-42,  48,  298 

Comacine  masters,  I-238 
Comminges    (S.    Bertrand 

de),  I-246,  m-444 
Como  (S.  Abbondio  de),  m- 

Compiegne,  I-117,  119,  IH- 


Compostella,  1-13,  24,  27, 

86,  93,  94,  "3,  136, 
212,  228,  336,  n-36,  155, 
301,  462,  472,  486,  HE- 
488;  town,  III-17-22,  25, 
35,  196;  townsfolk,  III- 
102-3,  131;  fueros,  113; 
tariff,  131;  customs,  225, 
235,  242;  hospital,  212; 
S.  Domingo,  II-492;  S. 
Jer6nimo,  IH-402,  406; 
Porta  Francigena;  II- 
492 ;    Antealtares,    I-62, 

m-49,  92,  105,  318, 
S.  Martin,  III- 104,  478; 
a  castrum,  192;  council 
of,  120;  C.  and  Oviedo, 
II-237;    C,   Rome    and 

Ephesus,  ni-345, 357;  C, 
Rome  and  Jerusalem,  I- 
72,  447;  Compostellan 
school,  H-459,  III-68-69 ; 
C.  style,  II-105,  458,  474, 
III-85,  401-3;  v.  also 
Santiaguese;  Mother  and 
son  at,  m-315;  Syrian 
triad  at,  357 

Confraternities  of  pilgrims, 
m-419-423;  Paris,  419; 
Compiegne,  422 ;  Mois- 
sac,  423;  Bordeaux,  423 

Conques,  I-39,  75,  II-106, 
192,  255,  430,  m-46,  60, 
61,  91,  381,  413,  447; 
statue  of  S.   Faith,  HI- 



Conques — Cont  'd 

144,  151;  abbot  Odalric, 

Constance  (daughter  of  Al- 
fonso VIII),  I-iii;  of 
Peter  I,  HI- 188;  queen  of 
Alfonso  VI,  II-127,  129, 
133,  137;  of  Louis  VII, 

Constantine,  ni-309,  349 

Constantinople,  I-4,  8,  246, 
II-31,  199;  S.  Sophia,  III- 
164,  168;  Blachernes,  III- 
172;  knot  at,  III-415 

Copin,  II-248 

Coptic,  I-9,  II-182;  Copts, 

Corcubi6n,  III-2 13,218 

Cordova,  I-33,  n-97,  123, 
137,  141,  150,  228,  232, 
m-279,  379 

Corinde,  D.  Jose*,  I-121 

Corull6n,  n-371,  373,  379, 
III-223,  402;  figs,  H-379 

Corunna,  I-63,  1 10,  347,  II- 
359,  372,  388,  425,  451, 

462, 491,  ni-7, 166, 186, 
225, 235, 242, 287, 401 

Corufla  del  Conde,  III-290, 

Coryat,  n-348 

Costig,  III-324 

Count  Julian,  I-35;  Luca- 
nor,  II-230;  counts  of 
Benavente,  Castile,  Gali- 
cia,  Gormaz,  Lemos,  v. 

Courajod,  I-3, 136, 214,  III- 

Coutances,  II-270 

Covadonga,  I-177 

Covarrubias,  I-420,  II- 89 

Cremona,   I- 16,    342,   III- 

376,  387,  389 
Cretan  traits,  ni-290 
Crowfoot,  I- 10 
Crown  at  Santiago,  HI-171, 

lll%  365;  crowns  of  Gue- 

rrazar,  ni-415 
crusade,  I-297,  317,  II- 130* 

III-4 1 7 ;    crusaders,    I-9 , 

291,    302,    322,    m-251, 

33°,      33i;       crusaders' 

churches,  III-332 
Cuenca,  II-19,  51, 146,  369 
Cult-epithet,  III-303;  image, 

321;   of  S.  James,   297; 

Jupiter  of  Heliopolis,  328, 

329,  33i,  344,  356 
Cumont,    II-183,    III-209, 

286,  303,  318,  325,  354, 

Cuscurrita,  I-428 
Cybele,  IH-317;    v.    Great 

Mother;  pine,  317 
Cypress    tree,  fl-422,  III- 

249-252,  307,  321 ;  grove, 

307,  332;  at  Heliopolis, 

Cyprus    (churches),   II-u; 

Famagusta,  I- 17 

Damian,  S.  Peter,  III-255, 

Dante,  I-133,  265,  III-240, 

255,  272,  397 
Daroca,  1-198,11-392;  fue- 

rosof,  I- 1 05 
Dastean,  Angel,  I-357 
Daux,  CamiUe,  I-82 
Days  of  creation,  I-304 
Delos,  ni-347 
Demetrio  de  los  Rlos,  II- 




Desteilla,  I-357 

Diana,  II- 1 80 

Diaz,  Jimenez,  II- 140 

Dicastillo,  I-292 

Diego  de  la  Cruz,  n-44 

Dieppe. I-i  17 

Dieularoy,  I-3,  7 

Dijon,  I-277,  302, 11-38,  56, 

III-434;  churches,  HI-70 
Dionysus,  m-240, 344, 350; 

temple  at  Baalbek,  ITI- 

344,  357 
Dioscuri,  HI-300,  313,  508; 

cult  of,  298;  functions  of, 

299,  5°8 ;  white  swans,3oo, 

301 ;  cap,  II-259,  m-310 

Doom,  I-236,  267,  II-265, 
£Q-8i,  389;  v.  also  Last 

Dos  Casas,  las,  II-479 

Dove,  in-358,  363;  in 
church,  242,  297;  d.  god- 
dess, 297,  358, 361 ;  Venus, 
243;  S.  Eulalia,  296 

Dozy,  1-86,  97-8,  397,  II- 

Drake,  I-63,  122,  m-666 
Dreves,  I-43,  n-233,  234, 

Duchesne,  Mgr.,  I-45,  55- 

63,  UI-316,  333 
Du   Guesclin,  I-297,   382, 

387, 389,  n-100 
Durham,  I-434,  HI-207 

Dussaud,III-3i3,  3*9,  354 
Dutch,  I-295 

Ebro,  I-198,  324,  361,  369, 
373, 421,  n-179, 181,234, 
III-292,  301,  304;  basin 
of,  ni-288 

Ecclesiologists  (Spanish),  I- 

11,  12,  20,  II-249,   261, 

Edda,  m-251 
Edrisi,  n-62,  III-43,    143, 

495-6;  called  also  Idrisi 

Egypt,  I-9, 98,  in-308,  368 

Einghen,  m-426 

Eleanore  of  Guienne,  I- 109, 


Elva,  n-226 

Elvira,  Queen,  I-294,  399, 
II-77;  v.  DoHa  Mayor;  of 
Las  Almenas  de  Toro,  II- 
244, 505,  III-I60, 282, 369 

Emessa,II-i82, UI-298,337, 

Endovelicus,  IH-295 

Engadine,  I-143,  145 

England,  I-82, 121, 326,  355 
356,  m-90,  425;  Chester, 
I-355;  London  Bridge, 

English  architecture,  II- 
127,  397,  457;  court,  II- 
348;  travellers,  III-426; 
pirates,  m-99;  workmen, 
II-150;  architect,  144-6; 
cult,  II-365;  saint,  364-5; 
bishops,  I-57,  H-358, 364, 
366;  Englishmen,  minstrel 
Walter,  I-118;  Walter 
Courland,  II-145;  Wil- 
liam the  E.,  II-145 

Enlart,  I-i  1,  II-20,  203,  m- 

Enoch  and  Elijah,  II-200, 

in-256,  376 
Enrique     (Master),    11-55, 

245,  252 
Entree  d'Espagne,  I-31 

Ephesus,I-28,  III-307, 345 



Escalada,  S.  Miguel  de,  II- 
140,  141,  148,  165,  166, 
172,  186,  187,  282,  364, 
Escalona,  II- 126,  136 
Escorial,  11-415,  m-281 
Esculabolsas,  I- 166 
Esla,II-i65, 166, 177 
Eslonza,  II-I25,  169;  abbot 

Ordono,  125 
Espinoso,  II-309 
Estadea,  III-236 
Estefanfa,  Queen,  I-294 
Estella,   I-15,   32,  34,   78, 
81,   134,   164,   183,    186, 
304,    308,    324,    325-57, 
359,  367,    377,    380,  II- 
53,  103, 147,  260,  m-106, 
386,391,393,413,442;  S. 
Domingo,  I-347;  S.  Nico- 
las, I-351;  S.  Miguel,  I- 
289,  302,  342-7,  n-282, 
m-147,  319,  387,  442;  S. 
Pedro  la  Rua,  I-181,  292, 
337-40,  n-144,  473,  III- 
353,  39i;  S.  Salvador,  I- 
332;    S.    Sepulcro,    325, 

343,  351-55,  n-105,  m- 

386,  393;  Last  Supper,  I- 
321,  352-5;  apostolado, 
1-353,  n-105,  107;  pal- 
ace, 1-333-4,  II-376 

Estibaliz,  S.  Maria  de,  li- 
no, IH-391,  413,  444-6 

Eudes  de  Montereau,  I-17; 
count  of  Touraine,  I-101 

Eunate,  I-286,  302,  309, 
318,11-91,111-352,  408 

Eusebius,  ni-349, 364 

Evangelists  at  desks,  II-54, 
253;  with  heads  ot  beasts, 

Evans,  Sir  Arthur,  m-360 
Ezekiel,  II-115,  m-315 

Faba,  la,  II-389 

Fabie,  UI-185 

Fabre,  Jaime,  I-16, 347 

Fabricio  (fr.  Guaberto),  I- 

152,  156 
Fadrique,  Master,  II-248 
Ferdinand  I,  I- 100,  106,  II- 
125,  131,  188,  203,  205, 
216,  237,  m-192,  283, 
418;  death,  II-206,  233; 
Ferdinand  II ,  II-3 1 1 ,  386, 
m-57;  Ferdinand  III,  I- 
40,85,  110,201,404,414, 

n-9, 13, 23, 30, 33, 55, 89, 

100, 228, 252, 257,  III-30, 

1 40 ;  character,  II-274-7 ; 

cathedral,    at    Chartres, 

I-40;  Ferdinand  IV,I-H3 
Ferdinand  the  Catholic,  I- 

103,  III-361 
Fernan     Gonzalez,    II-83, 

205,  m-283 
Ferragus,  1-381,392 
Ferrara,  I- 16,  186,  246,  III- 

387,  395,  49i;  chantier, 

m-388,  393 
Ferreiro,  L6pez,  I-12,   86, 

396,111-41,  115,160,175, 

Ferreiros,  m-103 
Ferrol,  I-87 
Fertility  spells,  m-223-4, 

231,  269;  bees,  239 
Feudal  system  (in  Spain),  I- 

155,  II-130,    131;  privi- 
leges, II-130,  144 
Finisterre,    I-95,    m-185, 

207,  209,  210,  218,  221; 

Cape,  III-218,  450 



Fita,  Fr.,  1-45, 47, 54, 69,  II- 
166, 234,  HI-34,  169,  278, 
293,  360,  458 

Flanders,  1-117,118;  Coun- 
tess of,  m-114;  Flemish, 
I-296;  art,  272, 278 ;  Flem- 
ings, 295 

Fleury,  v.  S.  Benoit  sur 
Loire;  abbot,  I-99 

Flores  andBlancaflor,  I- 128 

Flfrez,  I-435,  439,  H-218, 
309,  3io,  312,  365,  453, 
m-90,  136,  142,  185,  295 

Folk-lore,  I-24,  437,  II-180, 
205, 229, 434,  III- 1 92, 226, 
234,  271,  293,  327,  416; 
v.  sepultados;  bread  and 
candles,  m-222;  hache- 
ras,  223;  running  water, 
242;  old  clothes,  I-172, 
Indian,  III-327;  Folk-lore 
Society,  III-223-4 

Foncebadon,  II-309,  312 

Fonfria,  11-403,  405,  410; 
S.  Maria,  408 

Fonseca,  family,  III-281; 
Bishop,  Juan  Rodriguez, 
n-43,  57;  Archbishop 
Alonso,  IH-185 

Fontevrault,  ni-409 

Fontfroide,  II-23 

Ford,  Richard,  I-14,  78,  U- 

169,  173 
Forment,  Damian,  I-423,  II- 

7 ;  style,  I-426 
Formente,I-422;  Lucas,  426 
Fortunatus  (Saint),  I-42, 56 
Fount  of  Paradise,  m-80, 

116,248,258,265,  276 
Foulques,  Master,  I-223-4; 

Count  of  Anjou,  120 
Fowler,  Warde,  m-279 

Foz,  I-85 

Fraga,  I- 198,  199,  200 
France,  I-3,  6,  8,  18,  103, 
271,  n-374,  m-85,  425: 
early  work  in,  I-13;  imi- 
tation of  Spain,  1-6,  7,  II- 
86,  266,  m-379,  401,  v. 
also  back-wash;  workmen 
fetched  from,  I-7, 14, 295, 
H-53,  107,  144,  247-8, 
257,  414,  m-408;  Fo- 
ulques, I-223;  Baldouin, 
II-243;  knights,  I-7,  147, 
297,  II-130;  French  ele- 
ments, I-269,  320,  321, 
339,  n-20,  31,  33,  35,  72, 
85,  142,  199,  202,  238, 
427,  443,  456,  466;  in 
Italy,  I-322,  m-388;  mo- 
tives,  II-106,    200,    262, 

263,  375,  475,  476;  plan, 
I-416,  H-33,  86,  m-46; 
windows,   II-375;   mural 
painting,     II-199,     477; 
architects,  I-17,  380,  II- 
247,  248,  256;  influx  into 
Spain,  I-7,  25,  239,  264, 
II-252,  414;  affranchise- 
ment, II-60,  125;  ecclesi- 
astics,  m-91,    II-394-5; 
shrines,  I-335;  Gothic,  II- 
34,    241,    251,    m-doj; 
army,  I-373,  n-303,  Ul- 
114;  modern  scholars,  I- 
5,  10,  11;  share  in  San- 
tiago, III-45-6;  style  in 
churches,    ni-408,    409, 
411;     southwest     of,   I- 
239,  255,  II-460,  m-434, 
443;    west    of,    m-410; 
northeast   of,  II-42,  HI- 




French  towns:  Alet,  m- 
381;  Bergerac,  I- 109; 
Bran  tome,  246;  Chau- 
vigny,  1-2 16;  Cravant, 
HI-415;  Cruas,  1-2 14; 
Digne,  II-456;  Echellais, 
n-375;  Espalion,  1-228, 
II-106;  Etampes,*  I-243; 
Figeac,  m-381;  Maille- 
zais,  II-476;  Marcillac, 
m-381 ;  Monsempron,  II- 
500;  Montmoreau,  I- 
458;  Neuvy-S.  Sepulcre, 
n-71;  Nogent-sur-Coucy, 
I- 1 32;  Pirignac,  I-240; 
Perse,  v.  Espalion;  Pons, 
I-240,  II-106;  Ruffec,  II- 
106;  S.  Gaudens,  m-381; 
Solignac,  m-409;  Vaison, 
II-502;  Vauvant,  SI-394 

Fres  del  Val,  I-435 

Friars'  churches,  I-348; 
Friars'  Gothic,  II-301, 
370,  460,  m-414 

Friedel,  I-69,  70,  445 

Frisia,  I-75;  Frisian  sea,  I- 
26;  Frisians,  I-no 

Froissart,  I-118,  382,  390, 
m-186,  191,418 

Frimista,  n-71,  75-83,  ni- 
414;  S.  Martin,  I-318,  n- 
77,  79,  162,  165,  m-213, 
408,  409,  446;  S.  Pablo, 
II-80;  S.  Maria  del  Cas- 
tillo, 80;  hospitals,  80, 

Frothingham,  m-357 

Fnentarrabia,  m-429 

Fulbertof  Chartres9I-38, 39, 
42,  43-4,  74,  m-155-9, 
308,  369 

Futa,  I-93 

Galicia,  1-8,  26,  n-155,  175, 
220,  234,  278,  309,  360, 

385,  389,  395,  460,  m- 

232,  234,  294,  315,  416; 

the  land  of  the  dead,  247, 

252, 301 ;  coins  of,  m-287, 

291 ;  mountains  of,  II-469; 

counts  of,  n-452-3 
Gallegan  architecture,  III- 

403,   404,   408;   authors, 

II-486;  mothers,  HI-314; 

customs,  m-222-7,  232- 

5,  239,  240,  242 
Gallegans,n-485-6, 488 
Gandia,  I-423;  Juan  de,  I- 

Gaona,  Ruy  Diaz  de,  I-373; 

Ruy  Fernandez  de,  I-388 
Garcia,  Alvar,  I-356;  Juan 

G.  de  Laguardia,  I-356 
Gardens  of  Adonis,  II-379, 

Garran,  I-401,  418 
Garstang,  m-358 
Gascons,  I-73,  385-91,  H- 

127;  Gascon  knights,  I- 

147,  297;  Gascony,  I-92, 

131,  147;  monks,  I-381, 

Gaston  IV  and  V  of  Beam, 

I-146;  G.  de  Foix,  I-373 
Gaul,m-286 ;  Gallo-Roman, 

m-297,  428 
Gayet,  1-6 
Gelmirez,  Diego,  I-45,  60, 

67,  128,  199,  201,  II-IOO, 

204,  220,  253,  362,  404, 

m-47,  54,  90-138,  317, 
323;  character,  126,  136- 

7;  building,  91,  92,  105, 

in,  117,  303,  304;  raids, 

10 1,  129;  rebellion,  102- 




Gelmfrez,  Diego — Cont'd 
62;  town  and  chapter,  re- 
lations with,  113,  117, 
130,  131;  reforms,  94, 
100,  102,  112,  123,  128; 
death,  136 

Gennaios,  IH-329,  354 

Genoa,  II-368,  HI-101 ; 
Genoese,  I-297,  IH-331 

Germany,  I-37, 103, 108,  II- 
164,  III-425;  Germans,  I- 
130,  II-127,  m-295;  Ger- 
man Gothic,  I- 1 7,  18,  II- 
34,  58,  238;  frontier,  HI- 
286;  towns,  Bremen  and 
Breslau,  IH-425;  Ger- 
manic, III-280;  Tyrolese, 

Germigny  des  Pres,  1-6 

Gerona,  I-213,  III- 149,  404 ; 

SS.  Marinus  and  Patro- 

nus,  II-453 
Giles,  A.  R.,  II-431 
Glastonbury,  I-94 
Glaziers,  I-39,  II-50,  243-4, 

246;  glass,  II-241-3 
Goblet  d'Alviella,  m-300 
Goilan,  I-85 
Golden  Bough,  m-229 
Golden  Legend,  I-46,  66, 

378,  m-335 
Golpejares,  II-99 
Gomez,  Counts  of,  II-96- 

97,  281 ;  Countess  Teresa, 

II-96,  III-302 
Gonzalez  Davila,  Gil,  II-30 
Gonzalo  de  Berceo,  I-413, 

II-224,  m-300 
Gonzalo    de    C6rdova,    el 

Gran  Capitan,  HI- 184 
Gonzalez,  Davila,  Gil,  II-30 
Gothic,  Spanish,  HI-416 

Gougaud,  m-368 

Govantes,  I-408, 415 

Gradefes,  II-12,  169 

Grail,  II-392 

Granada,  n-26,  67,  90,  120, 
232,  302,  358;  chapel  roy- 
al, II-203 

Grande  Sauve,  la,  I-92 

Grass,  BI-74,  248,  377-8, 

Gregory  of  Tours,  I-56,  65 

Grimani  Breviary,  I-296 

Guadalupe,  I-80, 124 

Guadiz,  I-60,  II-230,  m- 
231,  291,  292,  295,  309; 
G.  and  Galicia,  295 

Guide  for  Pilgrims,  I-33, 46, 
66,  70,  78;  for  souls,  III- 

Guillen  de  Holanda,  I-419; 

de  Rohan,  II-247 
Guipuzcoa,  II- 156 
Guy  de  Bourgoyne,  I-128; 

de  Vienne,  II-41,  395 
Guzman,    II- 178;     Bishop 

Diego  de,  I- 123 

Hacheras,  II-151;  v.  sepui- 

Hades,  m-298,  309 

Hagiography  and  iconogra- 
phy: coffin,  I-48,  II-394, 
IQ-204;  cult-image  with 
bulls,  m-328;  flag  at 
Leon,  II-229;  at  Santiago, 
m-179;  mallet,  ni-297-8 

Hagiography  (Spanish),  II- 
453,  m-303;  Coptic  in- 
fluence, I-9 

Haro,  I-408;  counts  of,  II- 

345,  377 
Harris,  Rendel,  IQ-302, 345 


68 1 

Havre,  I-i  17 

Haya,  Bartolome'  de  la,  II- 

43,  49;  Rodrigo  de,  41,  49 

Head  of  S.  James,  HI-302; 
at  Carrion,  302;  at  San- 
tiago, 103,  141;  at  Jeru- 
salem, 339 

Heavenly  Jerusalem  (can- 
opies), I-243,  320,  II-91 

Heavenly  twins,  ni-284;  v. 
Dioscuri,  Castor,  and 

Hebrides,  HI-246 

Hecha,  I- 193 

Heddernheim,  HI-307 

Heiss,  A.,m-287 

Helgi  {lay  of),  m-270,  282 

Heliopolis,  m-301,  347"57, 
361,  364,  379;  H.  of  Asia, 
II-260;  high  god  of,  III- 
321, 327, 347, 489;  is  Mer- 
cury, 320;  triad  of,  329; 
at  Iria,  322 ;  stair,  366 

Helios,  HI-309,  347,  3^3; 
psychopompos,  319;  v. 
also  Apollo,  Sol 

Hell  mouth,  1-226,  242, 248 

Helpers  and  harbourers,  I- 
438,  H-6,  290 

Henry  H  of  England,  I-123, 
n-30,  386 

Henry  of  Trastamara,  I-i  1 6, 

383,  392,  414,  n-16,  33, 
100, 454,  m-418 

Hera,  m-358;  sancta,  303; 

Syrian,  358 
Hermengild ,  II-2 1 6 
Hermes,    n-282,    HI-239, 

357;  Celtic  Mercury,  319- 

Hernandez,    Gregorio,   II- 


Herodotus,  II-432 
Herpd,  III-290,  3^1 
Herrerlas,  las,  n-388, 389 
Hewlitt,  Maurice,  I-33,  II- 

Hierapolis,    DI-297,     336, 

347,  354,  357-8,  361-3, 
367;  the  goddess,  358; 
symbol,  358,  363;  pool, 
362;  stair,  362;  pilgrim- 
ages, 363 
Historia  Compostellana,  I- 
60,  196,  H-127,  362,  III- 

35,  44,  49,  52,  55,  ™2, 
140,  151,  171,  185,  318; 

authors,  95-6 
Hittite,  IH-347, 358, 486 
Holda,  Frau,  I-437,  III-226, 

243,  269,  554 
Holland,  L.  B.,  H-182 
Hornillos  del  Camino,  I-36; 

Horse-shoe  arch,  I-5,  8,  II- 

182,  198,  355,  438 
Hospice,  I- 1 06;  Aspe,  I-146; 
Barbadelo,  II-426;   Bor- 
deaux, I- 1 09;  Cebrero,  H- 

391,  394,  396;  del  Ganso, 
n-309, 310;  las  Herrerlas, 
n-388;  Irache,  1-359; 
Mansilla,  n-165;  Mellid, 
n-472;  Puerto  Marin,  H- 
454;  Sahagiin,  I-97;  S. 
Marcos,  I- 102;  Santiago, 
m-42,  91,  94,  116;  of  S. 
Chnstina,  I- 146 

Hospitaliers  Pontifes:  of 
Lucca,  de  S.  Jacques,  I- 

Hospital,  Order  of  ,I-io,  200, 
300,  314,  n-31,  373 

Hospitals:  Arconada,  H-82 



Hospitals,— Cont'd 

Carrion,II-i02 ;  Fr6mista, 
II-80;  Orbigo,  II-29 1 ,  322 ; 
de  la  Condesa,  II-402 

Howell,  m-426 

Hoya,  ni-136 

Hubner,  111-278,  286 

Huelgas,  las,  I- 161,  164, 
285,  319,  34i,  n-9,  10- 
28, 29, 32, 40,  44,  86,  145, 
256,  III-408 

Huesca,  182,  194,  250,  297, 
315,  423;  S.  Pedro,  II- 
162,  Hl-444,  445;  bell  of, 
n-135;  coins  of,  III-288; 
twin  at,  m-515 

Hugh,  bishop  of  Oporto,  HI- 
95,  108,  141 

Hungary,  I-15,  147,  239; 
Hungarians,  295 

Huntington,  A.  M.,  I-33 

Ibanez,  Bernard,  HI-439; 
Blasco,  312 

Iberian,  II- 179;  Iberian 
horseman,  ni-179,  288, 
290;  on  coins,  HI-287, 
292,  298;  jinete,  IQ-288, 
290,  301;  I.  Proserpine, 

Ibn-ac-Cairafi,  I- 197 

Ibn  Khaldoun,  1-6,  II-96 

Iconium,  I-322 

Idaeus,  I-56 

Ilsung,  Sebastian,  II- 185, 
HI- 1 80,  209 

Imperator,  ni-284 

Incio,  1-86,  n-419,  455 

Infant  D.  Felipe,  I-116,  H- 
87,  89-90;  D.  Juan  Man- 
uel, II-230;  D.  Ramiro,  I- 
358;  Infants  of  la  Cerda, 

n-423 ;  Lara,  ni-290, 302 ; 

de  Luna,  I-277 
Infantado  (dukes  of):  pal- 

.ace,  n-134 
Irache,  I-9,  161,  298,  314, 

346,  357-65,  n-79,  m- 

Iranzu,  Abbot  Nicholas,  I- 

Ireland,  ni-245,  368;  Irish, 

I-295,  m-245,  253,   264, 


Iria,  I-98,  m-171,  215,  287, 
296,  317,  v.  also  Padrdn; 
Iria  Flavia,  I-362,  m- 
204, 469;  gulf  of,  ffl-203 

Irun,  1-83,  306 

Isis,  I-9,  n-434,  m-252, 
308,  311;  at  Guadix,  309; 
at  Heliopolis,  357 

Isle  of  France,  I- 1 5, 17, 374, 
n-23,  238,  253,  m-41 1 

Italy,  I-108,  187,  406-7,  H- 
369,  ffl-85,  200,  425;  ro- 
mantic Italy,  I-406;  Ital- 
ian influence,  I-190,  339, 
n-106,  m-386,  394,  409; 
workmen,  I-321,  Ett-387- 
90,  392-4;  pilgrims,  I-97, 
295;  clergy,  100,  103; 
Cistercian  in,  I-363;  Fri- 
ars' churches,  I-348; 
south  of,  I-22  8 ;  Emilia,  I- 
187,  ni-394;  Tuscany,  I- 
238,  313,  n-193,  m-234; 
towns  of,  Arezzo,  H-28i ; 
Brindisi,  I-322,  ni-394: 
Florence,  I-367,  n-44, 
103;  or  S.  Michele,  n-93; 
Forli,  I-iJi,  430;  Lucca, 
I- 1 01,  III-491;  Perugia, 
I       491;  Siena,  II- 128 



Itero  del  rfo  Pisuerga,  II-72 
Itineraries.  1-79-84,  6-415, 

m-572  (not  indexed) 
Ivories,  I-273,  281,  n-54, 

191,  ni-383 

Jaca,  I-78,  144,  152,  153- 
165,  169,  178,  192,  204, 
230,  246,  318,  397,  407, 
411,  III-106,  444;  cathe- 
dral, I- 1 58-163,  189,  202, 
208;  bishop  of,  I- 1 63,  III- 
107;  fuero  of,  I-265 
Jaen,  Bishop  of,  II- 16 
Jaime  I  el  Conquistador,  I- 

154,  333 
Javier,  I-233 

Jehane  of  Navarre,  I-234, 


Jerusalem,  I-57,  71,  82,  94, 
109,  122,  315,  n-91,  309, 
333,  m-367;  Holy  Sepul- 
chre, I-290,  ni-340;  pa- 
triarch of,  I-42,  III- 129; 
confusion  of  the  two  SS. 
James  at  J.,  m-337-340; 
J.,  Rome,  and  Compos- 
tella,  I-72,  447,  ni-259; 
Count  Jerusalemito,  III- 

Jesuit  architecture,  I-211, 

Jesus,  I-9,  III-309 

Jews,  1-331,335,11-62 
Jinete,  III-288,  488;  v.  Ibe- 
rian horseman 
Joan  of  Ponthiers,  II-257 
John  of  Brienne,  I-i  13;  the 
Deacon,  II-234;  of  Na- 
varre, I-370;  of  Wurtz- 
burg,  m-339 

Joinville,  I-i  1 1 ,  III-332 
Joppa,  m-339 
Jordan,Maestre,  I-250 
Juan  de  Castro,  I-419;  de 

Malines,  II-248 
Juan  de  Juni,  II-297 
Julia  Domna,  IH-307 
Julian,   Emperor,   m-309, 

Julio  Romano,  I-420 

Jupiter  Dolichenus,  III-290, 
303 »  321;  herp6,  290;  and 
Hera  Sancta,  303;  called 
Marina,  321 

Jupiter  Heliopolitanus,  m- 
320,  328,  347;  attributes 
of  S.  James,  32 1 ,  328, 348 ; 
cult-image,  328-9 

Justinian,  I-4,  m-332 

Juvenal  of  Orvieto,  I-430 

Kipling,  n-182,  m-175 

Knights'  chapels,  las  Huel- 
gas,  II-19;  Leon,  240; 
Windsor,  241;  Westmin- 
ster, 248 

Knights  of  Santiago,  II- 130, 
lfi-29;  in  the  French 
epics,  I-30;  v.  also  Order 
of  Santiago 

Knot,  1-245,  m-4 1 5 

Laborde,  II-455,  HI- 143 
Labours  of  the  months,  II- 

200,  III-63,  388 
Lacar,  I-325 
Lady  (the  Good),  m-226, 

242;  of  the  Doves,  243, 

296,  361;  S.  Eulalia,  296; 

Our  Lady,  first  church  of, 

331,  332,  333 




La  Fuente,  II-131,  149,  IQ- 
118,  240 

Lalin,  II-472 

Lamberto  de  Zaragoza,  Fr., 

Lamperez,  D.  Vicente,  I- 
9,  20,  187,  213,  236,  265, 
290,  292,  303,  361,  376, 
402,  435,  II-19,  25,  72, 
76,  78,  142,  164,  477,  in- 

47,  327,  366,  374,  379, 
Lancaster,  Duke  of,  II-297, 

m- 1 86-90 

Land  of  the  dead,  111-267, 

274,  301;  Galicia,  247, 
252;  Saragossa,  252;  land 
whence  none  returns,  227, 
258,  267 

Lang,  Andrew,  HI-266,  271 

Langlois,  Jean,  I-i  7 

Langres,  Juan  de,  I-420,  II- 

Languedoc,  I-108,  137,  225, 


Lannoy,  Robert  de,  HI-421 

Lantern  (French Examples), 

H-35;  others,  Spanish,  II- 

35;    Burgos,    n-35,    III- 

410;  Fr6mista,  II-78,  III- 

409;  Irache,  I-361,  II-35, 

III-409;  Las  Huelgas,  II- 

44;  Orense,  O-406,  411; 

Sanguesa,  I-237,  III-411; 

S.  Cruz,  I- 1 70,  m-411; 

Tarazona,III-4i  1 ;  Torres, 

Laon,  I-n,  287,  II-143, 239, 

258,  261;  diocese,  I-132, 

rf-85, 385 

Lassota,  HI- 167,  171,  174, 

178, 207, 208-9 

Last  Judgement,  1-228, 236, 
267,  n-52, 265,  m-65,  72, 
75;  v.  also  Doom 
Lasteyrie,  I- 170,  IU-390 
Latin-Byzantine   style,    H- 

Laurence  of  Brindisi   (the 
Blessed),  n-371, 372, 373 
Lausanne,  I- 15,  237 
Lebanon,  m-321,  330,  347 
Leboreiro,  II-467,  468,  472 
Lemos,  II-411;  counts  of, 
n-359;  Monforte  de,  II- 
378;  S.  Vicente,  II-395 
Lena,  S.  Christina  de,  III-39 
Leon,  1-8,  11,  13,  15,  102, 
275,   n-24,   56,   m-386, 
395;  earlier  style,  II-141; 
cathedral,  I-240,  II-34, 54 
238-74,      297,     in-402, 
416;  date,  II-250;  archi- 
tect, 245;  French  work- 
men, II-247-8;  altar  to  S. 
Saviour,   IH-308;   stalls, 
II-274;  tombs,  272;  tras- 
coro,  274;  chapel  of  San- 
tiago, 228,  240;  banner, 
228;  cloister  II-270;  win- 
dows,   241-3;   sculpture, 
254-5;      early,      273-4; 
north  door,  259-60;  Bay- 
onne  parallel,  240,  259; 
south  door,  255-8;  influ- 
enced    Bordeaux,     258; 
west  door,  26 1 -5;  bishops, 
Pelayo,  1-140,  211,  244, 
n-126, 216, 244, 252, 253; 
Alvito,    II-2 16-18,    237; 
Manrique,    II-245,    252, 
253 ;  Truxulo,  251 ;  others, 
240, 243, 247, 248, 252 



Leon  (Roman),  II- 1 78-1 81; 
Mithraic  survivals,  183, 

Leon  (town),  II- 166,  169, 
177,  178,  180,  184,  301, 
362,  383,  409,  m-93,  98, 
99;  S.  Ant6n,  II- 184;  S. 
Isidoro,  1-171,296,11-145, 
186-209,  205,  222,  248, 
206,  m-63, 294, 299, 380, 
391,  408,  410;  history,  II- 
187,  194;  pantheon,  198, 
433,  434,  ni-438;  paint- 
ings, II- 1 99;  chapel  of 
Quinones,  88, 345;  S.John 
Baptist,  II-212,  218;  S. 
Marcos,  I- 102,  II- 184, 
249,  274,  278;  Museum, 
140,  182,  254 

Leon,  kingdom  of,  I-399,  II- 

99,  135,  152,  174,  175, 
237,  £09,  HI-122,  414; 
council  of,  II-246;  dio- 
cese of,  II-414;  bridge  of, 
Leon,  kings  of:  Alfonso  IV 
the  Monk,  II- 124;  Ferdi- 
nand II,  II-225;  Ordono 

I,  I-59,  m-37;    Ordono 

II,  H-240,  244,  397; 
Ramiro,  II,  II- 122,  123, 
141;  Ramiro  III,  II-124; 
Sancho  Ord6fiez,  II-219; 
Veremund,  II-205,  210, 
279,  295,  m-45,  281 

Leonore  of  England,  I-147, 

n-30,  136,  146 
Leopold  Von  Suchem,  DI- 

Lerida,  I-198,  302,  m-288 

Lerma,  Gonzalez  de,  II-40; 

Juan  de,  47 

Leyre,  I-208,  211-229,  238, 
263,  292,  303,  n-364,  III- 
62,  398,  408,  409,  445; 
sierra  de,  I-208 

Lezaun,  I-351 

Liberodunum,  m-34,  297, 

Lilbana,  S.  Martin  and  S. 
Maria,  ffl-42;  mountains 
of,  II- 1 64 

Liege,  I-99,  ni-425 

Lily,  of  cathedrals  dedicated 
to  Virgin,  II-509 

Limia,  IH-301 

Limoges,  I- 7,  21,  II-181, 
III-96;  D.  Benedict  of, 
1-337;  S.  Leonard  of,  I- 
74, 77,416;  S.  Martial  of, 

163,11-14.5, 181,202,253, 

m-46,  381 
Linares  (S.  Esteban  de),  II- 

398;  chapel  of  S.  Roque, 

Lisbon,  I- no,  II-372,  III- 

102,  314 
Litchfield,  I-374 
Llaguno,  I-249,  II-42, 49 
Logrono,  I-32,  34,  100,  198, 


bridge    of,    I-369,    383; 

road,   287,  310,  366;  S. 

Bartolome\     376-8;     S. 

Maria  del  Palacio,  315, 

373-5;  la  Redonda,  371, 

Lombard   builders,   I-322, 

II-145,  m-391;  style,  I- 
towers,  m-39 1 ;  porches, 
IH-392 ;  knight,  I- 1 28 ; 
trumpet,  II-341;  capitu- 
lary, I- 1 00;  Lombards,  I- 




Lombard  builders — Cont'd 
97,  195,  n-127;  Lom- 
bardo,  Juan,  III-135 ;  Rai- 
mundo,  I-15,  lfi-391; 
Lombardy,  1-128,  187, 
ni-63,  391 

Lome,  Janin,  I-277 

Lope  de  Vega,  I-371,  II-290 

L6pez  de  Haro,  el  Bueno,  I- 
403;  Dona  Mencia,  I-404 

L6pez,  Sim6n,  I-250,  305 

Lorca,  I-325 

Loreto  (Holy  House  of),  I- 

Lorraine,  I-13 1 

Los  Arcos,  I-367-8 

Louis  IX  (S.  Louis),  I-iii, 
II-187,  252,  257;  le  Hu- 
tin,  I-348,  ni-420;  Louis 
VII,  111-12;  Louis  XI, 
I- 1 23;  Louis  XIV,  I-92, 

Lourdes,  I-44,  139,  H-66, 
III- 194,  431;  canticle  of, 
I-83;  Our  Lady  of,  H- 

Loyo,  I- 1 02 

Lucas  of  Burgos,  I-419 

Lucas  of  Tuy,  I-iii,  II-34, 
38,  125,  180,  181,  206, 
212,  220,  222,  224,  225, 
226,  227,  229,  233,  237, 
245,  260,  275,  m-192, 

Lucian,  IH-357,  358,  363, 

Lugo,  I-85,  86,  116,  n-255, 
421,  450,  462,  471,  482, 
III-91,  98,  295,  403,  404, 
408, 416;  Bishop  Recared, 
II-452;  church,  H-456, 
458,   460;   S.   Francisco, 

ni-403,    406;    conventus 

Lucensis,  ffl-287 
Luiserne,  I-36 
Luke  of  Tuy,  v.  Lucas 
Luna,  n-178;  bishop   Lope 

de,  I-34 
Lupa  (queen),  I-47, 60 
Lusitania,  III-278,  287,  295, 

314;  Lusitanian  cults,  286 
Lyons,  n-241,  ffl-326 

Macias  o  Namorado,    UL- 

Macleod,  Fiona,  ni-246 
Macrobius ,    HI-294 ,     301 , 

321,  347,  364,  489 

Madonna  of  Majesty,  I-24 1 , 

Madoz,  I-418,  n-43,  473 

Madrazo,  I-214,  223,  248, 
265,  305,  310,  351,  353, 
374,  408,  415,  416 

Madrid  n-239,  407;  con- 
vocation of,  II-244 

Maeterlinck,  IH-272 

Magic:  boat,  ni-155,  207, 
276, 580;  cloak,  H-97,m- 
339;  natural  magic,  H- 
152,  IH-279;  making  a 
magic,  HL-24, 32, 280 

Maguelonne,  I- 170;  bishop 
of,  I-170,  182,  ni-91 

Malaga,  I-197,  ni-319 

Malakbel,  IH-303 

Malalas,  m-351 

Male,  Emile,H-i  15,  m-387 

Mallet,  HI-297,  338;  of  Dis 
Pater,  297;  fuller's,  336 

Mallorca,  1-123,315;  Palma 
de,  123;  chapel  royal,  II- 

Mafieru,  I-324 



Manier,  Guillaume,  I-74, 
184,  290,  292,  293,  325, 
368,  378,  389,  402,  423, 
479,  482,  m-140,  172, 
174,  267,  272 

Man  jar  din, ,  II-308 

Manrique,  Angel,  II-413 

Le  Mans,  II-241 

Mansilla  de  las  Mulas,  I- 
34,  n-95,  165,  166,  m- 

Maragatos,    I-85,    II-302, 

Mariana,  I- 194 
Marie  de  France,  m-280 
Mars,  IH-295,  320;  v.  also 

Marseilles,  I-296,  322,  II- 

Marti  y  Monso,  I-418,  419, 

Martin,  Master,  I-415, 416 
Martinez,  Briz,  t-172,  193, 

199,  m-100 
Martinez,  D.  Diego,  II- 113, 

Martinez  y  Sans,  I-420,  II- 

32, 35,  4»,  53, 246 
Matthew,  Master,  II- 196, 

268,  459,  m-54,  57,  67, 
68-9,  72,  214,  395,  396, 

Maundrell,  III-352 

May  Day:  Slavonian  pil- 
grims, I-i  17,  III-231, 268; 
feast  of  S.  James,  230; 
dedication,  231;  olive  at 
Gaudix,  231 ;  games,  224- 

Mayor,  Dona,  I-294,  398- 

9;  v  also  Elvira 

Mayorga    de    Campo,   II- 

Mayorazgo,  I-428;  of  Te- 

jada,  429 

Mazote  (S.  Cebrian  de),  II- 

Medellin,  EH-314 

Medina  del  Campo,  II-317 

Meira,  II-363 

Melanie  of  La  Salette,  II- 

Melida,  m-298,  318 
Mellid,  1-88,  II-428,   431, 

467,  470;  history,  471-3, 

480,   485,   in- 1 02;   s. 

Maria,  II-475,  III-413;  S. 

Pedro,  n-473,   476,  m- 

Menendez  y  Pelayo,  II-60, 

ni-293,  319,  324 
Mendoza,  Diego,  DI-181; 

Dofia  Mencia  de,  II-41; 

Rny  Diaz  de,  II-331 
Mequineza,  I- 198 
Mercury,  m-320,  488;  v. 

Merida,  I-54,  II-178,  226; 

see  of,  III- 1 08;  Paul  of,  I- 

94;  coins  of,  III-291,  292; 

Ataecina  worshipped  at, 

III-296;  Mithras  and  Ser- 

apis,  m-310,  318 
Merovingian,  ni-428;  fibu- 
lae, I-246,  HI-415 
Mesopotamia,  1-3,  5 
Meyer,  Kuno,  m-258 
Meyer,  Paul,  m-228 
Michael  the  Syrian,  m-335, 

336,  350,  489 
Miguel  de  Goyni,  I-249, 250 
MM  y  Fontanals,  m-226 
Milan,  I-378,  II-251,  HI- 



Milan— Cont'd 

243;  Milanese,  I-422; 
people,  m-313;  clergy, 

Militia  Dei,  II-41 1 

Milky  Way,  v.  camino  de 
Santiago,  Walsingham 

Miller,  Konr ad,  I-89 

Mifio,I-8i,  101,11-121,420, 
442,  m-416 

Minoan,  art,  IH-488;  dou- 
ble-axe, 290;  emblems  on 
coins,  291;  gems,  360, 
488;  pillars,  358 

Miracles  of  S.  Isidore,  II- 

Miracles  of  S.  James,  I-44, 
60,111,  129,367,430,11- 
94,  281,  ni-93,  319,  504- 

,  515 

Miracles  of  Our  Lady  of 

Villa-Sirga,  II-92-95, 167, 

Miraflores,  I-440,  II-38,  44 
Mithras,  1-8,  431,  II- 183, 

m-309,  3".  3i8,  488; 
Dominus  Invictus,  III- 
319;  cypress,  m-307; 
psychopompos,  III-3 1 9 ; 
mithraic  allusion,  II- 182; 
relief,  II- 190,  IH-209, 294, 
318;  Mithraeum,  problem- 
atic, III-38,  40;  at  M6r- 
ida,  310;  at  Leon,  319 

Moarbes,  I-320, 353,  II-105, 
III-386,  393 

Modena,  I-16, 322, 352,  III- 
163, 386, 387, 388, 395 

Mohammedan  architecture, 
HI-47,  67,  379,  406;  v. 
Mozarabic,  Mudijar 

Moissac,    I-77,    108,    240, 

241,  n-104,  106,  m-79v 

96,  265,  377,    382,   393, 

423,  442 
Molina,  Luis  de,  1-8 1,  122? 
Molina  Seca,  II-305,  306. 

Mondofiedo,  1-84,  88,  122, 

n-278,  299,  421,  ni-91. 

93,  141,  295,  406-7;  clio- 

cese   of,  II-472;    bishop 

of,  II-16;  synodals  of,  IH- 

233,  235 
Monjardin,  I-358 

Monreal,  I-207,  H-153,  m- 

Monserrat,  I-80,  92,  H-392 

Monte  Arag6n,  II-7,  91,  III- 

Montero,  IQ-125 

Mont  £tuves,  1-8 2,  84,  m- 

262,  263 
Monte  Irago,  II-310,  311 
Monte  Sagro,  I-60;  v.  Pico 

Montmajour ,  I- 1 70 
Montpellier,  I-77,  m-424 
Mont  S.  Michel,  I-23-4, HI- 

Monzon,  II-213 
Moon-face:     prophylactic, 

n-430,  433 
Moors,  I-5,  n-29,  277,  291, 

370,  HI-128,  129,  316 
Moraime,  S.  Julian,  11-364, 

IH-211,  213,  216-7,  401 
Morales,  I-ioo,  II-187,  205, 

228, 394, 426,  m-36,  147, 

Moreno,  M.  Gomez,  I-20, 

n-358,  m-384,  398,  402 
Moreruela,  II- 13 
Morris,  William  HI-474 



fk     Mort  d'Arthur,  II-356,  m- 
J& r         227 

#  Moscoso,Bernard  Yanez  de, 
>*  n-480,  m-183 
*»*  Mother  (the  Great) ,111-314, 
488;  Mountain,  243,  367; 
mourning,  II-365,  m-75; 
Celtic  Mothers,  314 

Mountjoy,  I-72,  79,  132,  H- 
480,  m-92, 207, 378 

Mozarabic  architecture,  I- 
8,  182,  II-29,  134;  work- 
men, II-141,  150;  litur- 
gies, I-57,  II-215;  use, 
I-187,  364,  n-126,  133, 
HI-94, 437 ;  Mozarabes,  I- 

Mozarifes,  II-141 

Mudejar,  I-319,  320,  321, 
n-24,  91,  105,  148,  151, 

Mugfa,  m-276 

Murguia,  I- 106,  109,  II- 
155,111-21,  192,222,223, 
224,  235,  275,  287,  292, 

Murulabarren,  I-306 

Najera,  I-32,  53,  78,  100, 

381,  392,  394,  396,  439, 
H-4,  77,  ni-99,  106,  291, 
301;  battle,  I-381-92,  II- 
10b,  m-579;  bridge,  I- 
",390,  393;  S.  Maria,  I- 
368,  399,  400-04,  m- 
413,  446;  prior  of,  III- 
107;  monks  of,  I-399;  Pe- 
ter of,  II-129;  See  of,  I- 
415;  bishop,  I-436;  stalls, 
I-403,  418-9,  432,  n-298; 
cloister,  I-367,  403;  king- 
dom of,  I-396,  412 

Najera  (kings  of):  I-396- 
400, 412;  D.  Garcia,  el  de 
Ndjera,  399 

Nantes,  I-76,  271 

Naranco  (S.  Maria  de),  II- 

427,  m-39 

Narbonne,  II-231,  ni-326; 
Narbonnais,  II- 134,  HI- 

Navagero,  I-131,  II-52,  61, 

Navarre,  I-13,  73,  193,  211, 

269,  294,  421,  H-90,  155, 

156,    210,    256,   m-409, 

420;  Portals  in,  I-267-9, 

351-2,  377,  n-107 

Navarre  (kings  of) :  Charles, 

the  Bad,  the  Good,  q.  v. ; 

Garcia,  el  de  Ndjera,  I- 

358;  el  Restaurador,  306, 

332,  358,  400;  Garcia 
Sanchez,  294,  358,  401; 

Inigo  Arista,  211;  Juan,  II- 
298;  Philippe  d'Evreux, 
234;  Sancho  VIII,  II-205; 
Abarca,  I-396;  el  Mayor, 
100,  398,  II-77,  133;  the 
NobleJ-295 ;  el  dePeftalen, 
358, 412;  the  Strong,  305, 

333,  335,  374;  the  Wise, 
291,  305,  329,  330,  368, 
374;  Theobaldo  I,  1-331, 
332 ;  Theobaldo  II,  11-249, 

Navas  de  Tolosa,  las  II-208, 

227;  shepherd  of,  227 
Neto,  ni-295,  297,  303 
Nicholas  Frances,  Master, 

n-248,  321 
Nicholas,  Master,   (carver 

of  Verona) ,  I- 1 6, 1 86, 344 , 




Nicholas,  Master— Cont'd 

ni-387;  of  Najera,  I-403, 

Nicholas,  Master  (painter), 

Nicholas  of  Poppelau,  II- 

347,    m-178,    181,    208, 


Nicholas  of  Verona  (poet), 

Nineveh  (archbishop  of),  I- 

Nogales,  II-76 

Norman  architecture,  I-14, 
II-422;  churches,  II-270, 
m-171,  434;  invasions, 
m-316;  knights,  I-147, 
297;  ship,  m-108;  Nor- 
mans, I-97,  295,  m-43, 
88,  90,  128;  Normandy, 

Noya,  n-458,  m-211,  213, 
224,  298,  382,  401;  S. 
Martin,  213,  217,  404 

Noyon,  1-81,377,11-255 

Nubia,  1-98,111-203 

Nuestra  Sefiora  de  las  An- 
gus tias,  II-365,  v.  also 
Mourning  Mother;  de  la 
Barca,  lft-207,  208,  210; 
a  stone,  209;  la  Blanca  at 
Burgos,  I-80;  of  Leon,  II- 
265;  del  Camino,  11-86, 
281-4;  del  Dado,  II-240, 
261;  del  Pilar,  I-80,  III- 
359,  503;delaRegla,  II- 
2ii,  238,  279,  321;  de 
Salas,  I-337 ;  de  las  Vic- 
torias, I- 1 65;  another, 
m-435;  de  Villa-Sirga, 
n-92-93,  167,  m-516 

Nuremberg,  I-438,  II-264 

Oca,  II-29;  mountains  of, 

I-83,  II-5;  wood  of,  I-73; 

Villaf  ranca  de  Montes  de, 

Ojea,I-ii7, 166,  m-231 
Olbega,  m-290 
Olifaunt,  m-428,  448 
Old  clothes,  hung  on  trees, 

I-72 ;  on  church  cross,  III- 

Olite,  I-300,  353,  357,  374, 

fI-24  53,  107,256 
Oliver,  I-21,  322,  m-388, 

Olligorzan,  Pedro,  I-331 
Olmedo,  II-347 
Olorin,  I-138,  m-108,  394, 


Onamiol,  1-88 

Oporto,  in-93,  95 

Orbigo:  bridge,  11-247,  301, 
321,  341;  anchoress,  345; 
hospital,  291;  river,  I- 
36;    Puente   de,   II-291, 

Order  of  Calatrava  (cross), 


Order  of  Holy  Sepulchre,  I- 
10,  200,  314-17.  374.  ni- 
408;  towns  which  be- 
longed to,  I-316;  canon 
Giraldo,  314 

Order  of  Santiago,  I-102, 
n-87,  229,  m-29;  first 
Master,  I-102;  another, 
II-113;  confraternity  of 
Santiago,  II-229 

Order  of  S.  John  of  Jeru- 
salem, I-234,  238,  299, 
316,  324,  n-322,  455,m- 
33o,  417 



Order  of  the  Temple,  I-200, 
287,  292,  299,  314,  n-85, 

Orders  (military),  I-291; 
S.  Lazarus  of  Bethlehem 
and  Nazareth,  I-316 

Orense,   1-86,   97,   n-181, 

396,  455,  457,  458,  472, 
m-70,  71,  93,  166,  211, 
217,  234,  295,  299,  376, 
416;  bishops,  H-126,  137, 
408,  414 

Organ,  II-32-3 ;  organ  doors, 
at  Najera,  I-403;  at  Ven- 
ice, m-80 

Oriental  builders,  ni-380; 
influence,  I-9,  177,  321, 
322,  n-79,  182,  III-326, 
364;  sources,  I-3,  4,  5,  6, 
189,  287,  in-251,  387, 
413 ;  Asiatic  influence  and 
parallels,  I- 10, 340,  II-279, 
m-251,  364,  393;  Pan- 
nonia  and  Mysia,  II- 180; 
v.  also  Syria;  religions,  II- 
182, 183,  IH-314-29,  347- 
65,  368 

Origen,  III-238 

Orippo,  III-309 

Orkneys,  m-99,  246 

Orphic  influences,  III-249, 

304,  307 
Ortega  of  Cordova,  I-419 
Ortegal,  Cape,  III-241 
Orthez,  I-32 

Orvieto,  n-392,  m-298, 387 
Osera,  m-125 
Osma,  Burgo  de,  III-402, 

Oviedo,I-83,  84,  92,11-178, 

219,    237,   m-308,    316, 

383,  415;  cathedral  dedi- 
cated to  S.  Saviour,  III- 
308;  bishops  of,  11-217, 
305;  Council  of,  I- 1 19 

Owain  Miles,  m-262,  264, 

Oxen  (in  legend  of  S. 
James),  I-49,  111-229* 
230, 232, 282;  taxed,  I-96, 
II-234,  III-230;  S.  Isi- 
dore's, II-364,  III-230 

Oxford,  III-20,  IQ7 

Ozanam,  I-129,  II- 156 

Padornelo,  II-388,  404 
Padr6n,  I-50,  95,  II-232, 
474,  491,  IH-34,  68,  102, 
117,  185,  204-13,  209, 
215,  294, 297, 318; church 
of  Santiago,  IH-117,  203, 
322-3;  triad  at,  322,  357; 
Juan  Rodriguez  de,  III- 

Padua,  I-298,  370,  IH-197 

Pagan  and  Christian  use, 
I-365,  H-490,  III-279; 
syncretism,  HI-312 

Painting  (French) :  at  Pam- 
peluna,  I-279;  minia- 
ture, 281;  panel  of  Holy 
Cross,  279-83;  mural  at 
Leon  II- 1 99,  at  Mellfd,  I- 
278-9;  Venetian:  Carpac- 
cio,  III,  243;  Titian,  II- 
115;  Mantegna,  III-243 

Palaz  del  Rey,  II-396,  449, 

450,463,465 1 S.  Tirso,  466 
Palencia,  1-8,  II-75,  160, 
IH-4,  99,  107;  bishops  of, 
II-13,  16,  126;  council  of, 
I- 1 05;  S.  Sabina  at,  II- 
218;  Peter  of,  m-384 



Palestine,  I-17;  early 
churches  of,  HI- 168;  cru- 
saders' churches,  ni-332; 
coast  of,  m-329;  Pales- 
tine Pilgrims'  Text  So- 
ciety, v.  Bibliography 
and  Notes 
Pambre,  II-462,  467,  482 
Pampeluna,  I-32, 33, 34,  78, 
192,  198,  211,  230,  236, 
247,  253,  275,  286,  302, 

329,  333,  337,  348,  351, 
362,  367,  373,  377,  380, 
II-153,  IH-60,  106,  389, 
407,  434;  cathedral,  I- 
270-78,  283;  old  cathe- 
dral, 263,  284;  S.  Cernfn, 
262,265-9, 354;  S.  Firmfn, 
257 ;  S.  Nicolas,  262 ;  tomb, 
277,  II-38;  bishops,  263, 
264,  270,  284,  329 

Pancorbo,  I-83,  II-5,  99, 

Panicha,  I-43 

Pano,  M.  de,  I-425 

Paradise  of  Souls,  m-80, 
221, 248;  earthly,  80, 264, 
265;  01  the  west,  80,  244; 
gate  of  Paradise,  I-268; 
fruits  of,  240;  Collis  Para- 
disiAmoenitas,  165;  Para- 
dise at  Orense,  71;  at 
Santiago,  92,  116,  117, 

Pardiac,  I-93 

Pardo  Bazan,  Emilia,  III- 
223, 246 

Parera,  II-430 

Paris,  I-101,  n-31,  451; 
Notre  Dame  de,  II-34, 
58,  258,  261;  S.  Jac- 
ques la  Boucherie,   III- 

419,    420;     Bibliothdque 
Nationale,  II-191 ;  Cluny, 

.  I-281,  m-147,  421;  Lou- 
vre, II-191 ;  college  of  Na- 
varre, I-298;  university, 
n-89,  m-95 

Paris,  Gaston,  1-70,  IH-267 

Pa*ma>  1-317,  320,  321,  m- 
386,  389,  390,  393,  395, 

Parthenay,  I-21,  64, 

Passage  Honourable,  II- 

Patras,  1-339,  ni-347 

Pau,  I-78,  m-424 

Paul  the  Deacon,  I-95,  m- 

Peacham's  Complete  Gen- 
tleman, n-348 

Pedro  de  Huesca,  II-91;  de 
Medina,  II-248;  P.  Pon- 
tones,  II-138 

Pedrosa,  II- 124 

PelAez,  Diego,  I-62,  212, 
m-45, 48,  54,  88, 99, 100, 
107,  317 

Pelayo  (hermit),  I-53,  ni-37 

Pelegrino  Curioso,  1-8 1,  II- 

297,  36o,  378,  389,  395, 

426,    479,   m-151,    165, 

170,  207,  211 
Pelerinage  (de  l'&me),  III- 

Pefialva,  Santiago  de,  II- 

140,  i4i,35o,355,39o 
Pennell,  Joseph,  IH-366 
Pepin  (capitulary  of),  I-97 
Perigueuz,  I-75,    77,   III- 
353;    bishop    of,    I-147; 
Persia,  I-3,  4,  6,  II-6;  Per- 
sian lore,  III-271 

I  N  DEX 


Peter  of  Corbie,  I-11,  19, 

Peter    (the    Just),    1-383, 

389,  414,  n-16, 100,  m- 

418;  called  by  Froissart 

king  Dampeter 
Peter    (the    Pilgrim),    II- 

Petrus  ALonsus,  I- 194;  de 

Deo,    II-195,    *96,    203, 

in-381;   Petri,  I-11,  H- 

274,  m-46 
Peyrut,  Jacques,  I-271,  276 
Phallic    emblem,    IH-225; 

phalloi  at  Hierapolis,  III- 

Philip,  the  Fair  (of  France), 

I-348;  of  Evreux  of  Na- 
varre, 1-2  34 
Philip  II  (of  Spain),  H-i8, 

Philip  III,  n-18;  Philip 

IV,  I-123 
Phoenician  coins  (type) ,  III- 

Picardy,  I-117,  255,  II-178 
Picaud,  v.  Aymery 
Pico  Sagro,  II-465,  m-115, 

Pidal,  J.  Menendez,  I- 124, 

in-246,  559 
Piedrafita,  II-388 
Pieros,  n-364,  365,  366;  S. 

Martin,    365-6;     Bishop 

Osmund,  358,  366 
Pierre  de  Chelles,  II-258, 

Pierre  de  Ries,  I-36,  II-293 
Pilgrimage   (of  the  soul), 

fll-248,  249, 258;  souls  on 

pilgrimage,     I- 124,     III- 

241,  264 
Pilgrimage  (to  S.  James),  I- 

9,  25,  85,  93,  134,  n-59, 
60,  227,  234,  312,  333, 
334,  341,  416,  m-378, 
427;    road   bad,   II- 108, 


Pilgrims,  I-98-116,  130, 
II-105,  124,  142,  146, 
185,  221,  265,  310,  334, 
336,  358,  478,  m-99, 
180,  203,  378,  419;  to 
Jerusalem,  m-331,  389; 
to  Hierapolis,  363;  carry- 
ing lore,  III-258,  262-3, 


Pilgrim  Way  (the),  1-8,  19, 
32,  188,  211,  242,  247, 
320,  326,  335,  355,  359, 
364,  413,  416,  n-60,  79, 
108,  183,  255,  256,  413, 
425,  IH-99,  383,  410;  in 
Italy,  I-322,  m-388, 393; 
pilgrims'  churches,  II- 
438;  confraternities,  III- 

Pillar,  I-55,  m-359,  361, 
364,  488;  draped,  m-358; 
at  Saragossa,  359-61 ,  488, 

497,   499,    502,    593;   at 

Santiago,  I-55,  III-360 
Pine   of    Cybele,   HI-317, 

360;   Pinario,  S.  Martin, 

318;  cone,  II-429 
Pisa,   ni-101,   491;    Pisan 

pilgrim,  133;  pilot,  129 
Pistoja,  I-99,  352,  355,  m- 

95»  386, 394 ;  Bishop  Aton, 

I-io7»  355;  S.  Giacomo  de, 

Pisuerga,  1-399,  421,  n-234 
Pliny,  II-293 
Plough-land  tax,  I-28,  96, 




Ploughman  (on  coins),  m- 
289,  292;  S.  Isidore  the, 
n-234,  364 

Poblaci6n  de  Campos,  II-82, 

Poblet,  I-423,  425,  11-23, 
51,  m-281;  abbot  of,  II- 

Poema  de  Fenian  Gonzalez, 

Poitiers,  1-68,  77,  392,  II- 
35,  106;  bishop  of,  I- 
147;  Notre  Dame  la 
Grande,  I- 164,  227,  229, 
III-62;  S.  Hilaire,  I-216, 
II-145;  Poitevin,  I-64, 65, 
73,  213,  217,  227,  236, 
305,  n-79,  ni-62,  67 

Ponferrada,  I-87,  II-304, 
31 1  f  349.  36o,  367,  368, 
379;  bridge,  358;  castle, 
350;  S.  Tomds  de  las 
Ollas,  357;  Bishop  Os- 
mund, 358,  366 

Pont  qui  tremble,  I-82,  84; 
HI-262,   263,   267,    272, 


Pontevedra,  I-87;  S.  Fran- 
cisco, II-394;  S.  Maria, 

Ponz,  I-356,  H-29,  57,  85. 

Pool  (stepped):  IH-362;  at 
Hierapolis,  365;  at  Pa- 
dr6n,  204;  in  ThurkiU's 
vision,  362 

Popes:  Alexander  II,  I-364, 
391,  III-437;  Alexander 
111,1-102;  Alexander  IV, 
I-348 ;  Benedict  XIII,  m- 
316;  Calixtus  II,  I-43, 
106,  141,  n-395,  m-46, 

107,  121,  137,  141;  Calix- 
tus III,  HI-361, 503;  Cle- 
ment VII,  II-17;   Eugre- 
nius  VI,  I-300;  Formosus, 
I-98;  Gelasius  II,  HI- 106, 
107,   500;   Gregory    VII, 
H-125,  133,  230,  III-96; 
Gregory  IX,  H-13;  Hon- 
orius  II,  ni-97,  121,  127; 
Innocent  II,  I-60, 68,  IH- 
127;   Innocent  VIII,  II- 
17;  Leo  (any),  I-61,  63; 
Leo  X,  II-17;  Nicholas  V, 
II-36;  Pascal  II,  m-126; 
Paul  IV,  n-17;  Sixtus  V, 
II-18;  Urban  II,  m-46, 

Port  of  Aspe,  I-77,  78,  83, 
147;  P.  d'Espagne,  I-32; 
P.  de  Cebrero,  II-395; 
P.  de  Cize,  I-77,  78,  108; 
P.  of  Rabanal,  II-308, 
350;  P.  of  Valcarcel,  II- 

Porter,  A.  Kingsley,  I-452 

Portrait,  state,  m-281 

Portugal,  n-89,  90,  m-310; 
kings  of,  m-181,  190, 
219;  Alfonso  IX,  II-204; 
Sancho  II,  I-404;  D. 
John  of,  n-347 

Prague,  I-17,  m-425 

Prat,  Caceres,  II-361 

Pre-Romanesque,  1-8,  II- 
363,  m-409 

Primacy  in  Galicia,  I-28, 67, 
II-237,  m-119;  Leon  ex- 
empt, II-220 

Priscillian,  I-59,  m-334, 
345;  Priscillianism,  II- 
222, 237,  m-237, 264, 316 

Prise  de  Pampelune,  I-33 



Procopius,  m-273 
Proserpine  (dedication  to), 

m-296;  the  Celtic,  269; 

the  Iberian,   295;   Saint 

Proserpine,  295,  303 
Provence,  I-170,  172,  343, 

ni-329;    Provencals,    I- 

295,  n-127 
Puchstein,  ni-354,  366 
Puente  de  Ard6n,  I- 105; 

Cesures,  III-68,  117,  215; 

de  Domingo  F16rez,  1-86; 

de  Garcia  Rodriguez,  I- 

85;  de  Ulla,  m-20;  de 

Villarente,  II-165 
Puentedeume,  I-85 
Puente  la  Reyna,  I-77,  236, 

246,   250,   286,    294-98, 

324,  362,  n-474,  m-106, 

414;  el    Crucifijo,  I-289, 

300,  302,  324;  S.  Pedro, 

306;  Santiago,  303 
Puerto  Marin,  I-72,  81,  86, 


443-4,  452-61,  474,  479, 
482,111-401, 414;  S.Maria 
de  Ribalogio,  11-455?  S. 
Marina,  452,  III-303;  S. 
Nicolas,  11-455,  and  San- 
tiago, 458-59;  French  ele- 
ments, 460 
Pulgar,  Hernando  del,  II- 

_  38,  494 

Purchas,  1-8 1,  371,  II-184; 
his  pilgrim,  ni-261,  426, 

Purgatory  of  S.  Patrick,  m- 

Puy,le,  1-75, 98,  287;  Notre 
Dame    du,     I-iii,    118, 
336-7,    m-54,    66,    366, 
489;  S.  Michel  de  l'Ai- 

guille,  I-458,  m-379; 
steps  at,  III-366,  378-9; 
Syrians  at,  ni-366 

Quadrado,  1-86,  161,  II- 
80,  82,  86,  179,  183,  249, 
257,  386 

Queen's  Bridge    (the),   I- 

324,  398 
Quercy,  1-6,  108 

Queza,  II- 124 

Quincialubel,  II-98 

Quiflones   (chapel  of),  II- 

345;    Suero    de,   II-317- 

Quintana,  II-124,  141 
Quintero,  I-418 
Quixote,  Don,  I- 154,  II-290 

Rabanal,  I-72,  101,  II-304, 
313,  3M,  315,  408;  Port 
of,  308,  309,  350 
Rabe*  de  las  Calzadas,  II-72 
Rada  y  Delgado,  II-190 
Ramiro  Maestrescuela,  I- 

107,  355,  in-95 
Ramsay  and  Bell,  I-442 
Raoul  de  Cambrai,  I-95,  II- 

Rasines,  Pedro  or  Juan,  I- 

Ratisbon,  m-245 

Raymond  of  Burgundy,  I- 
14,  41,  n-60,  m-90,  317 

Redempto,  II-233 

Reggio,  I-95 

Reinach,  Salomon,  HI-293, 

Relics  of  S.James,  1-6 1,  99, 

108,  m-302,  339 
Reole  la,  I-109 
Revenga,  II-82 



Reville,  m-310,  311,  368 

Rheims,  I-n,  18,  II-240, 
257,  266,  m-434;  Alber- 
ic  of,  I-42 ;  Council  of,  I- 
64,  94,  IH-96,  108;  par- 
liament of  Champagne 
at,  I-119 

Rhineland,  I-430,  II-42,  III- 
294;  v.  also  Cologne; 
Rheinish,  II-191,  HI- 147 

Rhone,  I-239;  Bouches  du 
Rhone,  I-392 

Riafio,  II-348 

Ribadeneyra,  I-411,  439 

Ribaforada,  I-291 

Ribagorza,  I-399 

Ribas  de  Sil  (S.  Esteban 
de),H-i98,  363,  in-211 

Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  I- 
108, 147 ;  Cardinal  Legate, 
n-126,  133,  500 

Rioja,  I-370,  397,  420,  421, 

Ripoll,I-i2,  41,  266,  II- 1 06, 

151,    HI-391,    392,    393. 

394 »  395 
Rivoira,  Commendador,  I- 

Roads  (old),  I-22;  Roman, 

I-86-89;  pilgrims',  I-85, 

86,  88,  382;  v.  also  Way 

of  S.  James 

Robert  de  Coucy,  111-68 

Rocaforte,  I-233 

Rocamadour,I-i5, 113, 118, 


Rodrigo  Ximenez  (arch- 
bishop), I-57,  196,  II-38, 
89,  119,  125,  212,  222, 
225,  257,  277 

Rodriguez  de  Lara,  Pedro, 

Rohan,  Guillen  de,  II-247 

Roland,  I-21,  28,  39,  75, 
322,  381,  393,  n-60,  m- 
70,  388,  428,  449-51 

Roman  architecture,  I-4,  5, 
8,  290,  321,  II-25,    144, 
IH-393;    roads,    1-86-^88, 
411,  II-122,  m-442;  sta- 
tions, I-87,  88,  H-72,  86, 
178,     179,    HI-38,     458; 
coins,    III-287-92,      297, 
301,  309,  310,  320,   366; 
inscriptions,  II- 180,   298, 
III-286,  293,  294,  295-7, 
314;  remains,  I-430,   II- 
29,    178,    181,   363,    466, 
III-276;    R.  domination, 
II- 1 25,    126,    133;   Legio 
VII,  Gemina,  H-178,  IH- 
291 ;  Romans  in  Spain,  I- 
294.386,11-150, 178,  180- 
walls,  II- 1 79 

Roman  religion,  II- 1 8 1 , 1 99, 
300,  411,  432,  433,  II£- 
231,  278-84,  279,  283; 
state  worship,  282;  cult 
of  Augustus,  304,  308; 
symbolism  in,  I-171,  II- 

199,  432 

Romances  (Asturian),  I- 
124,  127,  II-418;  Casti- 
lian,  I-398,  n-60,  70,  77, 
83,  146;  Gallegan,  I-109, 
in-562;  English,  I-461 

Romanesque,  I-9,  74,  270, 
321,  334,  342,  n-22,  29, 
77,  92,  107, 134, 161,  200, 
373,  444,  ni-67,  4io,  416, 
458;  age,  I-303,  m-74, 
381,  403;  Spanish  style, 
H-242,  fil-414 



Romantic  Spain,  I-407 
Rome  (as  carrier),  1-8,  9, 

II-162,  192 
Rome  (the  see  of  Peter),  I- 


106,  168;  S.  Peter's,  m- 

63;    Aracoeli,  I-430;    S. 

Paul  without,  II-201 
Rome,  Ephesus,  and  Com- 

postella,  I-28,  m-357 
Rome,  Jerusalem,and  Com- 

postella,  I-72,  109,  358, 

447,  m-90,  259 
Romieu  de  Vifieneuve,  I- 

Romulus  buried,  m-231 

Roncal,  I-230 

Roncevauz,  I-25,  31,  37,  78, 
83,  230,  247,  382,  n-60, 
m-414,  449-53;  called 
also  Roncesvalles 

Rosenkreutz  (Chymical 
Marriage  of) ,  HI- 1 72, 466 

Rouen,  II-i  77,  272,  m-434 

Rouergue,  I-39,  99 

Roulin,  Dom,  DI-79 

Rousillon,  I-7 

Royal  Domain,I-i5, 17,  271, 
278;  v.  Isle  of  France 

Rozmital  (Knight  of),  II- 10, 
35.  4't  65.  66,  184,  III- 
173,  221,  461;  his  secre- 
taries, II-155,  III-178, 
182,  204,  207,  245;  Scha- 
schek,  182;  Tetzel,  II- 
155,  485,  m-178,  184-5, 

Rubroques  (Fr.  William),  I- 

Ruitelan,  II-390, 391 

Rule,    Our  Lady   of   the, 

II-241;    v.   N.  S.  de    la 

Regla;  v.  Augustinian, 
Benedictine,  Cistercian, 
Cluniac,  under  those  Or- 
ders; Rule  of  S.  Isidore, 
I-28,  II-215;  Rule  of  S. 
Loy,  I- 1 02 
Running  Water,  I-124,  IH- 

242,  272 

SS.  Abdon  and  Senen,  III- 

S.  Alvito,  II-216,  217,  218, 

S.  Andrew,  I-134,  341,  II- 

260,  m-82,  250,  341;  S. 

Andres  de  Armentia,  III- 

436;  de  Teijido,  III-241; 

de  Sarria,  II-437 
S.  Anna  (her  family),  II- 

260,  m-335 
S.  Anthony  (abbot),  II-290, 

SS.  Athanasius  and  Theo- 
dore (Companions  of  S. 

James),  1-6 1,  III-360, 361 

S.  Aventin,  II- 199 
S.  Bartholomew,  I-378,  II- 

S.  B^nezet,  I-101,  II- 196 
S.   Benoit-sur-Loire,   I-99, 

163,  H-54,  203,  ni-448 
S.  Bernard,  I- 109 
S.  Bona  of  Pisa,  I- 1 29,  III- 

267,  272 
S.  Bridget  (of  Ireland),  m- 

243,  368;  called  also  S. 
Bride;  S.  Bridget  of  Swe- 
den, I-116 

S.  Casilda,  II-38,  50 
S.  Catalina,  11-314,  315 
S.  Christina,  I-146 



SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian, 

II-423,  m-336f  346 
SS.  Creus,  I-362,  377,  436, 

S.  Cristeta,  II- 188,  218 
S.    Cristobal,    11-357;    S. 

Christopher,  II-279 
S.  Crista  de  Burgos,  II-64 
S.  Cruz  de  la  Serfs,  I- 166, 

189,  318,  323,  n-78,  m- 

S.  Cyprian,  H-244 
S.  Denis,  I-28,  278,  II-115, 

25<>»   258,   261,   m-389; 

the  Person,  IEI-417 
S.  Domingo  de  la  Calzada, 

I-75,  101,  407,  413-6,  n- 

5,  98,  417,  m-294,  411, 

432,  433,  542;  church,  I- 
416-7;  stalls,  4:7, 419,  II- 
298;  retable,  I-311,  421, 

S.  Domingo  de  Silos,  I-412; 
for  the  convent,  v.  Silos 

S.  Dominic,  I-i  13,  II-38 

S.  Eligius  or  S.  Loy,  I-102 

S.  Elizabeth  (of  Portugal), 

S.  Elmo  (S.  Pedro  Gonzalez 
Telmo),  S.  Elmo's  fire, 

SS.  Emetrius  and  Celadon- 
ius ,  II- 1 8 1 , 1 90,  III-299 

S.  Eulalia,  I-203,  HI- 163, 
296,  479;  cathedral  of 
Barcelona,  HI- 163 

S.  Eutropius  of  Saintes  (pas- 
sion), I-60;  for  church,  v. 

SS.  Facundus  and  Primi- 
tivus,  I-75,  97,  122,  II- 
117,  181,  III-299;  monas- 

tery of  S.  Facundo,   II- 

S.  Firmin,  I-255,  257 
S.  Foy  (of  Conques),  I-75; 

called  S.  Faith;  for  church, 

v.  Conques 
S.  Francis,  I-113,  m-164, 

S.  Froilan,  n-256,  264 
S.  Front,  I-75 
S.  Fructuosus,  I-94,  II-293, 

SS.  Genadius,  I-98, 11-141, 

SS.  Gervase  and  Protase, 

S.  Gilles,  1-2 1,  74,  77,  11 8, 

"9,   275,    343,   m-390; 

S.  Giles,  1-74-7,  275;  m- 

390;  Fulbert's  Mass,  I-74 
S.  Gin6s,  I-74,  m-349 
S.  Gregory  of  Ostia,  I-412 
S.  Hilary,  I-74,  75,  77 
S.  Honorat,  I-74 
S.  pdefonsus,  n-215 
S.  Ifiigo,  I-181 

S.  Isidore,  1-75,  n-183, 193, 
221-242, 280,  504; spouse 
of,  221,  279,  505;  suc- 
cessor of  S.  James,  II-223, 
505,  m-328;  rain-maker, 
II-231, 233, 280;  writings, 
I- 1 01,  401;  apparitions, 
II-193, 222, 223, 225, 226, 
228;     Doctor    Egregius, 

S.  Isidore  the  Ploughman, 

n-232,  364,  m-290,  328 

S.  James  Major,  I-26,  27, 

74,  75,99,  107,  110,267, 

367,     393,     413,    n-92, 

I  N  DEX 


S.  James  Major — Cont'd 
190,  260,  318,  m-65,  66, . 
284, 337. 341. 367;  legend, 
I-46-50,  III-230;  Mgr. 
Duchesne  on,  I-56-63; 
his  Epistle,  II-259;  Pro- 
tevangel,  m-307,  547; 
collect,  I-iii;   Miracles, 

I-44,  130-132,  HI-504- 
15;  Dominus,  II-223, 
lft-161-2,  192;  going  to 
Coimbra,  II-227,  IH-193; 
White  Horseman,  I-5< , 
96,  131,  413,  n-226, 
ni-193,  283,  301,  515; 
Matamoros,  IQ-300,  321, 
179,  289;  a  cult-centre  at 
Saragossa,  II-234,  IU- 
289, 359-61,  488;  at  Gua- 
dix,  I-60,  ni-231,  295; 
at  Chartres,  I-40 

S.  James  the  brother  of 
the  Lord,  m-86, 334,  335. 
338,  346;  looks  like  Him, 
lfi-86, 346;  His  twin,  485; 
S.  James  as  twin,  II- 190, 
260,  m-291;  as  Castor, 
UI-179,  299;  replaced  by 
S.  George,  m-515;  rival 
to  S.  James,  II-92,  194, 
221,  227;  double  to,  II- 
221,  229,  IQ-505;  com- 
petition with  Santiago, 
II-92,  221,  227 

S.  James  successor  of  bull- 
god,  m-324,  505;  v.  also 
A  dad;  Far-traveller,  III- 
179,  204,  275-6;  as  pil- 
grim, II-273,  and  illus- 
trations with  pilgrims,  I- 
179,  n-157,  430,  447; 
hat,  II-259,  m-279,  310, 

320;  cloak,  m-339;  foot- 
prints, m-209;  psycho- 
pompos,  m-179, 232,319, 
488,  v.  also  Hermes,  and 
S.  Michael;  Lord  of  the 
dead,  III-179,  232; 
chthonian  power,  U-230, 
236,  249,  297,  301;  vege- 
tation-spirit, ni-i  79-80, 
227-232,  294,  327,  488; 

springs,  HI- 179,  209; 
fruits,  III- 1 79-80,  229; 
solar,  III-282,  294;  feasts 
solstitial  and  spring,  III- 
230-3i ;  a  faded  sun-god, 
IH-294;  Son  of  Thunder, 

ni-156,  159,  327 

S.  James,  Peter  and  John, 
HI-40,  209;  S.  J.  and 
seven  Disciples,  I-&o,  III- 
316;  the  two  Compan 
ions,  1-6 1,  m-360,  361; 
confused  with  S.  James 
Minor,  II-2  50-60,  III-230 

S.  James  Minor,  H-259,  III- 

75,  83,  298,  3i5,335»  340, 
341,  342,  346;  head  at 

Carrion,  III-302;  at  San- 
tiago, m-103,  141,  302; 
feast  of  May-Day,  III- 
230;    draped    staff,    III- 

S.  Jean  d'Angely,  I-75,  77; 

abbot,  m-112 
S.  Jean  Pied  du  Port,  I-78 
S.  Jean  de  Luz,  II- 156 
S.  Jerome,  I-291,  II-38 
S.  John  Baptist:  S.  Isidro 

dedicated  to,  II- 188,  212, 

218;  altar  at  Leon,  II-244 ; 

shrine  at  Santiago,  III- 




S.  John  Evangelist,  1-28,  II- 
260,  m-65,  66,  72,  322, 
34 if   345;    also  Ephesus 

S.  Juan  de  las  Abadesas,  II- 

S.  Juan  de  Bafios,  I-215, 

S.  Juan  de  Ortega,  1-431, 
433,  439,  ni-239,  243, 
412;  person,  102,  369, 
430,  432-3,  435,  438, 
II-38;  prior,  I-437 

S.  Juan  de  la  Pefia,  I- 162, 
177,  178-189,  200,  213, 
263,  318,  323,  326,  342, 
345,35i,n-i03, 105, 106, 
260,  364,  m-386,  387, 
395, 404, 408, 409; chron- 
icle of,  I- 1 96 ;  burial  place, 
I-177,  189,  n-202,  203; 
abbot,  I-181 

S.  Juan  de  Sahagun,  II- 3 7 

S.  Jude,  II-6,  260,  m-82, 

336,  337,  341,  347 
S.  Julian  the  Harbourer,  II- 

6,  8,  216,  III-378,  540;  in 
Astorga,  II-301;  of  Bri- 
oude,  I-98;  de  Moraime, 

n-364,  ni-211, 215, 2i&r 

7,  401 ;  with  a  dove,  m- 
218;  of  the  North,  I-74 

SS.  Julian  and  Basilisa, 
m-252,  II-417;  at  Samos, 
II-282,  417,  III-252;  pos- 
sibly, m-218 

S.  Julian  of  Burgos,  II-37 

S.  Justa,  II-216,  504;  and 
Rufina,  n-220,  504,  m- 

S.  Justo,  II-292 

S.  Leandro,  II-215,  216, 

S.  Leonard  of  Limoges,  I- 

74,  77,  416 
S.  Lesmes,  II-5,  38 
S.  Loup  de  Naud,  I-243 
S.  Mancio,  II- 137 
S.  Marcos,  II-479,  480;  v. 

S.  Maria  de  Priesca,  If- 164; 

del  Puig,  1-337;  de  Vian, 

S.   Marina,  11-452-3,    HI- 

303;  at  Sarria,  II-424;  at 

Aguas  Santas,II-364, 453 ; 

at  Puerto  Marin,  II-452- 

SS.  Marinus  and  Patronus, 

II-453;  Marinus,  Bishop 

of  Doliche,  IU-321 

S.  Mart,  I-32;  S.  Marta,  II- 
96;  S.  Marta  de  Tera,  I- 
443,  in-384,  398;  SS. 
Martas,  I-32 

S.  Martial  de  Limoges,  I- 
74,  II-200,  202 

S.  Martin  of  Braga,  I-56 

S.  Martin  of  Tours,  I-74, 
75,77, 1 13, 361-2,  n-290; 
church,  I-12;  tomb  at 
Candes,  I-ioi;  at  Leon, 
II-289,  290;  de  Sande,  I- 
94;  de  Villarente,  I-85; 
de  Unx,  I-215 

S.  Mary  of  Egypt,  I-299; 
S.  Mary  Magdalen,  III- 
243 ;  S.  Mary  of  le  Puy,  I- 
77, 1 1 1 ;  v.  N.Ddu  Puy;  S. 
Mary  Salome,  m-75, 3 1 5, 
322, 335;  S.  Mary  Virgin, 
IH-75, 335;  first  church  in 
her  honour,  III-331,  332 

S.  Michael,  I-29,  393,  II- 
281,  282,  290,  fil-76;  sue- 



S.  Michael—Cont'd 

ceeds  Hermes,  II-282; 
psychopompos,  II-282, 
III-319;  dedications  to,  I- 
33-34,  II-282-3,  Ill-ill; 
S.  Michele  in  Gargano, 
Mont  S.  Michel,  S.  Mi- 
chael's Mount,  I-23-4 

S.  Miguel  del  Camino,  II- 
287,  365;  de  Escalada,  II- 
1 72,  v.  Escalada;  in  Excel- 
sis,  II-282,  m-148;  de 
Linio,  I-441,  II-198,  427; 
Villa  S.  Michaelis,  II-413 

S.  Mihiel,  m-434 

S.  Millan,  I-54,  97,  413, 
abbey,  I-382,  397,  412, 

S.  Nicholas  of  Bari,  I-436, 

S.  Osith,  n-364,  365 

St.  Paul,  Anthyme-,  ni-45- 

S.  Pedro  de  las  Duefias,  II- 

79, 109, 121,  HI-408, 410; 

de  Montes,  I-98,  II-352, 

360;  de  las  Ollas,  II-357 
S.  Pelayo,  II-219,  504 
S.  Perpetua,  III-255 
S.  Philip,  n-259,  260,  III- 

82,  333,  34I.342;  type  of 
Adad,  333 ;  twin  of  Christ, 

S.  Quirse,  HI-412 

S.  Raphael,  I-74,  II-8 

S.  Restituta,  III-303 

S.Rita  of  Cascia,  1-438,11-92 

S.  Roque,  I-74,  II-8,  290, 


S.  Rosendo,  m-42 

S.  Sabina,  II-188, 189,  218 

S.  Salvador,  altar  at  Leon, 

II-244;  chapel  at  las 
Huelgas,  n-21,  24,  27; 
early  dedications,  v.  5. 
Saviour;  S.  S.  de  Fonce- 
badon,  II-310;  de  Monte 
Irago,  II-310;  de  Ley  re, 
I-226;  S.  S.  de  Sarria, 
II-283,  421 ;  at  S.  Domin- 
go de  la  Calzada,  I-415; 
at  Oviedo,  I-83,  311; 
de  Val  de  Dios,  I-2I5, 
II-408,  m-50 

S.  Savin,  1-2 16,  II- 199 

S.  Sebastian,  I-306 

S.  Sernin,  Saturninus,  I- 
75,  264,  267;  calledj  also 
S.  Cernin 

S.  Sepulcre,  Neuvy,  n-91; 
v.  also  Holy  Sepulchre, 
Estella,  Eunate,  Torres 

S.  Seurin,  I-38,  75 

S.  Silva  of  Aquitaine,  m- 

334,  343,  364 
S.  Simon  Cleophas,  II-260, 

S.   Susanna,   m-93,    303; 

twin  trees,  304 
S.  Thaddeus,  m-336,  341, 

S.  Thomas  Apostle,  m-82, 

341,  343,  346;  twin  of 
Christ,  345;  of  Canter- 
bury, II-299,  386;  of  the 
Pots,  n-357;  of  Villa- 
nova,  II-47 
S.  Toribio,  II-215,  309,  m- 

S.  Torquato,  m-231 

S.  Trophime,  I-74 

S.  Ursula,  I-37,  III-243 

S.  Valerius,  II-352 

S.  Veremund,  I-359,  363 




S.  Vincent  of  Avila,  II- 188, 
189,  218,  233;  of  Sara- 
gossa,  I-40, II-233,  270 

S.  Vitores,H-37,  38 

S.  William  of  Aquitaine,  I- 
74;  of  Vercelli,  I-99 

S.  Zita,  II-364,  365 

S.  Zoyl,  Bt-97;  sacrist  of, 

Sagunto,  III-320 

Sahagun,  I-28,  34,  97,  359, 
441,  n-99,  109,  118-51, 
159.  163,  166,  181,  218, 
253,  m-99,  103,  106,  136, 
147,  281,  292,  299,  408, 
410;  abbot  Alfonso,  II- 
122;  Diego,  126-8;  Ju- 
lian, I-97;  William,  II- 
140;  abbey  consecrated, 
II-127;  S.  Francisco,  II- 
149-50;  S.  Lorenzo,  122, 
1 40, 1 48 ;  S.  Mancio,  chapel 
of,  134.  136,  138;  Santi- 
ago, 149;  S.  Tirso,  147; 
Trinidad,  149 

Saintes,I-2i,  188,  190,  215, 
240,  342,  II-35,  192,  43i, 
ni-409,  413,  445,  491; 
Saintonge,  I-73,  305,  II- 
375;  bishop, I-147;  S.  Eu- 
tropius,  I-65,  75,  77, 190 

Salamanca  (old  cathedral), 
I-171,  360,  II-35;  chapel, 
II-26;  chapter,  HI-52; 
style,  III-409,  II-36;  S. 
Cristobal,  I-315;  uni- 
versity, I-106,  359,  in- 
197;  see,  III-118;  bishop, 
IH-141;  Virgin,  II-284 

Salambo,  III-320;  v.  Syrian 

Saldana,  II-244;  castle  of, 
II-124;  count  of,  II-60, 

La  Salette,  II-92 

Salermo,  III-95 

Salisbury,  I-3  74,  II-239 

Samos,  I-220,  n-218,  282, 
396,  413,  m-408;  S.  Ju- 
lian, II-417,  m-410;  S. 
Michael ,  II-4 1 4 ;  chapel  of, 
417;  lost  church,  419,  III- 
410;  abbot  Viril,  HI-252 

Sampiro,  II-93,  293 

Sancha  (queen  of  Ferdi- 
nand the  Great),  II- 188; 
sister  of  Alfonso  VII,  II- 
193,  203,  221,  279,  280, 
5o8,HI-i26;  of  Ferdinand 
the  Great,  II-2 1 8 ;  of  Vere- 
mund,  II-2 10-14 

Sandoval,  Abbot  of,  II-305 

Sandoval,  Fr.  Prudencio,  I- 
187,11-118,129,134, 147, 
169,  298 

Sanguesa,  I-15,  39,  193, 
229,  230-50,  294,  304, 
320,356,374,11-105, 106, 
107,  147,111-62,  79,  319, 
382,  411,  415;  S.  Maria, 
1-234-37,  246,  249;  Car- 
men, 248;  S.  Nicholas, 
247;  S.  Salvador,  248; 
Santiago,  247 

Sansol,  I-369 

Santiago,  (Aymery's  de- 
scription) ,01-59-66 ;  plan, 
46;  early  history,  35-58, 
128;  splendours,  140-51; 
crypt,  59,  163;  S.  James 
Undercroft,  35,  39,  53- 
8;  sculpture,  398;  Puer- 
ta  de  las  Platerias,  II- 



Santiago — Cont  'd 

422, 460,  m-i8,  252,  395; 
II-104,  106,  268,  454, 
458,  482,  m-71,  184, 
255»  375-8;  statue  of 
S.  James,  II- 104,  III- 
74,  83,  86,  329;  towers, 
n-485,  m-44,  52,  59, 
191;  three  churches  164- 
7»  365;  cloister,  55-7;  tri- 
forium  galleries,  61,  167; 
outside  of,  379;  Corticela, 
60f  I05»  315;  fountain, 
1 15-6;  treasures,  108, 127, 
140-41;  altar,  92,  171; 
ark,  176;  baldachin,  148; 
bells,  140,  180;  bord6n, 
178,  297;  chain,  177,  178, 
365;  crown,  171,  177, 
365;  retable,  144,  171; 
supernatural  light,  59, 
163,  166,  167,  194,  260, 
269*  361;  wind,  166, 
269;  donations,  142,  301 ; 
burials,  II-423,  DI-126; 
style  of,  II-106,  458,  m- 
218;  S.  copied,  401 ;  back- 
wash from,  291,  383, 
401,  404;  bishops  of 
Ataulf,  III-41,  317;  Cres- 
conius,  III-44 ,  96;  Dalma- 
tius,  III-88,  91,  97;  Gu- 
desteo,  III-48;  Gunde- 
sind,  II-452;  Mozoncio, 
II-456,  III-44;  Peter  the 
Necromancer,  m-58; 
archbishops,  Alvaro  de 
Isorna,  III-233;  Juan  de 
S.  Clemen te,  HI- 166 

Santos  Domnos,  I-97,  II- 
122, 190;  v.  SS.  Facundus 
and  Primitives 

Sar,  S.  Mary  of,  II- 1 09, 192, 
430,  459,  492,  m-93,  131, 


Saragossa,  I-28,  33,  156, 
196,  198,  200,  279,  297, 
301,  422,  II-26,  m-99, 
101,  361,  488;  Happy 
Other  World,  DI-230, 
252»  359;  S.  James  at, 
II-234,  455;  cult  of  the 
Pillar,  HI-359-61,  488; 
church,  I-423;  S.  Pablo, 
I-424;  cathedral  dedi- 
cated to  S.  Saviour,  III- 
308 ;  nuns  of  S.  Sepulchre, 
I-3I5;  coins,  II-234,  m- 
289,  292 

Sardinia,  II-431 

Sarria,II-283, 396, 419, 420, 
426,  454;  S.  Saviour,  II- 
421,111-251;  SS.  Cosmas 
and  Damian,  II-423;  S. 
Marina,  II-426 

Sarria,  S.  Andres  de,  II-437 

Sasam6n,  II- 107,  165,  III- 

Saumur,  I-2 1 ,  377,  n-20, 108 

Saviour  (early  dedications 

to),  n-244, 283, 453,  ra- 

308;  Feast  of  Transfigu- 
ration, I-226,  m-75,  357 

Scandinavia,  I-n;  Scan- 
dinavian element,  III- 
269,  270,  415,  416,  492 

Scott,  m-266,  273 

Sedes,  Majestatis,  II-299, 
469,  m-74;  Sapientiae, 

Segovia,  I-14,  III-391;  ca- 
tiiedral,III-52 ;  S.Ciprian, 
I-208;  S.  Martin  and  S. 
Millan,  I-164 



Sem  Tob,  H-ioo 
Senlis,  I-243,  374 
Sens,  II-240 

Seo  de  Urgell,  1-15,  m-392 
Sepulchre  (the  Holy  Church 

of),  I-290,  291,  309,  405, 

n-182,   m-168,    169-71, 

461 ;  Order  of,  q.  v.  Holy 

Sepulchres    at    Compos- 

tella,  m-304,   338,  365; 

at   Saragossa,   361,   468; 

Companions,  v.  S.  Athan- 

Sepultados,  m-281;  called 

also  hacheras,  II-287 
Sepulveda,  n-292 
Serapis,I-8, 9,  m-252,  308, 

in-488;  type  of  S.  James, 

Serra    (Jaime   and   Pere), 

Sertorius,  III-244 
Severus,  Alexander,  III-3 1 3 
Seville,  I-297,  298,  II-4,  52, 

89,  109,  178,  216-7,  230, 

231,  233,  239,  242,  276, 

277,    347,   m-102,   298, 

320;  saises,  363;  Virgen 

del  Pilar,  m-360 
Shelley,  IH-80 
Shrines  (old),  I-23, 141 
Sicilian,  I-5,    295,   m-90, 

251;   la   Martorana,    II- 

Side  porch,  I- 164,  235,  II- 

287,  288,  289,  313,  314; 

cloister,  II-148,  163,  408 
Siena,  I-235,  m-20,  187 
Signs  of  the  Zodiac,  I-244, 

II-181,   189,  190,  m-63, 

Siguenza,  HI-4 1 1 

Sil,  1-86,  II-385, 420 
Silense,  I-ioo,  106,  11-98, 

216,  m-44 
SiloS,    Gil   de,   II-38,    49; 

French    Symbolism,    39; 

Diego  de,  II-39, 49,  53 
Silos,  S.  Domingo  de,  I-i  83, 

188, 190, 342, 343,  n-216, 

ni-390,  442,  448;  frontal 

from,  III- 148;  the  person, 

Simancas     (battle),    1-53, 

413,  n-224 
Sin-eater,  m-246 
Slavonians,  I-117,  111-133, 

268;  Slavonic,  280 
Sluter,  Claus,  I-16,  277,  II- 

Sobieski,  I-371,  430,  m-95, 

212,  363 
Sobrado,  m-44,  I25 
Sobrarbe,  I-159,  177,  399, 

Soissons,    n-34,    m-433; 

bishop,  I-42;  Soissonais, 

Sol,  m-309,  and  Christ, 368  ; 

Invictus,  II-300,  m-282 ; 

Sanctissimus,m-228,23 1 , 

232,  282,  303,  308,  368 
Soler,£[-i42, 143,0-380 
Solomon  and  Sheba,  II-55, 

267,  m-70-1,  84,  389 
Solsona,  I-275,  m-74,  346 
Somport,  I-146, 147, 397 
Son  of  Thunder,  m-37, 1 56, 

322, 327;  sons  of  thunder, 

336,    345J    thunder-god, 

324,   327,   367;  thunder. 

bolt,  192,  348,  35i 
Soria,  1-8, 334, 341,  m-383, 

395.  401.  4*3;  S.  Juan  de 




Soria— Cont'd 

Duero,  I-290,  434;  de 
Rabaneyra,  IQ-384;  S. 
Pedro,  I-342,  m-396, 438, 
S.  Tomas,  I-345,  II-102, 
IH-74;  province  of,  III- 
290;  road  to,  I-388 

Sos,  I-233,  250 

Soter,  n-283,  453,  ni-158, 
308,  488 

Souillac,  I-15,  266,  339,  II- 

1A4,  m-353, 409 

Souls,  little,  m-76,  243, 
244;  in  Limbo,  242;  un- 
born, 226;  passing  across 
the  sky,  269;  among  the 
stars,  235;  singing,  253- 
8,  259;  white,  73,  546 

Spanish  beauty,  I-258-60, 
m-31;  isolation,  m-285; 
scholars,  I- 12,  20,  HI- 
293;  virtues,  m-7,  16 

Spiers,  Phen6,  m-332 

Spoleto,  m-283 

Stair  (the great), HI-53, 205, 
m-362,  365,  366 

Stein,  Henri,  I- 13 

Steles,  II- 1 82 

Stephen,  the  Greek,  I- 116, 
m-53,  194 

Strasbourg,  II-275,  IH-389 

Street,  I-u,  21,  283,  319, 
419,  n-30,  49,  104,  108, 
192,  196,  197,  203,  250, 
265,  272,  297,  IH-374, 

Strong  (Mrs.  Arthur),  I-430 

Strzygowsky,  I-4 

Sun-god  of  Heliopolis,  m- 
301;  attributes  of  S. 
James,  321,  328;  a  faded 
sun-god,  294 

Swans,  m-300 
Syncretism,    m-294,    307, 

308,  311,  313,  357,  367; 
law  of,  307 
Syria,  I-3, 4, 9, 10;  influence 
HI-3°3»  366;  architect,  I- 
9.  290,  361,  m-327,  366, 
409,  489;  style,  I-364,  II- 
1 83,  m-353 ;  emblems,  II- 
182,  m-251 ;  Syro-Byzan- 
tine,  I-293,  III-67;  Syrian 
influx,  m-323,  325;  bis- 
hop, II-215,  m-364; 
saints,  346;  cults,  II- 183, 
III-368;  triads  m-322, 
357;  Baals,  321 ;  Goddess, 
II-220,  504,  III-307,  312, 
320,  363 

Tafalla,  I-264 

Talavera,  HI- 142 

Tamara,  II-80,  86 

Tarazona,  I-147,  156,  m- 

Tarragona,  I- 198,  297,  II- 
107,  178,  m-308 

Tarrasa,  I-168,  m-346 

Tartary,  I-115 

Taurobolium,  m-31 7,  324 

Taurus,  I-317,  322 

Teijido,  S.  Andres  de,  III- 
240,  241 

Temple,  Order  of  the,  I- 
200,  287,  292,  299,  314, 
II-85,  m-418;  churches 
of,  I-320,  H-80,  85,  91; 
castles,  II-350;  tombs, 
II-91;  cross,  II-92;  tem- 
plars, n-350,  433,  452, 
m-251;  building,  I-io 

Teresa  of  Portugal,  II-296, 



I  ND  EX 

Thammuz,  HI-315 
Theban  Legion,  I-37 
Theodomir   (Bishop),  1-45, 

Theodore  (master),  II-254 

Theodosius  the  Great,  III- 

351. 365, 366;  the  pilgrim, 

III-336,  337 
Thermosilla    (the   Blessed 

Jerome),  I-427 
Thomas  and  Robert  (mas- 
ters), n-298 
Three  Churches,  IH-164- 

Thurkill  (Thorkill),  I-412, 

456,  n-364,  m-55,  354; 

his  Vision,  539-48 
Tiermas,  I-202,  230,  255 
Tiobre,  S.  Martin  de,  III- 

Tokens,  pilgrims',  IH-117, 

424;    I-frontispiece,     II- 

Toledo,  1-33,  80,  98,  404, 

n-26,  34,  98,  126,  129, 
147,  148,  151,  220,  228, 
237;  siege  of,  I-297,  II- 
228;  taking  of,  IH-418; 
councils  of,  I- 1 73,  II-215, 
HI-316;  see,  DI-91;  bre- 
viary, 6-233;  use,  II-207; 
S.  Ildefonso,  II-215;  S. 
Julian,  I-57,  II-216;  ca- 
thedral, I-n,  352,  II-41, 
51,  215,  238,  242,  III- 
402 ;  S.  John  of  the  Kings, 
II-57;  Bernard  of,  v. 
Bernard;  Raymond  of, 
HI- 1 28;  Roderick  of,  v. 
Roderigo  XimSnez 
Toral  de  los  Vados,  II-350, 

Tordesillas,II-247, 347 
Toro,  I-315, 360,  n-35,  102, 

IH-79,  81,  401 
Torres,  I-72,  287,  309,  314, 

368,  n-80,  91,  105,  m- 

386,  408 
Torsello    Sanuto,    HI- 168; 

Marino,  340 
Tortosa,  m-329,  330,  360, 

361;  first  church  of  Our 

Lady,  330,  360 

Totem,  IQ-323 

Toulouse,  I-2 1,  77,  82,  99, 
113,  130,  138,  172,  263, 
296,  343,  n-376;  school 
of,  I-11,  14,214,  223,  n- 
103,  104,  105,  106,  no, 
189,  m-85,  382,  383, 384, 
39°,  398,  409;  Toulousan 
Renaissance,  II- 193,  III- 
383,  401 ;  borrowed  from 
Santiago,  m-252;  S.  Ser- 
nin,  I-12, 214, 284,  II-197, 
253,  m-46,  61,  252,  381, 

Toutain,  HI-286,  298,  308, 

Towers,  II-144,  145,  m-59, 

Traba,  Counts  of,   IJI-98, 

101,  112,  115,  118,  125, 

Traba  jo,  Barrio  de,  II-211; 

T.  del  Camino,II-279,28o 
Tramoyeres,  I-425 
Irani,  I-302,  322 
Transfiguration,  I-226,  228, 

II-422,  m-66,  73 
Tree  of  the  Cross,  I-274;  of 

Life,  m-73,  80,  243,  250, 

264,  265;  of  Jesse,  1H- 


I  N  DEX 


Triacastela,    1-79,    n-282, 
385,    388,    405,    410-11, 

4M,  435 
Tribal  Hero,  HI-229,  232, 

282,  294,  364 
Troyes,  I-17,  82,  296,  m- 

434;  bishop  of,  I-42 
Tudela,  I-200,  301,  397,  II- 

Tudor,  Mary,  II- 154,  242, 

m-90,  426 
Tumbo,  A,  in-35;  Tumbo 

B,    I-65,    in-298,    303; 

Tumbo  Negro,  I-199,  III- 

Turpin,  I-26,  96,  322,  II- 

116,  203,  III-451;  Chron- 
icle of,  I-26,  31,  34,  45, 
60,  67,  70,  m-229,  417; 
Gallegan  version,  I-23, 95 
Tuy,  n-81,  108,  225,  m- 

295,  299,  301,  316,  386, 

394,  402,  403,  404-5,  416 
Twins,  II-97,  181,  190,  423, 

m-301,  327,  334-47; 
twin  apostles,  343-4;  S. 
James  Twin  of  Christ, 
346,  488;  twin  legions, 
291;  t.  pillars,  298,  358; 
t.  saints,  II- 190,  ni-299, 
301,  346;  one  chthonian, 
346;  S.  George  substi- 
tuted, 515;  girl  saints, 
302;  sisters,  309,  345 
Twist,  m-415 

Ucctes,  I- 1 02 

Uju6,  I-213,  292,  352,  377, 

II-364,  m-409 
Ulm,  1-17,11-58 
Urdos,  I-146 

Urraca  (queen),  I-195,  197, 
199,  201,  n-78,  99,  135, 
204,  220,  296,  395,  421, 
454,  m-90,  98-100,  1  ii- 
iS,  119,  122,  137,  141, 
183,  464;  U.  queen  of 
Zamora,  U-188,  189,  244 

Uzerches,  HI-96 

Valbanera,  I-411 

Valcarcel,  I-103,  II-370; 
Vega  de,  II-384,  385;  S. 
Maria  de  O teres,  m-115 

ValdSs,  n-67 

Valdejunquera,  I-397 

Valencia,  I-196,  198,  297, 
315,  425,  n-63,  m-309; 
taking  of,  III-418;  coins 
of,  m-320,  V.  deZ).  Juan, 
n-325,  347;  counts  of, 

Valenciano,  Alonso,  and 
Benito,  II-248 

Valenciennes,  I-82 

Valladolid,I-8, 73, 360, 420, 
n-89,  239,  243,  ni-391; 
council  of,  I- 1 05;  la  An- 
tigua, II-145;  S.  Benito, 
H-394,  395;  stalls,  I-4 1 8, 
420;  retable,  420-1;  ab- 

•  bot,  I-364;  university,  I- 

Vallejo,  Domingo  de,  II- 298 
Val  Tajada,  II-309 
Val  de  Soz,  II- 141 
Valverde,  II-280 
Vasconcellos,  Leite  de,  III- 

Vascongadas    (provincias), 

Vazquez,  Ruy,  HI- 185 



Vega  y  Verdugo,  III- 147, 

Velasco,  Pedro  Fernandez 

de,  II-41 
Velay,  II-460 
Velazquez  Bosco,  II- 145,  v. 

Venice,  I-99,  296,  III-243; 

marbles,    m-384;    organ 

doors,  III-80;  painters,  v. 

Ventas  de  Caparra,  III-314 
Ventura  Rodriguez,  I-283 
Venus,  m-243,  354 
Vera  Cruz,  I-278,  315,  H- 

Verastegui,  Nicolas  de,  I- 

Vergers  talk,  HI- 175,  177 
Verin,  1-86 
Verona,  I-16,  344,  370,  m- 

163,  387,  388,  392,  395 
Verrueta,  Juan  de,  I-250 
Vezelay,I-2i,  45, 64, 68, 77, 
171,11-104, 105, 142, 144, 
145,  253,  431,  m-70,  79, 

384,  395,  396,  397,  447; 
the  Magdalen,  I-75;   S. 

Pere  sous  V.,  m-70;  ab- 
bot   Alberic,    I-45,    69; 
master  Airard  of,  I-42     . 
Viadangos,  II-296,  IH-98 
Viana,    I-310,    369,    383; 

Prince  of,  I-300, 369 
Vich,  I-281,  II-201,  III- 149, 

Vico,  I- 1 76 
Vierzo,  1-86,  II-3JO,   349; 

mountains  of,  II-351,  390 
Vigarny,  I-419,  420,  II-40, 

47,  48,  49,  54,  59;  family 

of,  48 

vigo,  in- 1 29 

Vilancosta,  m-239 

Villa-amil,  I-84,  116,  II-477 

Villalba,  I-84 

Villa  Espesa  (Mossen  Fran- 
ces de),  I-301 

Villafrucnos,  II-347 

Villafranca  del  Vierzo,  II- 
350,  360,  367,  369-78, 
38i,  390,  478;  history, 
369;  Santiago,  367,  374; 
S.  Maria,  369,  371,  372; 
S.  Nicholas,  373;  Villa- 
franca, de  Montes  de  Oca, 
III- 1 06,  429 

Villahuerta,  Virgin  of,  I- 

Villaizan,  Juan  Nunez  de, 

Villanueva,  de  Lorenzana, 

Villaquiran,  II-72 
Villard  de  Honnecourt,I-i5, 

238,  n-14 
Villarente,  II- 1 66 ;  family  of, 

Villa  S.  Michaelis,  n-282, 

Villa-Sirga,  I-320,  II-80,  82, 

84-5,  105,  107,  167,  194, 

221,  281;  Virgin  of,  93, 

167,  168;  Miracles  of,  II- 

04,  167,  m-516-25 

Viuatuerta,  I-325,  335 

Villaviciosa,  m-217 

Villela,  I-105 

Villeneuve,  I-76 

Villovieco,  n-82 

Villuga,  Juan,  I-80,  II-426 

Vincent  of  Beauvais,  I-40 

Viollet-le-Duc,  II-258 

Virgil,  in-239 



Virgin  of  las  Angustias,  III- 

6,  321;  Spanish  Virgins, 
ni-314,  321,  v.  Nuestra 
SeHora;  of  VUla-Sirga,  II- 
93 ;  of  the  Cave,  II-402 ;  of 
Soledad,  III-75;  la  Pere- 
grina,  II- 150;  dressed  Vir- 
gins, II-352,  m-358 
Viril,  1-220,  223,  III-252 
Visigothic  art,  1-8;  early 
home  of,  II-8,  IH-416; 
history,  1-59,11-150;  king, 
m-38,  316;  MS.,  I-281; 
remains,  II-29;  type,  II- 
176;  writers,  I-56 
Vision  of  Adamnan,  III- 
172,  256;  of  Laisren,  m- 
260;  of  Paul,  III-376;  of 
S.  Perpetua,  ni-471;  of 
Thurkill,  m-248,  377, 
539-48;  of  Tundall,  II- 
440,  in-80,  245,  253,  265, 

267,  375»  377;  Visions, 
m-259,  264,  271 

Vitoria,  I-83,  II-32, 1 10,  m- 
407,  412,  414,  429;  town, 
429,  434;  S.  Pedro,  408, 
435;  cathedral,  429,  432; 
S.  Miguel,  434,  344-5 

Vizcaya,  I-428 

De  Vogue,  I-io 

Voto  de  Santiago,  I-28,  96, 
m-229,  v.  ploughland  tax 

Voyage  of  Bran,  m-256, 
276,  280;  of  Maelduin, 
256,  276;  of  S.  Brendan, 
257;  of  Snegdus,  256 

Walsingham ,  I-94 ;  W.  Way, 

Walter  of  Aragon,  I-370 

Wamba  (king),  II-216 

Wandering  Jew,  I- 1 13, 136 
Washers  of  the  fords,  III- 

246,  279 

Way  of  S.  James  (the 
road),  I-85-6,  90,  93, 
294,  II-60,  71,  166,  420, 
455,  471,  in-35,  272,  v. 
also  Pilgrim  Way 

Wayfaring  themes,  II-375, 
376,  414,  m-388,  446 

Weighing  Souls,  I-242, 345, 
n-52,  in-319,  466,  544 

Westminster,  II-262;  Hen- 
ry VII's  chapel,  II-228, 

Wheat-and-wine  tax,  I-96, 

William  of  Aquitaine,  III- 
114;  others,  I-74,  108, 

William  the  Englishman,  II- 
145,  III-410;  of  Sens,  I- 
16;  master  William  and 
master    Nicholas,    I- 16, 

William  of  Jerusalem,  I-42, 

68,  III-386;  of  Norman- 
dy, I-108 
Winchester,  m-95, 227 
Windsor  chapel,  II-228,  241 
Wise  Virgins,  I-246,  II-265- 

6,  m-76 
Wolf,  m-288;  den,  42,  456; 
skin,  297, 298;  subLobio, 

Xanas,  II-180,  m-247,  279 

Yeats,  m-474 
Yepes,  I-358,  360,  363,  364, 
n-78,  393 



Zalduendo,  I-431,  440 
Zamora,  I-9,  315,  360,  II- 

35.  96,  98,  99,  104,  105, 
145,  226,  ni-122,  327, 
391,  401;  Pray  Juan  Gil 
de  Z.,  n-234 

Zend  Areata,  m-250 
Zeus,m-239, 307, 309, 310, 

347,  358 
Zodiacal    figures,    II- 189, 

190,  m-65,  294 
Zuloaga,  II-156 







Harvard  C 
Cambridge,  L.